Vectorizing films and texts as given

In [62]:
##matthew l. jones, Columbia History
In [1]:
%matplotlib inline

import pandas as pd
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
In [2]:
from IPython.display import Image
Image("http://imgur.com/ZhpRFTj.png")
Out[2]:
In [ ]:
#bunch of stuff to get us going this morning
In [ ]:
 
In [3]:
labels=["user_id","item_id","rating","timestamp"]
individual_ratings=pd.read_csv( './ml-100k/u.data', sep="\t", names=labels) #\t because TAB separated
In [4]:
labels_films=["movie_id", "movie_title", "release_date", "video_release_date", "IMDb_URL", "unknown", "Action","Adventure", "Animation", "Children's", "Comedy", "Crime", "Documentary", "Drama", "Fantasy", "Film-Noir", "Horror", "Musical", "Mystery", "Romance", "Sci-Fi", "Thriller", "War", "Western"]
films=pd.read_csv( './ml-100k/u.item', sep="|", names=labels_films, index_col='movie_id')
In [5]:
user_labels=["user_id", "age", "gender","occupation","zip_code"]
users=pd.read_csv('./ml-100k/u.user', sep="|", names=user_labels, index_col="user_id")
In [6]:
ratings=individual_ratings.pivot(index="user_id", columns="item_id", values="rating")
In [7]:
ratings
Out[7]:
item_id 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ... 1673 1674 1675 1676 1677 1678 1679 1680 1681 1682
user_id
1 5 3 4 3 3 5 4 1 5 3 ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
2 4 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 2 ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
3 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
4 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
5 4 3 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
6 4 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 2 4 4 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
7 NaN NaN NaN 5 NaN NaN 5 5 5 4 ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
8 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 3 NaN NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
9 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 5 4 NaN NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
10 4 NaN NaN 4 NaN NaN 4 NaN 4 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
11 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 4 5 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
12 NaN NaN NaN 5 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
13 3 3 NaN 5 1 NaN 2 4 3 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
14 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 5 NaN 4 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
15 1 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 1 NaN 4 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
16 5 NaN NaN 5 NaN NaN 5 5 5 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
17 4 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 4 NaN 3 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
18 5 NaN NaN 3 NaN 5 NaN 5 5 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
19 NaN NaN NaN 4 NaN NaN NaN 5 NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
20 3 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
21 5 NaN NaN NaN 2 NaN 5 NaN 5 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
22 NaN 2 NaN 5 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
23 5 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 4 4 NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
24 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 4 5 5 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
25 5 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 4 4 NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
26 3 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 3 NaN 4 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
27 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 4 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
28 NaN NaN NaN NaN 3 NaN 5 NaN NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
29 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
30 NaN 3 NaN NaN NaN NaN 4 NaN NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
914 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
915 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
916 4 3 3 4 3 NaN 4 NaN 5 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 3
917 3 NaN 1 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 5 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
918 3 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
919 4 NaN NaN 1 4 NaN 3 NaN 5 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
920 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
921 3 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 3 NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
922 5 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
923 3 NaN 4 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 4 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
924 5 3 NaN NaN NaN 4 4 NaN 4 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
925 NaN NaN NaN NaN 4 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
926 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
927 5 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 3 4 NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
928 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 5 5 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
929 3 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
930 3 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 3 NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
931 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
932 4 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 4 NaN 5 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
933 3 NaN NaN 3 NaN NaN 4 NaN 3 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
934 2 4 NaN 5 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
935 3 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 1 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
936 4 NaN 4 NaN NaN 5 4 NaN 4 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
937 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 5 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
938 4 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 4 NaN 3 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
939 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 5 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
940 NaN NaN NaN 2 NaN NaN 4 5 3 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
941 5 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 4 NaN NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
942 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
943 NaN 5 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN 3 NaN ... NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN

943 rows × 1682 columns

In [8]:
ratings.mean(axis=0)
Out[8]:
item_id
1          3.878319
2          3.206107
3          3.033333
4          3.550239
5          3.302326
6          3.576923
7          3.798469
8          3.995434
9          3.896321
10         3.831461
11         3.847458
12         4.385768
13         3.418478
14         3.967213
15         3.778157
...
1668       3
1669       2
1670       3
1671       1
1672       2
1673       3
1674       4
1675       3
1676       2
1677       3
1678       1
1679       3
1680       2
1681       3
1682       3
Length: 1682, dtype: float64
In [9]:
ratings.mean(axis=1)
Out[9]:
user_id
1          3.610294
2          3.709677
3          2.796296
4          4.333333
5          2.874286
6          3.635071
7          3.965261
8          3.796610
9          4.272727
10         4.206522
11         3.464088
12         4.392157
13         3.097484
14         4.091837
15         2.875000
...
929        3.693878
930        2.968254
931        3.721311
932        3.966805
933        2.646739
934        3.701149
935        3.923077
936        3.746479
937        3.375000
938        3.268519
939        4.265306
940        3.457944
941        4.045455
942        4.265823
943        3.410714
Length: 943, dtype: float64
In [12]:
ratings.mean(axis=0).order(ascending=False)
Out[12]:
item_id
1293       5.000
1467       5.000
1653       5.000
814        5.000
1122       5.000
1599       5.000
1201       5.000
1189       5.000
1500       5.000
1536       5.000
1449       4.625
1642       4.500
119        4.500
1398       4.500
1594       4.500
...
830        1
1363       1
1621       1
1618       1
439        1
1546       1
1374       1
1548       1
1373       1
437        1
1601       1
1557       1
1559       1
1561       1
1364       1
Length: 1682, dtype: float64
In [13]:
ratings.count(axis=0)
Out[13]:
item_id
1          452
2          131
3           90
4          209
5           86
6           26
7          392
8          219
9          299
10          89
11         236
12         267
13         184
14         183
15         293
...
1668       1
1669       1
1670       1
1671       1
1672       2
1673       1
1674       1
1675       1
1676       1
1677       1
1678       1
1679       1
1680       1
1681       1
1682       1
Length: 1682, dtype: int64
In [14]:
ratings.count(axis=0).order(ascending=False)
Out[14]:
item_id
50         583
258        509
100        508
181        507
294        485
286        481
288        478
1          452
300        431
121        429
174        420
127        413
56         394
7          392
98         390
...
1582       1
1583       1
1584       1
1586       1
1587       1
1461       1
1460       1
1458       1
1457       1
1453       1
1452       1
1593       1
1447       1
814        1
1682       1
Length: 1682, dtype: int64
In [15]:
films.head()
Out[15]:
movie_title release_date video_release_date IMDb_URL unknown Action Adventure Animation Children's Comedy ... Fantasy Film-Noir Horror Musical Mystery Romance Sci-Fi Thriller War Western
movie_id
1 Toy Story (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Toy%20Story%2... 0 0 0 1 1 1 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 GoldenEye (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?GoldenEye%20(... 0 1 1 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
3 Four Rooms (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Four%20Rooms%... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
4 Get Shorty (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Get%20Shorty%... 0 1 0 0 0 1 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
5 Copycat (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Copycat%20(1995) 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

5 rows × 23 columns

In [18]:
films.ix[50]
Out[18]:
movie_title                                            Star Wars (1977)
release_date                                                01-Jan-1977
video_release_date                                                  NaN
IMDb_URL              http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Star%20Wars%2...
unknown                                                               0
Action                                                                1
Adventure                                                             1
Animation                                                             0
Children's                                                            0
Comedy                                                                0
Crime                                                                 0
Documentary                                                           0
Drama                                                                 0
Fantasy                                                               0
Film-Noir                                                             0
Horror                                                                0
Musical                                                               0
Mystery                                                               0
Romance                                                               1
Sci-Fi                                                                1
Thriller                                                              0
War                                                                   1
Western                                                               0
Name: 50, dtype: object
In [19]:
films.ix[50][0]
Out[19]:
'Star Wars (1977)'

How find the movies that don't sucketh according to the masses?

