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## Myro Overview¶

Below is a chapter by chapter summary of all the Myro features introduced in this text. For a more comprehensive listing of all the Myro features you should consult the Myro Reference Manual.

### Chapter 1¶

from Myro import *

This command imports all the robot commands available in the Myro library. We will use this whenever we intend to write programs that use the robot.

initialize(<PORT NAME>)

init(<PORT NAME>)

This command establishes a wireless communication connection with the robot. <PORT NAME> is determined at the time you configured your software during installation. It is typically the word com followed by a number. For example, "com5". The double quotes (") are essential and required.

beep(<TIME>, <FREQUENCY>)

Makes the robot beep for <TIME> seconds at frequency specified by <FREQUENCY>.

getName()

Returns the name of the robot.

setName(<NEW NAME>)

Sets the name of the robot to <NEW NAME>. The new name should be enclosed in double quotes, no spaces, and not more than 16 characters long. For example: setName("Bender").

￼gamepad()

Enables manual control of several robot functions and can be used to move the robot around.

### Chapter 2¶

backward(SPEED)

Move backwards at SPEED (value in the range $-1.0...1.0$).

backward(SPEED,SECONDS)

Move backwards at SPEED (value in the range $-1.0...1.0$) for a time given in SECONDS, then stop.

forward(SPEED) Move forward at SPEED (value in the range $-1.0..1.0$).

forward(SPEED,TIME)

Move forward at SPEED (value in the range $-1.0...1.0$) for a time given in seconds, then stop.

motors(LEFT,RIGHT)

Turn the left motor at LEFT speed and right motor at RIGHT speed (value in the range $-1.0...1.0$).

move(TRANSLATE, ROTATE)

Move at the TRANSLATE and ROTATE speeds (value in the range $-1.0...1.0$).

rotate(SPEED) Rotates at SPEED (value in the range -1.0...1.0). Negative values rotate right (clockwise) and positive values rotate left (counter-clockwise).

stop() Stops the robot.

translate(SPEED) Move in a straight line at SPEED (value in the range $-1.0...1.0$). Negative values specify backward movement and positive values specify forward movement.

turnLeft(SPEED) Turn left at SPEED (value in the range $-1.0...1.0$)

turnLeft(SPEED,SECONDS) Turn left at SPEED (value in the range $-1.0..1.0$) for a time given in seconds, then stops.

turnRight(SPEED) Turn right at SPEED (value in the range $-1.0..1.0$)

turnRight(SPEED,SECONDS) Turn right at SPEED (value in the range $-1.0..1.0$) for a time given in seconds, then stops.

wait(TIME) Pause for the given amount of TIME seconds. TIME can be a decimal number.

### Chapter 3¶

speak(<something>)

The computer converts the text in <something> to speech and speaks it out. <something> is also simultaneously printed on the screen. Speech generation is done synchronously. That is, anything following the speak command is done only after the entire thing is spoken.

speak(<something>, 0)

The computer converts the text in <something> to speech and speaks it out. <something> is also simultaneously printed on the screen. Speech generation is done asynchronously. That is, execution of subsequent commands can be done prior to the text being spoken.

timer(<seconds>)

This is used to specify timed repetitions in a for-loop.

### Chapter 4¶

randomNumber()

Returns a random number in the range $0.0$ and $1.0$. This is an alternative Myro function that works just like the random function from the Python random library (see below).

askQuestion(MESSAGE-STRING)

A dialog window with MESSAGE-STRING is displayed with choices: 'Yes' and 'No'. Returns 'Yes' or 'No' depending on what the user selects.

askQuestion(MESSAGE-STRING, LIST-OF-OPTIONS)

A dialog window with MESSAGE-STRING is displayed with choices indicated in LIST- OF-OPTIONS. Returns option string depending on what the user selects.

currentTime()

The current time, in seconds from an arbitrary starting point in time, many years ago.

getStall()

Returns True if the robot is stalled when trying to move, False otherwise.

getBattery()

Returns the current battery power level (in volts). It can be a number between $0$ and $9$ with $0$ indication no power and $9$ being the highest. There are also LED power indicators present on the robot. The robot behavior becomes erratic when batteries run low. It is then time to replace all batteries.

### Chapter 5¶

getBright()

Returns a list containing the three values of all light sensors.

getBright(<POSITION>)

Returns the current value in the <POSITION> light sensor. <POSITION> can either be one of 'left', 'center', 'right' or one of the numbers 0, 1, 2.

getGamepad(<device>)

getGamepadNow(<device>)

Returns the values indicating the status of the specified <device>. <device> can be "axis" or "button". The getGamepad function waits for an event before returning values. getGamepadNow immediately returns the current status of the device.

getIR()

Returns a list containing the two values of all IR sesnors.

getIR(<POSITION>)

Returns the current value in the <POSITION> IR sensor. <POSITION> can either be one of 'left' or 'right' or one of the numbers 0, 1.

getLight()

Returns a list containing the three values of all light sensors.

getLight(<POSITION>)

Returns the current value in the <POSITION> light sensor. <POSITION> can either be one of 'left', 'center', 'right' or one of the numbers 0, 1, 2. The positions 0, 1, and 2 correspond to the left, center, and right sensors.

getObstacle()

Returns a list containing the values of all IR sesnors.

getObstacle(<POSITION>)

Returns the current value in the <POSITION> IR sensor. <POSITION> can either be one of 'left', 'center', or 'right' or one of the numbers 0, 1, or 2.

savePicture(<picture>, <file>)

savePicture([<picture1>, <picture2>, ...], <file>)

Saves the picture in the file specified. The extension of the file should be ".gif" or ".jpg". If the first parameter is a list of pictures, the file name should have an extension ".gif" and an animated GIF file is created using the pictures provided.

senses()

Displays Scribbler’s sensor values in a window. The display is updated every second.

show(<picture>)

Displays the picture in a window. You can click the left mouse anywhere in the window to display the (x, y) and (r, g, b, a) values of the point in the window’s status bar.

takePicture()

takePicture("color")

takePicture("gray")

Takes a picture and returns a picture object. When no parameters are specified, the picture is in color.

