# Calculation of control fields for symplectic dynamics using L-BFGS-B algorithm¶

Alexander Pitchford ([email protected])

Example to demonstrate using the control library to determine control pulses using the ctrlpulseoptim.optimize_pulse function. The (default) L-BFGS-B algorithm is used to optimise the pulse to minimise the fidelity error, which in this case is given by the 'Trace difference' norm.

This in a Symplectic quantum system example, with two coupled oscillators

The user can experiment with the timeslicing, by means of changing the number of timeslots and/or total time for the evolution. Different initial (starting) pulse types can be tried. The initial and final pulses are displayed in a plot

This example assumes that the example-control-pulseoptim-Hadamard has already been tried, and hence explanations in that notebook are not repeated here.

In :
%matplotlib inline
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import datetime

In :
from qutip import Qobj, identity, sigmax, sigmay, sigmaz, tensor
from qutip.qip import hadamard_transform
import qutip.logging_utils as logging
logger = logging.get_logger()
#Set this to None or logging.WARN for 'quiet' execution
log_level = logging.INFO
#QuTiP control modules
import qutip.control.pulseoptim as cpo
import qutip.control.symplectic as sympl

example_name = 'Symplectic'


### Defining the physics¶

In :
#Drift
w1 = 1
w2 = 1
g1 = 0.5
A0 = Qobj(np.array([[w1, 0, g1, 0],
[0, w1, 0, g1],
[g1, 0, w2, 0],
[0, g1, 0, w2]]))

#Control
Ac = Qobj(np.array([[1, 0, 0, 0,], \
[0, 1, 0, 0], \
[0, 0, 0, 0], \
[0, 0, 0, 0]]))
ctrls = [Ac]
n_ctrls = len(ctrls)

initial = identity(4)

# Target
a = 1
Ag = np.array([[0, 0, a, 0],
[0, 0, 0, a],
[a, 0, 0, 0],
[0, a, 0, 0]])

Sg = Qobj(sympl.calc_omega(2).dot(Ag)).expm()


### Defining the time evolution parameters¶

In :
# Number of time slots
n_ts = 1000
# Time allowed for the evolution
evo_time = 10


### Set the conditions which will cause the pulse optimisation to terminate¶

In :
# Fidelity error target
fid_err_targ = 1e-10
# Maximum iterations for the optisation algorithm
max_iter = 500
# Maximum (elapsed) time allowed in seconds
max_wall_time = 30
# Minimum gradient (sum of gradients squared)
# as this tends to 0 -> local minima has been found
min_grad = 1e-20


### Set the initial pulse type¶

In :
# pulse type alternatives: RND|ZERO|LIN|SINE|SQUARE|SAW|TRIANGLE|
p_type = 'ZERO'


### Give an extension for output files¶

In :
#Set to None to suppress output files
f_ext = "{}_n_ts{}_ptype{}.txt".format(example_name, n_ts, p_type)


### Run the optimisation¶

In :
# Note that this call uses
#    dyn_type='SYMPL'
# This means that matrices that describe the dynamics are assumed to be
# Symplectic, i.e. the propagator can be calculated using
# expm(combined_dynamics.omega*dt)
# This has defaults for:
#    prop_type='FRECHET'
# therefore the propagators and their gradients will be calculated using the
# Frechet method, i.e. an exact gradient
#    fid_type='TRACEDIFF'
# so that the fidelity error, i.e. distance from the target, is give
# by the trace of the difference between the target and evolved operators
result = cpo.optimize_pulse(A0, ctrls, initial, Sg, n_ts, evo_time,
fid_err_targ=fid_err_targ, min_grad=min_grad,
max_iter=max_iter, max_wall_time=max_wall_time,
dyn_type='SYMPL',
out_file_ext=f_ext, init_pulse_type=p_type,
log_level=log_level, gen_stats=True)