  • find out films seen over 100 times that have been rated more than 3.
  • find out films that have a mean rating => mean rating for all films
In [20]:
means_for_each_movie_series=ratings.mean(axis=0)
In [21]:
means_for_each_movie_series
Out[21]:
item_id
1          3.878319
2          3.206107
3          3.033333
4          3.550239
5          3.302326
6          3.576923
7          3.798469
8          3.995434
9          3.896321
10         3.831461
11         3.847458
12         4.385768
13         3.418478
14         3.967213
15         3.778157
...
1668       3
1669       2
1670       3
1671       1
1672       2
1673       3
1674       4
1675       3
1676       2
1677       3
1678       1
1679       3
1680       2
1681       3
1682       3
Length: 1682, dtype: float64
In [23]:
means_for_each_movie_series.mean()
Out[23]:
3.0760445083251824
In [24]:
ratings.mean(axis=0)>3.07
Out[24]:
item_id
1           True
2           True
3          False
4           True
5           True
6           True
7           True
8           True
9           True
10          True
11          True
12          True
13          True
14          True
15          True
...
1668       False
1669       False
1670       False
1671       False
1672       False
1673       False
1674        True
1675       False
1676       False
1677       False
1678       False
1679       False
1680       False
1681       False
1682       False
Length: 1682, dtype: bool
In [25]:
above_average_boolean=ratings.mean(axis=0)>3.07
In [26]:
films[above_average_boolean]
Out[26]:
movie_title release_date video_release_date IMDb_URL unknown Action Adventure Animation Children's Comedy ... Fantasy Film-Noir Horror Musical Mystery Romance Sci-Fi Thriller War Western
movie_id
1 Toy Story (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Toy%20Story%2... 0 0 0 1 1 1 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 GoldenEye (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?GoldenEye%20(... 0 1 1 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
4 Get Shorty (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Get%20Shorty%... 0 1 0 0 0 1 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
5 Copycat (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Copycat%20(1995) 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
6 Shanghai Triad (Yao a yao yao dao waipo qiao) ... 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/Title?Yao+a+yao+yao+dao+wai... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
7 Twelve Monkeys (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Twelve%20Monk... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
8 Babe (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Babe%20(1995) 0 0 0 0 1 1 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
9 Dead Man Walking (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Dead%20Man%20... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
10 Richard III (1995) 22-Jan-1996 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Richard%20III... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
11 Seven (Se7en) (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Se7en%20(1995) 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
12 Usual Suspects, The (1995) 14-Aug-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Usual%20Suspe... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
13 Mighty Aphrodite (1995) 30-Oct-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Mighty%20Aphr... 0 0 0 0 0 1 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
14 Postino, Il (1994) 01-Jan-1994 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Postino,%20Il... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
15 Mr. Holland's Opus (1995) 29-Jan-1996 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Mr.%20Holland... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
16 French Twist (Gazon maudit) (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Gazon%20maudi... 0 0 0 0 0 1 ... 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
17 From Dusk Till Dawn (1996) 05-Feb-1996 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?From%20Dusk%2... 0 1 0 0 0 1 ... 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
19 Antonia's Line (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Antonia%20(1995) 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
20 Angels and Insects (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Angels%20and%... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
22 Braveheart (1995) 16-Feb-1996 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Braveheart%20... 0 1 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
23 Taxi Driver (1976) 16-Feb-1996 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Taxi%20Driver... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
24 Rumble in the Bronx (1995) 23-Feb-1996 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Hong%20Faan%2... 0 1 1 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
25 Birdcage, The (1996) 08-Mar-1996 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Birdcage,%20T... 0 0 0 0 0 1 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
26 Brothers McMullen, The (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Brothers%20Mc... 0 0 0 0 0 1 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
27 Bad Boys (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Bad%20Boys%20... 0 1 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
28 Apollo 13 (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Apollo%2013%2... 0 1 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
30 Belle de jour (1967) 01-Jan-1967 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Belle%20de%20... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
31 Crimson Tide (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Crimson%20Tid... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
32 Crumb (1994) 01-Jan-1994 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Crumb%20(1994) 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
33 Desperado (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Desperado%20(... 0 1 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0
39 Strange Days (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Strange%20Day... 0 1 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
1591 Duoluo tianshi (1995) 21-Jan-1998 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?imdb-title-11... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1592 Magic Hour, The (1998) 30-Jan-1998 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?imdb-title-11... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1593 Death in Brunswick (1991) 16-Aug-1996 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Death%20in%20... 0 0 0 0 0 1 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1594 Everest (1998) 10-Mar-1998 NaN http://us.imdb.com/Title?Everest+(1998) 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1599 Someone Else's America (1995) 10-May-1996 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Someone%20Els... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1600 Guantanamera (1994) 16-May-1997 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Guantanamera%... 0 0 0 0 0 1 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1602 Price Above Rubies, A (1998) 20-Mar-1998 NaN http://us.imdb.com/Title?Price+Above+Rubies,+A... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1604 He Walked by Night (1948) 01-Jan-1948 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?He%20Walked%2... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
1607 Hurricane Streets (1998) 01-Jan-1998 NaN http://us.imdb.com/Title?Hurricane+Streets+(1998) 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1612 Leading Man, The (1996) 16-Jan-1998 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?imdb-title-11... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
1613 Tokyo Fist (1995) 11-Feb-1998 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Tokyo+Fist+(1... 0 1 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1616 Desert Winds (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Desert%20Wind... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1620 Sixth Man, The (1997) 28-Mar-1997 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Sixth%20Man%2... 0 0 0 0 0 1 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1623 C�r�monie, La (1995) 20-Dec-1996 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?C%E9r%E9monie... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1625 Nightwatch (1997) 22-Apr-1997 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Nightwatch%20... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
1628 Lamerica (1994) 01-Jan-1994 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Lamerica%20(1... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1629 Nico Icon (1995) 01-Jan-1995 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Nico%20Icon%2... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1631 Slingshot, The (1993) 01-Jan-1993 NaN http://us.imdb.com/Title?K%E5disbellan+(1993) 0 0 0 0 0 1 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1636 Brothers in Trouble (1995) 26-Apr-1996 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Brothers%20in... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1639 Bitter Sugar (Azucar Amargo) (1996) 22-Nov-1996 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Bitter%20Suga... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1642 Some Mother's Son (1996) 27-Dec-1996 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Some%20Mother... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1643 Angel Baby (1995) 10-Jan-1997 NaN http://us.imdb.com/Title?Angel+Baby+(1995/I) 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1645 Butcher Boy, The (1998) 01-Jan-1998 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?imdb-title-11... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1646 Men With Guns (1997) 06-Mar-1998 NaN http://us.imdb.com/Title?Men+with+Guns+(1997/I) 0 1 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1650 Butcher Boy, The (1998) 01-Jan-1998 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?imdb-title-11... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1651 Spanish Prisoner, The (1997) 27-Mar-1998 NaN http://us.imdb.com/Title?Spanish+Prisoner,+The... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
1653 Entertaining Angels: The Dorothy Day Story (1996) 27-Sep-1996 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Entertaining%... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1656 Little City (1998) 20-Feb-1998 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Little+City+(... 0 0 0 0 0 1 ... 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
1664 8 Heads in a Duffel Bag (1997) 18-Apr-1997 NaN http://us.imdb.com/Title?8+Heads+in+a+Duffel+B... 0 0 0 0 0 1 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1674 Mamma Roma (1962) 01-Jan-1962 NaN http://us.imdb.com/M/title-exact?Mamma%20Roma%... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

919 rows × 23 columns

In [27]:
without_discernment_boolean=ratings.mean(axis=1)>4.5
pretentious_movie_snob_boolean=ratings.mean(axis=1)<2
In [28]:
users[without_discernment_boolean]
Out[28]:
age gender occupation zip_code
user_id
118 21 M administrator 90210
225 51 F administrator 58202
427 51 M doctor 85258
469 60 M educator 78628
507 18 F writer 28450
565 40 M student 55422
628 13 M none 94306
686 32 M educator 26506
688 37 F administrator 60476
849 15 F student 25652
850 34 M technician 78390
907 25 F other 80526
928 21 M student 55408
In [ ]:
 

REMINDER: pandas uses the .ix method for indexing, and is good for finding things by row

In [ ]:
 

New Data Source: Congressional Record through Capitol Words API--Sunlight foundation

The capitol words project http://capitolwords.org/api/1/. This serves more generally as an API for the Sunlight Foundation. http://sunlightfoundation.com/api/

I've gotten the API, made the requests, and combined the data. You'll do some of this for your homework, not here--it's just like you learned two weeks ago.

In [29]:
!wget http://www.columbia.edu/~mj340/nsa_congress_mentions.json
--2014-06-16 16:00:05--  http://www.columbia.edu/~mj340/nsa_congress_mentions.json
Resolving www.columbia.edu (www.columbia.edu)... 128.59.48.24
Connecting to www.columbia.edu (www.columbia.edu)|128.59.48.24|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 2335501 (2.2M) [text/plain]
Saving to: ‘nsa_congress_mentions.json.3’

100%[======================================>] 2,335,501   5.20MB/s   in 0.4s   

2014-06-16 16:00:06 (5.20 MB/s) - ‘nsa_congress_mentions.json.3’ saved [2335501/2335501]

In [31]:
import json
with open('nsa_congress_mentions.json', 'r') as file:
    nsa_congress_mentions=json.load(file)  #note load not loads here
In [32]:
len(nsa_congress_mentions)
Out[32]:
900
In [33]:
nsa_congress_mentions[749]
Out[33]:
{u'bills': None,
 u'bioguide_id': u'W000808',
 u'capitolwords_url': u'http://capitolwords.org/date/2012/12/04/E1868-5_honoring-united-states-coast-guard-veterans/',
 u'chamber': u'Extensions',
 u'congress': 112,
 u'date': u'2012-12-04',
 u'id': u'CREC-2012-12-04-pt1-PgE1868-5.chunk0',
 u'number': 154,
 u'order': 0,
 u'origin_url': u'http://origin.www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CREC-2012-12-04/html/CREC-2012-12-04-pt1-PgE1868-5.htm',
 u'pages': u'E1868',
 u'session': 2,
 u'speaker_first': u'Frederica',
 u'speaker_last': u'Wilson',
 u'speaker_party': u'D',
 u'speaker_raw': u'ms. wilson of florida',
 u'speaker_state': u'FL',
 u'speaking': [u'Mr. Speaker, I rise today to recognize and honor our veterans.',
  u"There are no words that can express the gratitude that the American people owe all of the men and women who choose to serve the United States of America in the armed services. We are all humbled by the sacrifice they make--knowingly putting themselves in harm's way while also leaving loved ones behind. This commitment is the mark of America's finest citizens and those who answer to a higher calling. Allow me to honor, from the United States Coast Guard: Sammie Stewart, Jr., Steven Bernard Rising, Omar K. Payton, Shane J. Nicholas, Randy Kevin Jopp, Jr., David R. Hetticher, Andrea Naomi Johnson, Christopher Daniels, William O'Boyle, Jacob G. Bryan, Sandy Guerra, Eric Driggs; from the National Security Agency: Allyn C. McKinney.",
  u'Finally, it is not our tanks, weapons or machinery that make the United States Armed Forces the best military in the world. It is our young men and women who serve professionally with honor and distinction. If not for these exemplary citizens, freedom and the American way of life would not be safe and secure. For these sacrifices, we respect and should commend their service everyday of the year. Congress has designated, November 11th 2012 as the official day showing our gratitude.',
  u'Please join me in honoring these American heroes for their bravery and sacrifice in defense of this great nation.'],
 u'title': u'HONORING UNITED STATES COAST GUARD VETERANS',
 u'volume': 158}
In [35]:
sentence="the small brown cow"
In [36]:
sentence.split()
Out[36]:
['the', 'small', 'brown', 'cow']
In [37]:
sentence2="you'll be sorry!"
In [38]:
sentence2.split()
Out[38]:
["you'll", 'be', 'sorry!']

tokenization

stemming:

  • converting inflected forms into some normalized forms
    • e.g. "chefs" --> "chef"
    • "goes" --> "go"
    • "children" --> "child"

stopwords

they are the words you don't want to be included: "from" "to" "a" "they" "she" "he"