### Chapter 6 & 7¶

No new Myro features were introduced in these chapters.

### Chapter 8¶

Window()

Window(<title>, <width>, <height>)

Returns a graphics window object. It creates a graphics window with title, <title> and dimensions <width> x <height>. If no parameters are specified, the window created is $400\times400$ pixels.

<window>.close()

Closes the displayed graphics window <window>.

<window>.setBackground(<color>)

Sets the background color of the window to be the specified color. <color> can be a named color (Google: color names list), or a new color created using the color_rgb command (see below)

Color(<red>, <green>, <blue>)

Color(<red>, <green>, <blue>, <alpha>)

Color(<string_color_name>)

Creates a new color using the specified <red>, <green>, and <blue> values. The values can be in the range $0..255$. Alternately a color name string can be used.

Dot(<x>, <y>)

Creates a drawable point object at (<x>, <y>) location in the window.

Point(<x>, <y>)

Creates a point object at (<x>, <y>) location in the window.

<point>.getX()

<point>.getY()

Returns the x and y coordinates of the point object <point>.

Line(<start point>, <end point>)

Creates a line object starting at <start point> and ending at <end point>.

Circle(<center point>, <radius>)

Creates a circle object centered at <center point> with radius <radius> pixels.

Rectangle(<point1>, <point2>)

Creates a rectangle object with opposite corners located at <point1> and <point2>.

Oval(<point1>, <point2>)

Creates an oval object in the bounding box defined by the corner points <point1> and <point2>.

Picture(<centerPoint>, <file name>)

Creates an image centered at <center point> from the image file <file name>.

The image can be in GIF, JPEG, or PNG format.

Polygon(<point1>, <point2>, <point3>,...)

Polygon([<point1>, <point2>, ...])

Creates a polygon with the given points as vertices.

Text(<anchor point>, <string>)

Creates a text anchored (bottom-left corner of text) at <anchor point>. The text itself is defined by <string>.

All of the graphics objects respond to the following commands:

<object>.draw(<window>)

Draws the <object> in the specified graphics window <window>.

<object>.undraw()

Undraws <object>.

<object>.getCenter()

Returns the center point of the <object>.

<object>.setOutline(<color>)

<object>.setFill(<color>)

Sets the outline and the fill color of the <object> to the specified <color>.

<object>.setWidth(<pixels>)

Sets the thickness of the outline of the <object> to <pixels>.

<object>.move(<dx>, <dy>)

Moves the object <dx>, <dy> from its current position.

The following sound-related functions were presented in this chapter.

beep(<seconds>, <frequency>)

beep(<seconds>, <f1>, <f2>)

Makes the robot beep for <seconds> time at frequency specified. You can either specify a single frequency <frequency> or a mix of two: <f1> and <f2>.

<robot/computer object>.beep(<seconds>, <frequency>)

<robot/computer object>.beep(<seconds>, <f1>, <f2>)

Makes the robot or computer beep for <seconds> time at frequency specified. You can either specify a single frequency <frequency> or a mix of two: <f1> and <f2>.

robot.playSong(<song>)

Plays the <song> on the robot.

readSong(<filename>)

Reads a song file from <filename>.

song2text(song)

Converts a <song> to text format.

makeSong(<text>)

text2song(<text>)

Converts <text> to a song format.

### Chapter 9¶

getHeight(<picture>)

getWidth(<picture>)

Returns the height and width of the <picture> object (in pixels).

getPixel(<picture>, x, y)

Returns the pixel object at x,y in the <picture>. getPixels(<picture>) When used in a loop, returns one pixel at a time from <picture>.

getRGB(pixel)

getRed(<pixel>)

getGreen(<pixel>)

getBlue(<pixel>)

Returns the RGB values of the <pixel>.

makeColor(<red>, <green>, <blue>)

Creates a color object with the given <red>, <green>, and <blue>values (all of which are in the range $[0..255]$).

makePicture(<file>)

makePicture(<width>, <height>)

makePicture(<width>, <height>, <color>)

Creates a picture object either by reading a picture from a <file>, or of the given <width> and <height>. If <color> is not specified, the picture created has a white background.

pickAColor()

Creates an interactive dialog window to select a color visually. Returns the color object corresponding to the selected color.

pickAFile()

Creates an interactive dialog window that allows user to navigate to a folder and select a file to open. Note: it cannot be used to create new files.

savePicture(<picture>, <file>)

savePicture(<picture list>, <gif file>)

Saves the <picture> in the specified file (a GIF or JPEG as determined by the extension of the <file>: .gif or .jpg). <picture list> is saved as an animated GIF file.

setColor(<pixel>, <color>)

setRed(<pixel>, <value>)

setGreen(<pixel), <value>)

setBlue(<Pixel>, <value>)

Sets the color of <pixel> to specified <color> or <value>.

show(<picture>)

show(<picture>, <name>)

Displays the <picture> on the screen in a window named <name> (string).

takePicture()

takePicture("gray")

takePicture("blob")

Takes a picture from the Scribbler camera. It is a color picture by default, or grayscale ("gray"), or a filtered image based on the defined blob ("blob"). See chapter text for examples.

### Chapter 10¶

There were no new Myro features introduced in this chapter. Actually, when the chapter is complete it will have Myro primitives for neural nets/conx described here.

### Chapter 11 & 12¶

No new Myro features were introduced in this chapter.

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