INFO:qutip.control.dynamics:Setting memory optimisations for level 0
INFO:qutip.control.dynamics:Internal operator data type choosen to be <class 'numpy.ndarray'>
INFO:qutip.control.dynamics:phased dynamics generator caching True
INFO:qutip.control.dynamics:propagator gradient caching True
INFO:qutip.control.dynamics:eigenvector adjoint caching True
INFO:qutip.control.dynamics:use sparse eigen decomp False
INFO:qutip.control.pulseoptim:System configuration:
Drift dynamics generator:
Quantum object: dims = [, ], shape = (4, 4), type = oper, isherm = True
Qobj data =
[[ 1.   0.   0.5  0. ]
[ 0.   1.   0.   0.5]
[ 0.5  0.   1.   0. ]
[ 0.   0.5  0.   1. ]]
Control 1 dynamics generator:
Quantum object: dims = [, ], shape = (4, 4), type = oper, isherm = True
Qobj data =
[[ 1.  0.  0.  0.]
[ 0.  1.  0.  0.]
[ 0.  0.  0.  0.]
[ 0.  0.  0.  0.]]
Initial state / operator:
Quantum object: dims = [, ], shape = (4, 4), type = oper, isherm = True
Qobj data =
[[ 1.  0.  0.  0.]
[ 0.  1.  0.  0.]
[ 0.  0.  1.  0.]
[ 0.  0.  0.  1.]]
Target state / operator:
Quantum object: dims = [, ], shape = (4, 4), type = oper, isherm = False
Qobj data =
[[ 0.54030231  0.          0.          0.84147098]
[ 0.          0.54030231 -0.84147098  0.        ]
[ 0.          0.84147098  0.54030231  0.        ]
[-0.84147098  0.          0.          0.54030231]]
INFO:qutip.control.pulseoptim:Initial amplitudes output to file: ctrl_amps_initial_Symplectic_n_ts1000_ptypeZERO.txt
INFO:qutip.control.optimizer:Optimising pulse(s) using GRAPE with 'fmin_l_bfgs_b' method
INFO:qutip.control.pulseoptim:Final amplitudes output to file: ctrl_amps_final_Symplectic_n_ts1000_ptypeZERO.txt


### Report the results¶

In :
result.stats.report()
print("Final evolution\n{}\n".format(result.evo_full_final))
print("********* Summary *****************")
print("Final fidelity error {}".format(result.fid_err))
print("Final gradient normal {}".format(result.grad_norm_final))
print("Terminated due to {}".format(result.termination_reason))
print("Number of iterations {}".format(result.num_iter))
print("Completed in {} HH:MM:SS.US".format(datetime.timedelta(seconds=result.wall_time)))

------------------------------------
---- Control optimisation stats ----
**** Timings (HH:MM:SS.US) ****
Total wall time elapsed during optimisation: 0:00:02.998303
Wall time computing Hamiltonians: 0:00:00.112098 (3.74%)
Wall time computing propagators: 0:00:02.615654 (87.24%)
Wall time computing forward propagation: 0:00:00.022306 (0.74%)
Wall time computing onward propagation: 0:00:00.019775 (0.66%)
Wall time computing gradient: 0:00:00.222838 (7.43%)

**** Iterations and function calls ****
Number of iterations: 8
Number of fidelity function calls: 14
Number of times fidelity is computed: 14
Number of gradient function calls: 13
Number of times gradients are computed: 13
Number of times timeslot evolution is recomputed: 14

**** Control amplitudes ****
Number of control amplitude updates: 13
Mean number of updates per iteration: 1.625
Number of timeslot values changed: 13000
Mean number of timeslot changes per update: 1000.0
Number of amplitude values changed: 13000
Mean number of amplitude changes per update: 1000.0
------------------------------------
Final evolution
Quantum object: dims = [, ], shape = (4, 4), type = oper, isherm = False
Qobj data =
[[  5.40298994e-01  -1.56965600e-06  -7.01444121e-06   8.41473111e-01]
[  1.56965600e-06   5.40298994e-01  -8.41473111e-01  -7.01444122e-06]
[ -7.01444163e-06   8.41473111e-01   5.40298994e-01   1.05774201e-05]
[ -8.41473111e-01  -7.01444163e-06  -1.05774201e-05   5.40298994e-01]]

********* Summary *****************
Final fidelity error 6.093073931117445e-11
Final gradient normal 8.705152868582485e-06
Terminated due to Goal achieved
Number of iterations 8
Completed in 0:00:02.998303 HH:MM:SS.US


### Plot the initial and final amplitudes¶

In :
fig1 = plt.figure()
ax1 = fig1.add_subplot(2, 1, 1)
ax1.set_title("Initial Control amps")
ax1.set_xlabel("Time")
ax1.set_ylabel("Control amplitude")
for j in range(n_ctrls):
ax1.step(result.time,
np.hstack((result.initial_amps[:, j], result.initial_amps[-1, j])),
where='post')

ax2 = fig1.add_subplot(2, 1, 2)
ax2.set_title("Optimised Control Amplitudes")
ax2.set_xlabel("Time")
ax2.set_ylabel("Control amplitude")
for j in range(n_ctrls):
ax2.step(result.time,
np.hstack((result.final_amps[:, j], result.final_amps[-1, j])),
where='post')

plt.tight_layout()
plt.show() ### Versions¶

In :
from qutip.ipynbtools import version_table

version_table()

Out:
SoftwareVersion
QuTiP4.1.0
Numpy1.11.3
SciPy0.18.1
matplotlib2.0.0
Cython0.25.2
Number of CPUs4
BLAS InfoINTEL MKL
IPython5.1.0
Python3.6.0 |Anaconda 4.3.1 (64-bit)| (default, Dec 23 2016, 12:22:00) [GCC 4.4.7 20120313 (Red Hat 4.4.7-1)]
OSposix [linux]
Fri Jul 14 17:15:34 2017 BST