In [41]:
nsa_congress_mentions[750]
Out[41]:
{u'bills': None,
 u'bioguide_id': u'W000779',
 u'capitolwords_url': u'http://capitolwords.org/date/2012/12/27/S8384-2_fisa-amendments-act-reauthorization-act-of-2012/',
 u'chamber': u'Senate',
 u'congress': 112,
 u'date': u'2012-12-27',
 u'id': u'CREC-2012-12-27-pt1-PgS8384-2.chunk61',
 u'number': 168,
 u'order': 61,
 u'origin_url': u'http://origin.www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CREC-2012-12-27/html/CREC-2012-12-27-pt1-PgS8384-2.htm',
 u'pages': u'S8384-S8410',
 u'session': 2,
 u'speaker_first': u'Ron',
 u'speaker_last': u'Wyden',
 u'speaker_party': u'D',
 u'speaker_raw': u'mr. wyden',
 u'speaker_state': u'OR',
 u'speaking': [u'I thank my friend. Just one last point with respect to this technology conference where so many people walked away and thought their privacy was being protected by strong legal protections. General Alexander made additional confusing remarks that were in response to that same question with respect to the protections of law-abiding people.',
  u"General Alexander said, `` . . . the story that we [the NSA] have millions or hundreds of millions of dossiers on people is absolutely false.''",
  u"Now, I have indicated this morning as well, having served on the Intelligence Committee for a long time, I do not have the faintest idea of what anybody is talking about with respect to a dossier. So Senator Udall and I followed that up as well. We asked the Director to clarify that statement. We asked, ``Does the NSA collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans?'' So that, too, is a pretty straightforward question.",
  u'The question Senators have been asking about this are not very complicated. If you are asking whether the National Security Agency is addressing these privacy issues, I think it is one of the most basic questions you can ask. Does the National Security Agency collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans? If the Agency saw fit, they could simply answer that with a yes or no. Instead, the Director of the Agency replied that while he appreciated our desire to have responses to those questions on the public record, there would not be a public response forthcoming.',
  u"So to go over the exchange again, the Director of National Security Agency states that `` . . . the story that we have millions or hundreds of millions of dossiers on people is absolutely false.'' Senator Udall and I then asked: Does the NSA collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans? The Agency is unwilling to answer the question.",
  u'So that is what this debate is all about, is reforming the FISA Amendments Act and, in particular, getting enough information so that it is possible for the Senate to say to our constituents: We are doing oversight over this program.',
  u'I think right now, based on what we have outlined over the last 3 or more hours, it is clear that on so many of the central questions--the gap, for example, between the secret interpretation of the law and the public interpretation of the law, our inability to find out whether Americans in their wholly domestic communications have had their rights violated, how many law-abiding Americans have had their e-mails and phone calls swept up under FISA authorities, responses to these questions that stem from public remarks made by intelligence officials at public conferences--the inability to get answers to these questions means that this Senate cannot conduct the vigorous oversight that is our charge.',
  u'I expect we will have colleagues coming in. With the weather, it is a special challenge to get here from our part of the country.',
  u'I have a parliamentary inquiry. The distinguished chair of the committee already, I believe, got unanimous consent that the time in quorum calls be allocated to both sides. That was my understanding. Is that correct?'],
 u'title': u'FISA AMENDMENTS ACT REAUTHORIZATION ACT OF 2012',
 u'volume': 158}
In [43]:
nsa_congress_mentions[750]["speaking"]
Out[43]:
[u'I thank my friend. Just one last point with respect to this technology conference where so many people walked away and thought their privacy was being protected by strong legal protections. General Alexander made additional confusing remarks that were in response to that same question with respect to the protections of law-abiding people.',
 u"General Alexander said, `` . . . the story that we [the NSA] have millions or hundreds of millions of dossiers on people is absolutely false.''",
 u"Now, I have indicated this morning as well, having served on the Intelligence Committee for a long time, I do not have the faintest idea of what anybody is talking about with respect to a dossier. So Senator Udall and I followed that up as well. We asked the Director to clarify that statement. We asked, ``Does the NSA collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans?'' So that, too, is a pretty straightforward question.",
 u'The question Senators have been asking about this are not very complicated. If you are asking whether the National Security Agency is addressing these privacy issues, I think it is one of the most basic questions you can ask. Does the National Security Agency collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans? If the Agency saw fit, they could simply answer that with a yes or no. Instead, the Director of the Agency replied that while he appreciated our desire to have responses to those questions on the public record, there would not be a public response forthcoming.',
 u"So to go over the exchange again, the Director of National Security Agency states that `` . . . the story that we have millions or hundreds of millions of dossiers on people is absolutely false.'' Senator Udall and I then asked: Does the NSA collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans? The Agency is unwilling to answer the question.",
 u'So that is what this debate is all about, is reforming the FISA Amendments Act and, in particular, getting enough information so that it is possible for the Senate to say to our constituents: We are doing oversight over this program.',
 u'I think right now, based on what we have outlined over the last 3 or more hours, it is clear that on so many of the central questions--the gap, for example, between the secret interpretation of the law and the public interpretation of the law, our inability to find out whether Americans in their wholly domestic communications have had their rights violated, how many law-abiding Americans have had their e-mails and phone calls swept up under FISA authorities, responses to these questions that stem from public remarks made by intelligence officials at public conferences--the inability to get answers to these questions means that this Senate cannot conduct the vigorous oversight that is our charge.',
 u'I expect we will have colleagues coming in. With the weather, it is a special challenge to get here from our part of the country.',
 u'I have a parliamentary inquiry. The distinguished chair of the committee already, I believe, got unanimous consent that the time in quorum calls be allocated to both sides. That was my understanding. Is that correct?']
In [49]:
nsa_speeches = [mention["speaking"] for mention in nsa_congress_mentions]
In [ ]:
 
In [47]:
len(nsa_speeches)
Out[47]:
900
In [48]:
nsa_speeches[750]
Out[48]:
[u'I thank my friend. Just one last point with respect to this technology conference where so many people walked away and thought their privacy was being protected by strong legal protections. General Alexander made additional confusing remarks that were in response to that same question with respect to the protections of law-abiding people.',
 u"General Alexander said, `` . . . the story that we [the NSA] have millions or hundreds of millions of dossiers on people is absolutely false.''",
 u"Now, I have indicated this morning as well, having served on the Intelligence Committee for a long time, I do not have the faintest idea of what anybody is talking about with respect to a dossier. So Senator Udall and I followed that up as well. We asked the Director to clarify that statement. We asked, ``Does the NSA collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans?'' So that, too, is a pretty straightforward question.",
 u'The question Senators have been asking about this are not very complicated. If you are asking whether the National Security Agency is addressing these privacy issues, I think it is one of the most basic questions you can ask. Does the National Security Agency collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans? If the Agency saw fit, they could simply answer that with a yes or no. Instead, the Director of the Agency replied that while he appreciated our desire to have responses to those questions on the public record, there would not be a public response forthcoming.',
 u"So to go over the exchange again, the Director of National Security Agency states that `` . . . the story that we have millions or hundreds of millions of dossiers on people is absolutely false.'' Senator Udall and I then asked: Does the NSA collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans? The Agency is unwilling to answer the question.",
 u'So that is what this debate is all about, is reforming the FISA Amendments Act and, in particular, getting enough information so that it is possible for the Senate to say to our constituents: We are doing oversight over this program.',
 u'I think right now, based on what we have outlined over the last 3 or more hours, it is clear that on so many of the central questions--the gap, for example, between the secret interpretation of the law and the public interpretation of the law, our inability to find out whether Americans in their wholly domestic communications have had their rights violated, how many law-abiding Americans have had their e-mails and phone calls swept up under FISA authorities, responses to these questions that stem from public remarks made by intelligence officials at public conferences--the inability to get answers to these questions means that this Senate cannot conduct the vigorous oversight that is our charge.',
 u'I expect we will have colleagues coming in. With the weather, it is a special challenge to get here from our part of the country.',
 u'I have a parliamentary inquiry. The distinguished chair of the committee already, I believe, got unanimous consent that the time in quorum calls be allocated to both sides. That was my understanding. Is that correct?']
In [51]:
nsa_speech_750=nsa_speeches[750]
In [55]:
" ".join(nsa_speech_750)
Out[55]:
u"I thank my friend. Just one last point with respect to this technology conference where so many people walked away and thought their privacy was being protected by strong legal protections. General Alexander made additional confusing remarks that were in response to that same question with respect to the protections of law-abiding people. General Alexander said, `` . . . the story that we [the NSA] have millions or hundreds of millions of dossiers on people is absolutely false.'' Now, I have indicated this morning as well, having served on the Intelligence Committee for a long time, I do not have the faintest idea of what anybody is talking about with respect to a dossier. So Senator Udall and I followed that up as well. We asked the Director to clarify that statement. We asked, ``Does the NSA collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans?'' So that, too, is a pretty straightforward question. The question Senators have been asking about this are not very complicated. If you are asking whether the National Security Agency is addressing these privacy issues, I think it is one of the most basic questions you can ask. Does the National Security Agency collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans? If the Agency saw fit, they could simply answer that with a yes or no. Instead, the Director of the Agency replied that while he appreciated our desire to have responses to those questions on the public record, there would not be a public response forthcoming. So to go over the exchange again, the Director of National Security Agency states that `` . . . the story that we have millions or hundreds of millions of dossiers on people is absolutely false.'' Senator Udall and I then asked: Does the NSA collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans? The Agency is unwilling to answer the question. So that is what this debate is all about, is reforming the FISA Amendments Act and, in particular, getting enough information so that it is possible for the Senate to say to our constituents: We are doing oversight over this program. I think right now, based on what we have outlined over the last 3 or more hours, it is clear that on so many of the central questions--the gap, for example, between the secret interpretation of the law and the public interpretation of the law, our inability to find out whether Americans in their wholly domestic communications have had their rights violated, how many law-abiding Americans have had their e-mails and phone calls swept up under FISA authorities, responses to these questions that stem from public remarks made by intelligence officials at public conferences--the inability to get answers to these questions means that this Senate cannot conduct the vigorous oversight that is our charge. I expect we will have colleagues coming in. With the weather, it is a special challenge to get here from our part of the country. I have a parliamentary inquiry. The distinguished chair of the committee already, I believe, got unanimous consent that the time in quorum calls be allocated to both sides. That was my understanding. Is that correct?"
In [56]:
nsa_speech_750_string=" ".join(nsa_speech_750)
In [57]:
nsa_speech_750_string
Out[57]:
u"I thank my friend. Just one last point with respect to this technology conference where so many people walked away and thought their privacy was being protected by strong legal protections. General Alexander made additional confusing remarks that were in response to that same question with respect to the protections of law-abiding people. General Alexander said, `` . . . the story that we [the NSA] have millions or hundreds of millions of dossiers on people is absolutely false.'' Now, I have indicated this morning as well, having served on the Intelligence Committee for a long time, I do not have the faintest idea of what anybody is talking about with respect to a dossier. So Senator Udall and I followed that up as well. We asked the Director to clarify that statement. We asked, ``Does the NSA collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans?'' So that, too, is a pretty straightforward question. The question Senators have been asking about this are not very complicated. If you are asking whether the National Security Agency is addressing these privacy issues, I think it is one of the most basic questions you can ask. Does the National Security Agency collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans? If the Agency saw fit, they could simply answer that with a yes or no. Instead, the Director of the Agency replied that while he appreciated our desire to have responses to those questions on the public record, there would not be a public response forthcoming. So to go over the exchange again, the Director of National Security Agency states that `` . . . the story that we have millions or hundreds of millions of dossiers on people is absolutely false.'' Senator Udall and I then asked: Does the NSA collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans? The Agency is unwilling to answer the question. So that is what this debate is all about, is reforming the FISA Amendments Act and, in particular, getting enough information so that it is possible for the Senate to say to our constituents: We are doing oversight over this program. I think right now, based on what we have outlined over the last 3 or more hours, it is clear that on so many of the central questions--the gap, for example, between the secret interpretation of the law and the public interpretation of the law, our inability to find out whether Americans in their wholly domestic communications have had their rights violated, how many law-abiding Americans have had their e-mails and phone calls swept up under FISA authorities, responses to these questions that stem from public remarks made by intelligence officials at public conferences--the inability to get answers to these questions means that this Senate cannot conduct the vigorous oversight that is our charge. I expect we will have colleagues coming in. With the weather, it is a special challenge to get here from our part of the country. I have a parliamentary inquiry. The distinguished chair of the committee already, I believe, got unanimous consent that the time in quorum calls be allocated to both sides. That was my understanding. Is that correct?"
In [58]:
["".join(speech) for speech in nsa_speeches]
Out[58]:
[u"I thank my friend. Just one last point with respect to this technology conference where so many people walked away and thought their privacy was being protected by strong legal protections. General Alexander made additional confusing remarks that were in response to that same question with respect to the protections of law-abiding people.General Alexander said, `` . . . the story that we [the NSA] have millions or hundreds of millions of dossiers on people is absolutely false.''Now, I have indicated this morning as well, having served on the Intelligence Committee for a long time, I do not have the faintest idea of what anybody is talking about with respect to a dossier. So Senator Udall and I followed that up as well. We asked the Director to clarify that statement. We asked, ``Does the NSA collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans?'' So that, too, is a pretty straightforward question.The question Senators have been asking about this are not very complicated. If you are asking whether the National Security Agency is addressing these privacy issues, I think it is one of the most basic questions you can ask. Does the National Security Agency collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans? If the Agency saw fit, they could simply answer that with a yes or no. Instead, the Director of the Agency replied that while he appreciated our desire to have responses to those questions on the public record, there would not be a public response forthcoming.So to go over the exchange again, the Director of National Security Agency states that `` . . . the story that we have millions or hundreds of millions of dossiers on people is absolutely false.'' Senator Udall and I then asked: Does the NSA collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans? The Agency is unwilling to answer the question.So that is what this debate is all about, is reforming the FISA Amendments Act and, in particular, getting enough information so that it is possible for the Senate to say to our constituents: We are doing oversight over this program.I think right now, based on what we have outlined over the last 3 or more hours, it is clear that on so many of the central questions--the gap, for example, between the secret interpretation of the law and the public interpretation of the law, our inability to find out whether Americans in their wholly domestic communications have had their rights violated, how many law-abiding Americans have had their e-mails and phone calls swept up under FISA authorities, responses to these questions that stem from public remarks made by intelligence officials at public conferences--the inability to get answers to these questions means that this Senate cannot conduct the vigorous oversight that is our charge.I expect we will have colleagues coming in. With the weather, it is a special challenge to get here from our part of the country.I have a parliamentary inquiry. The distinguished chair of the committee already, I believe, got unanimous consent that the time in quorum calls be allocated to both sides. That was my understanding. Is that correct?",
 u'Madam President, before the Senator from Missouri leaves the floor, I thank him for his statement. I thank him for his kind words about Senator Collins and me, which she certainly deserves and I am glad to be along with her on that ride.I thank him for the specific question and assure the Senator on my behalf, one, that Senator Collins and our committee were focused throughout the deliberations on making sure this substantial reorganization of our intelligence assets not in any way diminish the availability of intelligence to the warfighter. In fact, in the best of all situations, we believe the recommendations that we have made will improve intelligence to the warfighter.By way of reassurance, I want to quote from GEN Michael Hayden, Director of the National Security Agency, who said in testimony before the other body:An empowered national intelligence director who would direct authority over the national agencies should not be viewed as diminishing our ability or willingness to fulfill our responsibilities as combat support agencies.He was speaking on behalf of the three.It was quite illuminating, in talking to General Hayden and others. They are in direct daily contact, particularly with the combatant commanders. They have people out in the field right now with those combatant commanders, particularly in the most active areas of the world, such as the central command, which includes Iraq and Pakistan. After having described that close integration of national intelligence assets with the warfighters, General Hayden concluded:It is inconceivable to me that any future leader of the National Security Agency could or would ever act any differently.GEN James Clapper, head of the NGA, National Geospatial Agency, expressed exactly the same sentiments to us.I want to reassure the Senator from Missouri, more to the point of his question, that to the extent we are able--and I am sure if we are not, the Armed Services Committee will--we will definitely keep a close eye as this new system is implemented to make sure our intention, which is that this reform improves intelligence for our warfighters, in fact is being realized.',
 u"Mr. Speaker, at a ceremony on October 19, 2001, the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) will designate as a ``Milestone in Engineering'' the U.S. Naval Computing Machine Laboratory, in Dayton, Ohio, which I represent.During World War II, the ability to analyze quickly coded enemy messages was one of our most critical military capabilities. To build a machine that could break codes from Nazi submarines, the Navy turned to Dayton's National Cash Register Company (NCR) and Joseph R. Desch, director of its Electrical Research Laboratory.For three years, Desch and his team of dedicated workers developed a machine which allowed our Nation to crack the secret code used by the Nazi military command to communicate its secret plans to its forces in the field. The device, called a Bombe, was the military's highest priority, second only to the development of the Atom Bomb. Its success gave the Allies a significant advantage, hastening the end of the war and saving the lives of American soldiers.Desch and his team faced enormous pressure as they labored daily to construct and produce the code-breaking device. They sacrificed their personal health, both emotional and physical. Many of these heroes are no longer living. Desch died on August 3, 1987, at age 80.The effort has been all but forgotten because of the enormous secrecy surrounding the project. In February and March 2001, the Dayton Daily News ran an extraordinary 8-part series by Jim DeBrosse about Desch. The series brought to light for the first time much information about NCR's code-breaking efforts. The IEEE ceremony later this month will bring additional honor to his memory.Perhaps the greatest tribute to the memory of Joe Desch and his contribution to the war effort would be the permanent display of an original NCR Bombe in Dayton. Of the more than 120 Bombes that were believed to have been constructed in Dayton, the sole known surviving Bombe is displayed at the National Security Agency's National Cryptologic Museum in Ft. Meade, Maryland. I have been in touch with the National Security Agency requesting assistance in tracking down another example of this extraordinary invention.As part the IEEE ceremony, the surviving members of this top-secret project will return to the site of the U.S. Naval Computing Machine Laboratory, at NCR. They will be joined by Desch's daughter, Debbie Anderson, whose persistence has helped the story be told.I offer my congratulations on this award to all the survivors of the project and to Debbie Anderson in honor of her father.",
 u"Mr. Speaker, I stand before you today to recognize and honor the accomplishments of a truly remarkable woman. On May 5, members of the Flint, Michigan, Northern High School Alumni Association will gather to honor five Distinguished Fellows, members of their alumni community who have contributed to legacy and rich history of Northern High School, and of Flint. One Distinguished Fellow to be honored is the late Ms. Cecile Hershon.Born in Lansing, Michigan in 1920, Cecile Hershon and her family eventually moved to Flint, where she graduated from Northern High School in 1938. In 1944, Cecile was recruited by the United States Army and began her long military career as a civilian clerk in Arlington, Virginia. From there she went on to become a part of the newly merged Army and Navy Signal Services, first known as the Armed Forces Security Agency as is currently what we know as the National Security Agency.Cecile began to further her career with the National Security Agency, becoming adept as intelligence research, analysis, and reporting, and soon became a exceptional cryptographer. She later accepted an overseas position where she continued to perfect her skills, allowing her to function in a variety of supervisory and management positions. Throughout her career, which spanned an incomparable 42 years, Cecile received numerous honors and commendations, including one of the agency's highest honors, the National Meritorious Civilian Service Award in 1986. Cecile also became involved in WIN--Women in NSA, an organization dedicated to increasing personal growth and development among both men and women within the NSA. As a member of WIN, Cecile was honored with their President's Award on two separate occasions. She was also the first recipient of WIN's Dorothy T. Blum Award for excellence in personal and professional development.In addition to being a model employee, Cecile was an ardent humanitarian as well. She was constantly found extending a helping hand to friends, colleagues, and sometimes mere acquaintances, sometimes at her own personal or professional expense, and with no thought of personal gain. Countless members of the NSA and the military attribute their success to Cecile's support and encouragement. There have been many accounts of people who were convinced by Cecile to remain in the NSA, complete their education, and honor familial obligations. Indeed, many of our military are better soldiers due to the influence of Cecile Hershon.Mr. Speaker, Cecile Hershon lived her life in a truly selfless and benevolent manner, and it goes without saying that her influence extends even to this day. Her life's work, serving her country for so long as a civilian, is commanding of the highest respect.",
 u"Very briefly, Mr. President, I have just received a copy of a letter that has been sent this morning to the majority leader, Senator Reid, and the Republican leader, Senator McConnell, from GEN Keith Alexander of the United States Army, Director of the National Security Agency and Chief of Cyber Command at the Department of Defense. He is a distinguished and honored leader of our military, one of the people who has the greatest single responsibility for protecting our security, both in terms of the extraordinary capabilities the National Security Agency has but now increasingly for the defense of our cyber system.This is a career military officer, not a politician. He is somebody who has a mission, and it is from that sense of responsibility that General Alexander has written to Senator Reid and Senator McConnell. He writes--and I will ask to have it printed in the Record--to express his ``strong support for passage of a comprehensive bipartisan cyber security bill by the Senate this week.'' Why? I continue to quote:The cyber threat facing the Nation is real and demands immediate action. The time to act is now; we simply cannot afford further delay.He adds:Moreover, to be most effective in protecting against this threat to our national security, cyber security legislation should address both information sharing and core critical infrastructure hardening.Then he explains both of those in very compelling language. He also says:Finally, any legislation needs to recognize that cyber security is a team sport. No single public or private entity has all of the required authorities, resources, and capabilities. Within the federal government, the Department of Defense and the Intelligence Community are now closely partnered with the Department of Homeland Security and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The benefits of this partnership are perhaps best evidenced by the Managed Security Service (MSS) program, which affords protection to certain government components and defense companies. The legislation will help enable us to make these same protections available widely to the private sector.I cannot thank General Alexander enough. He ends by saying this:The President and the Congress have rightly made cyber security a national priority. We need to move forward on comprehensive legislation now.He urged Senators Reid and McConnell ``to work together to get it passed.''I ask unanimous consent that this very compelling letter from GEN Keith Alexander be printed in the Record.",
 u"Mr. President, there is such an important subject that is looming over the country right now that Congress can do something about; that is, the possibility of cyber attack. We have had this discussed by a number of people in very high and responsible positions and the threat is real.What the threat means to all of us in our everyday lives is that electrical systems could be shut down, water systems could be shut down, the banking system could be shut down, sewer systems could go awry, and we can go on and on. For months we have been stymied from passing anything because of a disagreement in the business community, which is going to be one of the main recipients of a potential cyber attack.I will choose my words very carefully as a member of the Senate Intelligence Committee and say this potential attack is real. It is real not only from rogue players but also some state actors, and we need to get this legislation up and going. I am most encouraged to think we are at a position to get agreement; that the chairman and vice chairman of our Intelligence Committee are going to come together in an agreement. We need to pass this--this week--because this is deadly serious.I refer to a letter that has been made public from the commander of Cyber Command, a four-star general, GEN Keith Alexander. He is also the head of the National Security Agency. He has done a remarkable job. He sent a letter, dated today, to the majority leader imploring the Senate to move.Whatever disagreements there have been over the concern of the Department of Homeland Security being the interfacing agency can be worked out. The National Security Agency--which almost all of us have enormous confidence in--is going to be directly involved.It is my hope and I am expressing optimism that we are going to get this legislation out of here and to the House. If they can't pass it before this August recess, at least we can have some items over the August recess start to be informally conferenced to iron out any differences between the House and the Senate.",
 u"My colleague is asking a particularly important question because the Director of the National Security Agency, General Alexander, recently spoke at a large technology conference, and he said that with respect to communications from a good guy, which we obviously interpret as a law-abiding American, and someone overseas, the NSA has ``requirements from the FISA Court and the Attorney General to minimize that''--to find procedures to protect the individual, the law-abiding American's rights, essentially meaning, in the words of General Alexander, ``nobody else can see it unless there's a crime that's been committed.''If people hear that answer to my colleague's question--which, frankly, General Alexander responded to directly--they pretty much say that is what they were hoping to hear; that nobody is going to get access to their communications unless a crime has been committed.The only problem, I would say to my friend, is Senator Udall and I have found out that is not true. It is simply not true. The privacy protections provided by this minimization approach are not as strong as General Alexander made them out to be. Senator Udall and I wrote to General Alexander, and he said--and I put this up on my Web site so all Americans can see the response--the general said: That is not really how the minimization procedures work--these minimization procedures that have been described in such a glowing way--and that the privacy protections are not as strong as we have been led to believe. He may have misspoken and may have just been mistaken, but I am not sure the record would be correct even now had not Senator Udall and I tried to make an effort to follow it up.I can tell the Senator that at this very large technology conference--this was not something that was classified--at a very large technology conference recently in Nevada, what the head of the National Security Agency said was taking place with respect to protecting people, in response to my colleague's questions: Were their e-mails and phone calls protected, the general said to a big group: They are, unless a crime has been committed. The real answer is that is not correct.",
 u"Mr. Chairman, the amendment I offer this evening clarifies and confirms the scope of two programs that Mr. Snowden illegally exposed while sitting in a hotel room in Communist China.First, the amendment clarifies that under section 702 no U.S. citizen or person in the U.S. can be targeted, period. I say again, no U.S. person under section 702 may be targeted in any way by the United States Government. While there are other specific authorities the U.S. person may be subject to an investigation, the U.S. Government may not do so under section 702. That's what this amendment intends to clarify.The second part of the amendment clarifies section 215, also known as section 501 of FISA. The amendment clarifies that no content of communications can be stored or collected by the National Security Agency--that's no emails, no video clips, no Skype. No record of the actual conversation or the contents thereof may be recorded or collected by the National Security Agency. I can't repeat that enough. That's the intent of this amendment.I want to make clear to everyone that, contrary to the suggestions of some, the NSA has not been acting outside of the scope of its authorities. The Meta-Data program is carefully designed with program layers of oversight by all three branchs of government. This is precisely the way our government ought to operate, with input from Article I and Article II and Article III of the United States Constitution.It is, of course, our duty to ensure that the NSA stays within these legal bounds here in Congress, and this amendment makes those boundaries perfectly clear for everyone to know and understand.And we shouldn't mislead the American people into thinking that the NSA has been acting illegally. There is perhaps no program in the United States Government that is as carefully monitored and overseen as the programs this amendment attempts to clarify.To the extent that some in this Chamber wish to review or provide more protections and controls for these programs, we should proceed through a carefully considered and debated legislative process so that the full implications for our security are clearly understood.Mr. Chairman, I reserve the balance of my time.",
 u'Madam Chair, I rise in support of the Hastings-Rodriguez Amendment to H.R. 4061, the Cyber Security Enhancement Act.Our amendment aims to address the lack of minority representation in the cyber security industry. In addition it provides for a minority serving institution to participate in the university-industry task force authorized by this legislation.Our country is blessed to have many top-notch universities already training our future cyber security experts. For example, a minority serving institution in my district, the University of Texas--San Antonio, is producing both undergrads and graduate degrees in information assurance and computer science. UTSA has been designated a Center of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Education and a Center of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Research by the National Security Agency and Department of Homeland Security. Only 23 programs in the nation have achieved the research designation.Universities like UTSA can play a major role in our national cyber policy and the training of our future cyber workforce. This underlying legislation will set us on our way to prepare our diverse workforce for our current and future needs.I would like to thank my colleague Mr. Hastings for his partnership on this amendment. I urge my colleagues to support the Hastings/Rodriguez amendment and support H.R. 4061.',
 u"I thank the gentleman.We've had 11 three- and four-star generals and admirals testify that we need a national intelligence assessment of the defense implications of global warming around the planet, and we have done that for the Pentagon. We have done that for the National Security Agency at their request. They believe it's real. They believe it has real implications for the defense of our country where we might have to project force.The same thing is true domestically, however. The same thing is true in terms of how we have to protect our own people because of rising rivers, because of increased drought, because of the melting of the Arctic, because villages are falling into the ocean up in Alaska because of the melting tundra. These are things that affect us here in the United States today. And to say, no, we are going to defund all aspects of that is a mistake.I yield back the balance of my time.",
 u" There being no objection, the material was ordered to be printed in the Record, as follows:1. Funds the FBI, our chief domestic national security agency, to take down terror cells and dirty bombs on U.S. soil ($7 billion). 2. Adds 85 FBI agents and forensic accounting professionals to combat mortgage and financial fraud ($10 million). 3. Funds DEA to fight international drug cartels that finance terrorism and infiltrate our neighborhoods with heroin and meth ($2 billion). 4. Funds ATF to partner with the military to dismantle IEDs that maim and kill our troops on the battlefield ($1 billion). 5. Supports cops on the beat--provides $3.2 billion for state and local law enforcement, $2.1 billion above the previous Administration's request--to help state and local police fight gangs, drugs, crime and child predators. 6. Highest funding level ever for the Violence Against Women Act programs to combat sexual assault and domestic violence and help victims get their lives back together ($415 million). 7. Protects our kids from predators by preventing, investigating and prosecuting crimes against children ($234 million). 8. Advances climate research and restores satellite climate sensors cut by the previous Administration ($270 million). 9. Enhances U.S. competitiveness and innovation by increasing science and technology research at NSF and NIST, a 7 percent increase over last year ($913 million). 10. Restores fiscal responsibility and accountability to ensure stewardship of taxpayer dollars--prohibits funds for lavish banquets, controls cost overruns, and requires IGs to do random audits of grantees.",
 u"Mr. President, today I would like to commemorate the life of a great soldier, strategic thinker and American, LTG William Odom. I was deeply saddened to learn of his recent sudden death.General Odom served our country with honor and distinction throughout his life. During his time serving as a military adviser in the White House, Director of the National Security Agency, and West Point and Yale professor, General Odom demonstrated an uncanny talent for assessing and advancing U.S. interests in a complex and challenging world.Over the years, the U.S. Congress has benefited greatly from General Odom's clear vision of U.S. interests in the Middle East. General Odom was a strong critic of the Iraq war even before it began. It is unfortunate that more Members of this body did not heed his insightful and prescient warnings of the perils of invading Iraq. His steadfast commitment to ending the war and restoring a balanced and focused national security strategy has been an inspiration. So, too, was his strong opposition to the President's illegal warrantless wiretapping program.Our thoughts are with his wife, son, and family during this difficult time. I hope that they can take some comfort knowing that he will be deeply missed by a grateful Nation. ",
 u"Madam Speaker, I am proud to rise in support of H.R. 6304. I would like to thank Chairman Reyes, Chairman Conyers, Majority Leader Hoyer, Minority Leader Blunt, and Ranking Member Hoekstra for coming together with a bill that we need on behalf of our country.My district includes the National Security Agency, and many of NSA's employees are my constituents. As a member of the House Committee on Intelligence and the chairman of the Subcommittee on Technical and Tactical Intelligence, which oversees NSA, I know that the men and women who work for our Nation's intelligence agencies work hard every day to keep our Nation safe.The intelligence agencies must do their work within the laws of this country, and they need those laws to be clear. The NSA employees in my district need a clear law with a bright line between legal and illegal surveillance activities, and this bill provides that.Our Constitution requires checks and balances for the three branches of government. This bill provides that the FISA Court must review surveillance requests to protect the constitutional rights of our citizens.I urge my colleagues to support this bill because it gives our intelligence community the tools they need to keep our Nation safe while protecting the constitutional rights of Americans.",
 u"Under this bill, large corporations and big government can work together to violate the United States Constitution, use massive databases to spy, to wiretap, to invade the privacy of the American people. There's no requirement for the government to seek a warrant for any intercepted communication that includes a U.S. citizen, as long as the program in general is directed towards foreign targets.This Congress must not allow the names of innocent U.S. citizens to be placed on secret intelligence lists. Under this bill, violations of Fourth Amendment rights and blanket wiretaps will be permissible for the next 4 years. Massive and untargeted collection of communications will continue and with the enactment of this bill.Furthermore, it allows the type of surveillance to be applied to all communications entering and exiting the United States. These blanket wiretaps make it impossible to know whose calls are being intercepted by the National Security Agency.Let's stand up for the fourth amendment. Let's remember, when this country was founded Benjamin Franklin said, those who would give up their essential liberties to achieve a measure of security deserve neither. Vote against it.",
 u"I ask the Senator from Pennsylvania that I use two of those to respond to this latest statement. Then I will defer to him for his statement.Mr. President, I want to respond to the statement by the Senator from Missouri about what all of the reports from the inspectors general would essentially deal with. I believe he said waste, fraud, and abuse, which is sort of the general purview of inspectors general.That is not my understanding. I understand the inspectors general have been asked to essentially do a review of this.The Inspectors General of the Department of Justice, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, the National Security Agency, the Department of Defense, and any other elements of the intelligence community that participated in the President's surveillance program--Shall all work together to do a report which will look into--I believe the review we are talking about here, and that we are legislating or proposing to legislate, is intended to tell the Congress and tell anybody who reads the report what this program consisted of. That is information we do not have today. And it is entirely appropriate that we get that report before we grant immunity.That is the thrust of my amendment, I hope all of my colleagues will support it. I appreciate my colleague from Pennsylvania yielding me additional time to speak in response.I yield the floor.",
 u" There being no objection, the material was ordered to be printed in the Record, as follows:Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,This Act may be cited as the ``Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Oversight and Resource Enhancement Act of (a) Authority for Additional Judges.--Section 103(a) of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1803(a)) is amended-- (1) by inserting ``(1)'' after ``(a)''; (2) in paragraph (1), as so designated, by inserting ``at least'' before ``seven of the United States judicial circuits''; (3) by designating the second sentence as paragraph (4) and indenting such paragraph, as so designated, accordingly; and (4) by inserting after paragraph (1), as so designated, the following new paragraph: ``(2) In addition to the judges designated under paragraph (1), the Chief Justice of the United States may designate as judges of the court established by paragraph (1) such judges appointed under Article III of the Constitution of the United States as the Chief Justice determines appropriate in order to provide for the prompt and timely consideration under section 105 of applications under section 104 for electronic surveillance under this title. Any judge designated under this paragraph shall be designated publicly.''. (b) Consideration of Emergency Applications.--Such section is further amended by inserting after paragraph (2), as added by subsection (a) of this section, the following new paragraph: ``(3) A judge of the court established by paragraph (1) shall make a determination to approve, deny, or seek modification of an application submitted under section subsection (f) or (g) of section 105 not later than 24 hours after the receipt of such application by the court.''.(a) Office of Intelligence Policy and Review.-- (1) Additional personnel.--The Office of Intelligence Policy and Review of the Department of Justice is authorized such additional personnel, including not fewer than 21 full- time attorneys, as may be necessary to carry out the prompt and timely preparation, modification, and review of applications under section 104 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1804) for orders under section 105 of that Act (50 U.S.C. 1805) approving electronic surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes. (2) Assignment.--The Attorney General shall assign personnel authorized by paragraph (1) to and among appropriate offices of the National Security Agency in order that such personnel may directly assist personnel of the Agency in preparing applications described in that paragraph. (b) Federal Bureau of Investigation.-- (1) Additional legal and other personnel.--The National Security Branch of the Federal Bureau of Investigation is authorized such additional legal and other personnel as may be necessary to carry out the prompt and timely preparation of applications under section 104 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 for orders under section 105 of that Act approving electronic surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes. (2) Assignment.--The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall assign personnel authorized by paragraph (1) to and among the field offices of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in order that such personnel may directly assist personnel of the Bureau in such field offices in preparing applications described in that paragraph. (c) Additional Legal and Other Personnel for National Security Agency.--The National Security Agency is authorized such additional legal and other personnel as may be necessary to carry out the prompt and timely preparation of applications under section 104 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 for orders under section 105 of that Act approving electronic surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes. (d) Additional Legal and Other Personnel for Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court.--There is authorized for the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court such additional personnel (other than judges) as may be necessary to facilitate the prompt and timely consideration by that Court of applications under section 104 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 for orders under section 105 of that Act approving electronic surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes. Personnel authorized by this paragraph shall perform such duties relating to the consideration of such applications as that Court shall direct. (e) Supplement Not Supplant.--The personnel authorized by this section are in addition to any other personnel authorized by law.The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Director of the National Security Agency shall each, in consultation with the Attorney General-- (1) develop regulations establishing procedures for conducting and seeking approval of electronic surveillance on an emergency basis, and for preparing and properly submitting and receiving applications and orders, under sections 104 and 105 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1804 and 1805); and (2) prescribe related training for the personnel of the applicable agency.",
 u"Madam Speaker, I rise in strong support of H. Res. The 9/11 Commission recommended that we change the way Congress oversees the intelligence activities. I am very familiar with those activities as a member of the Committee on Intelligence and also representing constituents who work for the National Security Agency. NSA is in my district.At a time when we have reformed our intelligence agencies and required them to communicate and cooperate and unified their management through the new Director of National Intelligence, it is only right that we unify our oversight of the intelligence community.H. Res. 35 does just that. It will allow us to make more informed and more effective funding decisions. It will enhance the ongoing work of the Intelligence and Appropriations Committees.Our job on national security should be to do what is best to put the safety and the security of our Nation first, above all. We can't get bogged down with our own individual complaints about jurisdiction and power. We have to do what is best for America.I will be proud to vote for H. Res. 35.",
 u" (7) Make any recommendations for improvements to the MDA targets program.The GAO should work with the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and the House of Representatives to define a reporting timeline for this review. The conferees believe that MDA should consider, plan, and budget for a robust testing program--including an adequate number of reliable targets--that includes salvo launches, multiple target engagements, multi-mission tests, liquid target tests, and tests that will stress the systems to determine how they would perform under real-world operational conditions. The conferees plan to monitor the testing and targets program carefully in the coming year. NSA acquisition management The Senate report accompanying S. 1547 (S. Rept. 110-77) directs a series of actions regarding the National Security Agency's (NSA) transformation programs. The conferees endorse this direction, but with two modifications. The Senate report directs that the Director of Operational Test and Evaluation (DOT&E) exercise oversight over all major elements of the NSA's Transformation 3.0 activities. The conferees understand that the Joint Interoperability Test Command (JITC) is already supporting the NSA's test and evaluation activities, and directs that JITC be substituted for the DOT&E in complying with the direction in the Senate report. The Senate report also mandates that the NSA's transformation programs may not proceed to Milestone B without certain certifications to Congress. The conferees agree that this language should be understood to mean that the certifications required can be prepared and issued as part of the Milestone B approval process.",
 u"Mr. Speaker, since the revelation of the National Security Agency's terrorist surveillance program, we have heard all sorts of hysterics from the other side of the aisle. I think now is the time to separate myth from reality.Allegations that the NSA program is illegal are a myth. The reality is that the President's authority to authorize this program is firmly based in both his constitutional authority as Commander-in-Chief and in the authorization for use of military force which passed Congress after 9/11.Allegations that the NSA program is a domestic eavesdropping program used to spy on innocent Americans are a myth. The reality is that this program is narrowly focused, aimed only at international calls and targeted at al Qaeda and related groups. There are safeguards in place to protect the civil liberties of Americans.Allegations that NSA activities violate the fourth amendment are a myth. The reality is that that program is consistent with the Constitution's protections of civil liberties, including fourth amendment protections.There are people who want you to believe this program is targeting average Americans. Nothing could be further from the truth.",
 u" Mr. FEINGOLD submitted the following resolution; which was referred to the Committee on the Judiciary:Whereas Congress passed the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.), and in so doing provided the executive branch with clear authority to wiretap suspected terrorists inside the United States; Whereas the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 has been amended multiple times since 1978, to expand the surveillance authority of the executive branch and address new technological developments; Whereas the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 states that it and the criminal wiretap law are the ``exclusive means by which electronic surveillance'' may be conducted by the United States Government and makes it a crime to wiretap individuals without complying with this statutory authority; Whereas the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 permits the Government to initiate wiretapping immediately in emergencies as long as the Government obtains approval from the court established under section 103 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1803) within 72 hours of initiating the wiretap; Whereas the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 authorizes wiretaps without the court orders otherwise required by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 for the first 15 days following a declaration of war by Congress; Whereas the Authorization for Use of Military Force that became law on September 18, 2001 (Public Law 107-40; 50 U.S.C. 1541 note), did not grant the President the power to authorize wiretaps of Americans within the United States without obtaining the court orders required by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978; Whereas the President's inherent constitutional authority does not give him the power to violate the explicit statutory prohibition on warrantless wiretaps in the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978; Whereas George W. Bush, President of the United States, has authorized and continues to authorize wiretaps by the National Security Agency of Americans within the United States without obtaining the court orders required by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978; Whereas President George W. Bush has failed to inform the full congressional intelligence committees about this program, as required by the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.); Whereas President George W. Bush repeatedly misled the public prior to the public disclosure of the National Security Agency surveillance program by indicating his Administration was relying on court orders to wiretap suspected terrorists inside the United States, by stating-- (1) on April 20, 2004, that ``When we're talking about chasing down terrorists, we're talking about getting a court order before we do so.''; (2) on July 14, 2004, that ``the government can't move on wiretaps or roving wiretaps without getting a court order''; and (3) on June 9, 2005, that ``Law enforcement officers need a federal judge's permission to wiretap a foreign terrorist's phone, a federal judge's permission to track his calls, or a federal judge's permission to search his property. Officers must meet strict standards to use any of these tools.''; Whereas President George W. Bush has, since the public disclosure of the National Security Agency surveillance program, falsely implied that the program was necessary because the executive branch did not have authority to wiretap suspected terrorists inside the United States, by making statements about the supposed need for the program, including-- (1) on January 25, 2006, stating at the National Security Agency that ``When terrorist operatives are here in America communicating with someone overseas, we must understand what's going on if we're going to do our job to protect the people. The safety and security of the American people depend on our ability to find out who the terrorists are talking to, and what they're planning. In the weeks following September the 11th, I authorized a terrorist surveillance program to detect and intercept al Qaeda communications involving someone here in the United States.''; and (2) on January 31, 2006, asserting during the State of the Union that ``The terrorist surveillance program has helped prevent terrorist attacks. It remains essential to the security of America. If there are people inside our country who are talking with al Qaeda, we want to know about it, because we will not sit back and wait to be hit again.''; and Whereas President George W. Bush inaccurately stated in his January 31, 2006, State of the Union address that ``Previous Presidents have used the same constitutional authority I have, and federal courts have approved the use of that authority.'', even though the President has failed to identify a single instance since the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 became law in which another President has authorized wiretaps inside the United States without complying with the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, and no Federal court has evaluated whether the President has the inherent authority to authorize wiretaps inside the United States without complying with the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978: Now, therefore, be it Resolved, That the United States Senate does hereby censure George W. Bush, President of the United States, and does condemn his unlawful authorization of wiretaps of Americans within the United States without obtaining the court orders required by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, his failure to inform the full congressional intelligence committees as required by law, and his efforts to mislead the American people about the authorities relied upon by his Administration to conduct wiretaps and about the legality of the program.",
 u"Mr. Speaker, in their rush to be against everything that President Bush is for, Democrats have once again given us reason to question their timing and judgment.A resolution has been introduced in the Senate to censure the President for ordering the National Security Agency to intercept communications of suspected al Qaeda members or related terrorist groups.Apparently, this offends Democrats so much that they seek to scold the President in the midst of the war on terror. To them I ask: How would you monitor terrorist operatives who move to this country, blend in, and wait to strike? Do you think they hang a shingle on their front door reading ``Terrorist in Waiting''?The NSA program is one that provides the speed and agility that is needed as we fight this new kind of war. We must adapt, because in this day and age, terrorists move faster than any court possibly can. A span of just a few hours could make the difference between life and death.Mr. Speaker, we are not questioning the Democrats' patriotism, as they so often charge. We are, however, questioning their poor judgment. They are unwise in opposing what is clearly a vital tool against terrorist organizations and in allowing the censure resolution to the Senate floor which could damage the President as he fights this war on terror.",
 u"Mr. Speaker, this week a resolution was introduced in the United States Senate that would censure President Bush over the National Security Agency's surveillance program. We have seen the Democrats launch political stunts before, but this one certainly takes the cake.They have determined, on their own, that President Bush has broken the law by authorizing surveillance of al Qaeda communications. They are so intent on opposing everything that President Bush is for that they don't seem to realize or even care about the message this sends to the rest of the world as we fight the war on terror.The fact is, this is a necessary tool in the war on terror, and it is working. As General Michael Hayden, the principle Deputy Director of National Intelligence stated, ``We have learned information from this program that would not otherwise have been available. This information has helped detect and prevent terrorist attacks in the United States and abroad.''Mr. Speaker, the Democrats have put off releasing their agenda for months now. I guess I can see why, since it includes stripping away important tools to fight the war on terror. Perhaps the Democrats should go back to having no agenda.",
 u"Mr. President, had I been present to vote on the nomination of Gen. Michael Hayden to be Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, I would have cast a vote of ``no''.I oppose General Hayden's nomination because of his role in the administration's program to conduct warrantless electronic surveillance on U.S. persons--a practice I believe is unlawful under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act.During his nomination hearing before the Senate Intelligence Committee, General Hayden admitted to participating in the design of the electronic surveillance program during his tenure as director of the National Security Agency. And as the Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence, General Hayden became the chief advocate for the electronic surveillance program, even taking the unusual step of appearing before the National Press Club to defend the Administration's program.We are all united in fighting terrorism, but we can do it in a legal and constitutional way that gets the bad guys and protects our values and freedoms.While I oppose the nomination of General Hayden because of the controversy surrounding the electronic surveillance program, I wish him the very best and hope that he will turn out to be a strong and independent leader at the CIA.But I also hope that the Intelligence Committees in the House and Senate will conduct careful and thorough oversight over General Hayden and the CIA to ensure that the civil liberties of U.S. citizens are protected. ",
 u"Mr. President, today I voted to confirm the nomination of General Michael Hayden to be Director of the Central Intelligence Agency replacing my friend and Florida colleague Porter Goss. I voted to confirm General Hayden based on his impressive record as a career intelligence officer in a broad spectrum of strategic intelligence activities and programs. He is widely regarded as one of the most qualified intelligence planners and managers among military or civilian intelligence professionals.Despite my vote in favor of his confirmation I remain deeply concerned that recent revelations regarding domestic intelligence collection by the National Security Agency may have violated our laws. In hearings before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence General Hayden often deferred questions about the program, the President's and Justice Department's statements about the program, and his own involvement in the NSA's activity to closed sessions. My Intelligence Committee colleagues pursued these questions and ultimately recommended approval of the nomination on a bipartisan 12-3 vote. I still have many questions about this program and how it was conceived and operated, and I will continue to seek answers to them. However, General Hayden has sufficiently demonstrated his objectivity, independence and openness that I am comfortable with confirming his nomination.Given the threats our Nation faces today and challenges that our intelligence system has had coping with those threats, General Hayden should bring to this position much needed efficient, effective and, most importantly, independent leadership and management. That should be good for our intelligence agencies and good for the Nation.",
 u"SA 4499. Mr. WARNER proposed an amendment to the bill S. 2766, to authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2007 for military activities of the Department of Defense, for military construction, and for defense activities of the Department of Energy, to prescribe personnel strengths for such fiscal year for the Armed Forces, and for other purposes; as follows:At the end of subtitle D of title X, add the following:The National Security Agency Act of 1959 (50 U.S.C. 402 note) is amended by adding at the end the following new section: ``Sec. 20. (a) The Director may collect charges for evaluating, certifying, or validating information assurance products under the National Information Assurance Program or successor program. ``(b) The charges collected under subsection (a) shall be established through a public rulemaking process in accordance with Office of Management and Budget Circular No. A-25. ``(c) Charges collected under subsection (a) shall not exceed the direct costs of the program referred to in that subsection. ``(d) The appropriation or fund bearing the cost of the service for which charges are collected under the program referred to in subsection (a) may be reimbursed, or the Director may require advance payment subject to such adjustment on completion of the work as may be agreed upon. ``(e) Amounts collected under this section shall be credited to the account or accounts from which costs associated with such amounts have been or will be incurred, to reimburse or offset the direct costs of the program referred to in subsection (a).''. ______",
 u' Under clause 2 of rule XIII, reports of committees were delivered to the Clerk for printing and reference to the proper calendar, as follows:Mr. HYDE: Committee on International Relations. House Resolution 946. Resolution requesting the President and directing the Secretary of State to provide to the House of Representatives certain documents in their possession relating to strategies and plans either designed to cause regime change in or for the use of military force against Iran; adversely (Rep. 109-526). Referred to the House Calendar. Mr. SENSENBRENNER: Committee on the Judiciary. House Resolution 819. Resolution requesting the President and directing the Attorney General to submit to the House of Representatives all documents in the possession of the President and the Attorney General relating to requests made by the National Security Agency and other Federal agencies to telephone service providers requesting access to telephone communications records of persons in the United States and communications originating and terminating within the United States without a warrant (Rept. 109-527). Referred to the House Calendar.',
 u"If the Senator will yield, that is correct. Not only did I ask that, but the chairman of the committee asked that, and it was resolved that we were not asking it to be made public, we were not asking those names to necessarily be made available to the whole Foreign Relations Committee, although that was the chairman's preference, and ultimately the chairman concluded it should not even be provided directly to me or the chairman, but it should be made available to the chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee and the ranking member or vice chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee, and they should decide how our committee would review the information.I think the information should be provided to me and to Senator Lugar, as well, but the way this was parsed out, it was going to be that the National Security Agency was going to come and brief the Senate Intelligence Committee, of which I am no longer a member, and--I thought--tell them the names of these Americans. I might add further, the reason for that is, there are unsubstantiated--I emphasize ``unsubstantiated''--allegations that Mr. Bolton may have been seeking the names of these Americans to seek retribution; that it may have been intelligence analysts with whom he disagreed or policymakers against whom he was trying to make a case in terms of the direction of American foreign policy. I do not know that to be the case. The question is why did he need the names.",
 u"Madam Speaker, this week we passed two milestones in Iraq: The constitution was ratified, and, tragically, the 2,000th American died. These milestones, one positive, one clearly negative, provide us with an opportunity to review our progress in Iraq. This is not a time to debate how we got into Iraq. What is important is resolving the mess.Hear what the experts are saying: Retired Army Lieutenant General William Odom, former head of the National Security Agency, said that the invasion of Iraq ``will turn out to be the greatest strategic disaster in U.S. history.''Brent Scowcroft, National Security Adviser under the first President George Bush, said, ``You have to know when to stop using force. You can encourage democracy over time, with assistance, and aid, the traditional way. Not how the neoconservatives'' are trying to do it in Iraq.And Lawrence Wilkerson, a retired lieutenant colonel and former Secretary of State Colin Powell's former Chief of Staff at the State Department, said President Bush's foreign policy was ``ruinous'' and said that ``we have courted disaster in Iraq, in North Korea, in Iran.''These are not the words of partisans or the board members of MoveOn.org. As these experts and the American people know, it is time for a new direction and new priorities. We can do better. The current path is not a path to success. It is time for the President to level with the American people and produce a plan forward.",
 u"Mr. President, today I raise my strong concerns about news reports regarding the administration's blatant disregard for American's privacy rights and civil liberties. I am shocked by the recent revelation that President Bush secretly authorized the National Security Agency to eavesdrop on Americans and others inside the United States to search for evidence of terrorist activity without court-approved warrants. I am equally appalled by the Pentagon's dismal enforcement of guidelines that reuire deleting information on American citizens from a counterterrorism database within 3 months if they pose no security threats.Government agencies are not following important rules and procedures designed to protect the American people. Just this summer, the nonpartisan Government Accountability Office issued a report at my request which found that agencies are not following privacy laws designed to protect personal information in Federal data mining systems. Considering that there are nearly 200 data mining systems in the Federal Government, these actions pose real threats to Americans' privacy.Merely having policies and safeguards in place does nothing if agencies are not following the law. As such, I cannot vote to renew some of the most troublesome PATRIOT Act provisions that threaten civil liberties, including the Government's far-reaching powers to obtain personal, medical, library, and business records or coduct ``sneak-and-peek'' searches, without ensuring that meaningful checks and balances are in place.I want to assure the people of Hawaii and all Americans that I am working on legislation to strengthen Federal privacy laws.",
 u"Mr. Chairman, I yield myself such time as I may consume.Just to close, I really think this is an important issue to the national security of the country, and the reason why we bring the amendment forward is nonproliferation experts at Harvard University and the Nuclear Threat Initiative headed by Sam Nunn have clearly stated that we need an additional $30 million in fiscal year 2005 to remove highly enriched uranium from two dozen vulnerable research reactor sites throughout the Russian reactor fuel program.That is why we offered the amendment. This is an amendment that would take up obligated balances from the National Security Agency's weapons activities account. So I want to be clear. These are unexpended funds from fiscal year 2004, and shifting these funds will not come at any cost to the NNSA's weapons program or the American taxpayers. Instead, they will help safeguard us against dangerous nuclear and radiological weapons materials, that if they get in the hands of terrorists, as we know they could, could be used to kill thousands or tens of thousands of Americans.I believe, as the gentleman from California (Mr. Schiff) believes, that this amendment is vital to our national security and to our winning the war on terrorism. Therefore, I urge that my colleagues' support this amendment.Mr. Chairman, I yield back the balance of my time.The CHAIRMAN pro tempore (Mr. Linder). The question is on the amendment offered by the gentleman from Massachusetts (Mr. Meehan).",
 u" There being no objection, the material was ordered to be printed in the Record, as follows:(6) The term ``National Intelligence Program''-- (A)(i) refers to all national intelligence programs, projects, and activities of the elements of the intelligence community; (ii) includes all programs, projects, and activities (whether or not pertaining to national intelligence) of the National Intelligence Authority, the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office, the Office of Intelligence of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the Office of Information analysis of the Department of Homeland Security; and (ii) includes any other program, project, or activity of a department, agency, or element of the United States Government relating to national intelligence unless the National Intelligence Director and the head of the department, agency, or element concerned determine otherwise; but (B) except as provided in subparagraph (A)(ii), does not refer to any program, project, or activity of the military departments, including any program, project, or activity of the Defense Intelligence Agency that is not part of the National Foreign Intelligence Program as of the date of the enactment of this Act, to acquire intelligence principally for the planning and conduct of joint or tactical military operations by the United States Armed Forces.",
 u'With the Joint Military Intelligence Program, it is not so clear. That is where there will be, if it is part of a national intelligence program, the budget authority will be with the national intelligence director. But the No. 1 customer is going to be the Department of Defense.We are talking almost as if these are people in different governments. They are going to work this out as they do every day.I will read testimony from General Hayden, the head of the National Security Agency, before the House, August 18. He says:An empowered national intelligence director with direct authority over the national intelligence agencies should not be viewed as diminishing our ability or willingness to fulfill our responsibilities as a combat support agency.General Hayden is a very respected head of one of those agencies--speaking, in fact, for all of them later on--saying to have a national intelligence director with budget authority is not going to diminish our ability or commitment to the combat support agencies.Then he goes on to talk about how he has forward deployed hundreds of people with our U.S. military command, and there is no way that the creation of a national intelligence director, he says, will alter that commitment to the military.We are trying to create some budgetary clear lines to the national intelligence director, not contravening the title 10 responsibilities of the Secretary of Defense.',
 u"Mr. Speaker, I rise today to congratulate Judge A. Jay Cristol of the Southern District of Florida on the completion of his invaluable research on the USS Liberty incident. Judge Cristol's doctoral dissertation details the tragedy that befell the U.S. Navy ship USS Liberty in 1967 when Israeli aircraft fired upon the ship, killing 34 sailors and wounding 171 others.Judge Cristol's dogmatic search persuaded the National Security Agency to release classified transcripts proving that Israel's attack on the USS Liberty was an accident. Judge Cristol's research shows the Israeli forces attacked the American USS Liberty ship because they believed it was an Egyptian ship firing upon their coastline.Through his diligent work and dedication, Judge A. Jay Cristol has assisted in strengthening the relationship between the United States and Israel and resolving unanswered questions about this unfortunate tragedy. I applaud his efforts, and commend him for this important work.Mr. Speaker, I encourage my colleagues to join me in applauding Florida's Judge A. Jay Cristol on this important achievement.",
 u"If the Senator will yield. In addition, I agreed with the White House to further amend my amendment to change the effective date, which was a very important element to the White House. They wanted the original language we had in Lugar-Biden that we moved off of to go to the House bill, and in previous language that we had in other bills, including the original bill which came out of the committee and passed out of here. It had language relating to the effective date when countries could qualify to meet the test for this. The White House wanted it tighter, wanted it more stringent.We took the better part of the afternoon, 3 or 4 hours, negotiating back and forth. We yielded on that point as well. That is the point at which the White House spokesperson from the National Security Agency said to us, ``We have a deal.'' That is when it then got scrubbed. That was even more palatable, I am told, to the speaker and the majority leader. That is as much as I can say firsthand.",
 u' The following bills and joint resolutions were introduced, read the first and second times by unanimous consent, and referred as indicated:S. 1899. A bill to amend title 18, United States Code, to prohibit human cloning; to the Committee on the Judiciary. By Mr. EDWARDS: S. 1900. A bill to protect against cyberterrorism and cybercrime, and for other purposes; to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. By Mr. EDWARDS: S. 1901. A bill to authorize the National Science Foundation and the National Security Agency to establish programs to increase the number of qualified faculty teaching advanced courses conducting research in the field of cybersecurity, and for other purposes; to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. By Mr. BREAUX: S. 1902. A bill to suspend temporarily the duty on railway passenger coaches of stainless steel; to the Committee on Finance. By Mr. KERRY (for himself, Ms. Snowe, Mr. Lieberman, Mr. Bennett, and Mr. Bingaman): S. 1903. A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to allow certain small businesses to defer payment of tax; to the Committee on Finance.',
 u"I have one more question, if the Senator will yield, and the question is on the issue of having under one umbrella the analysis of all of the intelligence branches--CIA, FBI, Defense Intelligence Agency, National Security Agency--on the issue that there were enough dots on the board prior to September 11, that had they been connected, there might have been a veritable blueprint if you put together the July FBI report from Phoenix about the young man taking flight training with Osama bin Laden's picture in his apartment, and the two al-Qaida men who went to Kualai Lumpur, the hijackers known to the CIA and not told to the FBI or INS or the NSA report, on September 10 that there would be an attack the next day, not even translated until September 12, and the information in the computers of Zacarias Moussaoui having been obtained with an appropriate warrant under the Intelligence Surveillance Act.There was a veritable blueprint for what happened on September 11 and there is urgency, urgency, urgency as we speak to get the intelligence agencies to act together and to coordinate the analysis so we may have as full a picture as possible.",
 u"Mr. President, this morning as I read the Wall Street Journal, I came across Mark Helprin's article called ``The Fire Next Time.'' The thesis of Mr. Helprin is this:The consensus that doing much to protect America is preferable to doing too little has been destroyed. If the President does not rebuild it, we will suffer the consequences.I commend this article to the Senate. I do not think it is totally the President's responsibility. It certainly falls on many of us to help the President and the Secretary of Defense and those in the National Security Agency and the Vice President, all of them working on what should be our defense policy, to find ways to rehabilitate our national defense. Very clearly, we do not have the defense we need for the future.At one point in this article, Mr. Helprin says this:God save the American soldier from those who believe that his life can be protected and his mission accomplished on the cheap. For what they perceive as an extravagance is always less costly in lives and treasure than the long drawn-out wars it deters altogether or shortens with quick victories.I do hope all of us will think about how we can restore our national prestige in terms of being the superpower of the world and having the power to defend that position.I ask unanimous consent this article be printed in the Record.",
 u"Mr. Speaker, I am pleased to honor my congressional constituent, Colonel Hugo Valdivia, for his 25 years of service to our country in the United States Air Force.Tomorrow will be Colonel Valdivia's formal retirement at the Pentagon and I wanted us to show our gratitude for his years of dedication to our country.Colonel Valdivia had recently been at the Pentagon, where he had been hand-picked to serve as the Deputy Director for Information Warfare. He serves as the Air Force Advisor on the National Security Panels to the Defense Science Board and the Joint Chiefs of Staff's Quadrennial Review of military missions and forces structure.During his distinguished career, Colonel Valdivia has received numerous accolades, including being selected by the National Security Agency as a finalist in a worldwide competition for information security accomplishments.The Colonel has also been the Chief of the Information Assurance Division for the U.S. European Command. In addition, Colonel Valdivia was the Director for Computer Operations and Software Development for Please join me in showing Colonel Valdivia our gratitude for his sterling service to our country. He joins us here today with his family.",
 u"I thank the Chairman of the Intelligence Committee, Senator Shelby. I believe we both agree that the National Security Agency should better address its acquisition issues. However, I note the concerns you raise and agree that the report should not be read to mandate treating each individual technology effort within NSA as a major acquisition program. As the chairman of the Intelligence Committee knows, the Department of Defense (DoD) has an extensive effort to develop various technology projects that could ultimately contribute to one or more major DoD acquisition programs. DoD does not manage these individual technology projects as major acquisition programs, despite the fact that they may contribute to successful fielding of a program being managed as a major acquisition program.It was the committee's intent to ensure that each of the major modernization efforts that NSA must undertake will receive appropriate management attention. it was not the committee's intent that individual technology projects that are contributing to those broader efforts be managed as major acquisition programs on a project-by-project basis.I look forward to working with you to ensure that NSA properly manages its acquisition programs.",
 u'Mr. President: I rise today to speak about a section in the Digital Millennium Copyright Act that I am particularly proud of, and that is the law enforcement exception in the bill. At the Judiciary Committee mark-up, Senator Grassley and I, along with the assistance of Chairman Hatch and Senator Ashcroft worked to strengthen the law enforcement exception in the bill. We received input on the language from the copyright community and the administration: the National Security Agency (NSA), the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Departments of Commerce and Justice, and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).The law enforcement exception ensures that the government continues to have access to current and future technologies to assist in their investigative, protective, or intelligence activities. I am concerned that the tools and resources of our intelligence and law enforcement communities are preserved--and more importantly, not limited, by passage of S. 2037. Under this bill, a company who contracts with the government can continue to develop encryption/decryption devices under that contract, without having to worry about criminal penalties.Because much of our leading technologies come from the private sector, the government needs to have access to this vital resource for intelligence and law enforcement purposes.The law enforcement exception recognizes that oftentimes governmental agencies work with non-governmental entities--companies, in order to have access to and develop cutting edge technologies and devices. Such conduct should not be prohibited or impeded by this copyright legislation.',
 u'Mr. President, I rise today to speak about a section in the Digital Millennium Copyright Act that I am particularly proud of, and that is the law enforcement exception in the bill. At the Judiciary Committee markup, Senator Grassley and I, along with the assistance of Chairman Hatch and Senator Ashcroft worked to strengthen the law enforcement exception in the bill. We received input on the language from the copyright community and the administration: the National Security Agency (NSA), the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Departments of Commerce and Justice, and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).The law enforcement exception ensures that the government continues to have access to current and future technologies to assist in their investigative, protective, or intelligence activities. I am concerned that the tools and resources of our intelligence and law enforcement communities are preserved--and more importantly, not limited, by passage of S. 2037. Under that bill, a company who contracts with the government can continue to develop encryption/decryption devices under that contract, without having to worry about criminal penalties.Because much of our leading technologies come from the private sector, the government needs to have access to this vital resource for intelligence and law enforcement purposes.The law enforcement exception recognizes that oftentimes governmental agencies work with non-governmental entities--companies, in order to have access to and develop cutting edge technologies and devices. Such conduct should not be prohibited or impeded by this copyright legislation.',
 u'Mr. Speaker, I rise today in recognition of an individual who has, for the past 30 years, faithfully and honorably served in the United States of America while in the United States Naval Reserves. His name is Michael D. Widler of Grand Junction, Colorado. During his distinguished career, Mr. Widler, a Master Chief Petty Officer, provided exceptional service and sustained outstanding performance while serving with the Naval Security Group, from October 8, 1969 through October 7, 1998. Master Chief Widler has been the only member in the history of the Security Group Reserve Program to attain the rank of Master Chief Petty Officer in the CTA rating. He has served in numerous active duty and reserve assignments in Colorado, Alaska, Kansas and Washington D.C. He has served as the key enlisted member of national teams where he was instrumental in the development of an action plan to restructure portions of the Naval Reserve program. He served as the national advisor to validate Naval Reserve support billets at the National Security Agency. His career has been distinguished by excellence in leadership and a deep commitment to the United States of America. Master Chief Widler has continuously demonstrated superior management abilities, administrative expertise and an abiding concern for his shipmates. His outstanding performance, inspiring leadership and total dedication to duty have reflected great credit upon himself, the State of Colorado and the United States Navy. Please join me in thanking CTACM Mike Widler for his 30 years of service and on a job well done.',
 u"Mr. Speaker, today I rise to honor a pioneering constituent and friend, Mrs. Anne Bolgiano. Anne Bolgiano has had a distinguished academic and professional career as a mathematician. Over 40 years ago Anne began her career as a research analyst at the National Security Agency. She performed independent and advanced research on codes and code breaking, working as a guardian of our national security during the early and tenuous stages of the cold war. It was at this time that she began her work on the Federal Government's first computer, ENIAC. Anne Bolgiano is an exceptional talent who advanced through the ranks as quickly as the pay schedule allowed. She was among the Nation's first computer programmers and is a true role model for all female scientists. In addition, Anne is a member of the Sigma Four Society, which admits only those people who score in the 99.99th percentile on their IQ tests. Anne Bolgiano was a true pioneer in the field of technology. She is a wonderful mother, friend, and woman who has done much for this country. Anne Bolgiano should be proud of her many accomplishments, and it is my pleasure to recognize her contributions to this Nation. Shakespeare wrote: ``I count myself in nothing else so happy as in a soul remembering my dear friends.'' Thank you, Anne Bolgiano, my dear friend.",
 u"The bill (S. 858), as amended, was passed, as follows:Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,(a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1998''. (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for this Act is as follows:Funds are hereby authorized to be appropriated for fiscal year 1998 for the conduct of the intelligence and intelligence-related activities of the following elements of the United States Government: (1) The Central Intelligence Agency. (2) The Department of Defense. (3) The Defense Intelligence Agency. (4) The National Security Agency. (5) The Department of the Army, the Department of the Navy, and the Department of the Air Force. (6) The Department of State. (7) The Department of the Treasury. (8) The Department of Energy. (9) The Federal Bureau of Investigation. (10) The Drug Enforcement Administration. (11) The National Reconnaissance Office. (12) The National Imagery and Mapping Agency.",
 u"The Clerk read the Senate bill, as follows:Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,(a) Short Title.--This Act may be cited as the ``Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1998''. (b) Table of Contents.--The table of contents for this Act is as follows:Funds are hereby authorized to be appropriated for fiscal year 1998 for the conduct of the intelligence and intelligence-related activities of the following elements of the United States Government: (1) The Central Intelligence Agency. (2) The Department of Defense. (3) The Defense Intelligence Agency. (4) The National Security Agency. (5) The Department of the Army, the Department of the Navy, and the Department of the Air Force. (6) The Department of State. (7) The Department of the Treasury. (8) The Department of Energy. (9) The Federal Bureau of Investigation. (10) The Drug Enforcement Administration. (11) The National Reconnaissance Office. (12) The National Imagery and Mapping Agency.",
 u" The amendment is as follows:In the table in section 2201(a), in the amount column for the item relating to Fallon Naval Air Station, Nevada, strike out ``$14,800,000'' and insert in lieu thereof ``$20,600,000''. Strike out the amount set forth as the total amount at the end of the table in section 2201(a) and insert in lieu thereof ``$512,852,000''. In section 2205(a), in the matter preceding paragraph (1), strike out ``$2,040,093,000'' and insert in lieu thereof ``$2,045,893,000''. In section 2205(a)(1), strike out ``$507,052,000'' and insert in lieu thereof ``$512,852,000''. In the table in section 2401(a), strike out the item relating to the National Security Agency, Fort Meade, Maryland. Strike out the amount set forth as the total amount at the end of the table in section 2401(a) and insert in lieu thereof ``$502,390,000''. In section 2406(a), in the matter preceding paragraph (1), strike out ``$3,421,366,000'' and insert in lieu thereof ``$3,396,166,000''. In section 2406(a)(1), strike out ``$364,487,000'' and insert in lieu thereof ``$339,287,000''. In section 2601(3)(A), strike out ``$208,484,000'' and insert in lieu thereof ``$209,884,000''.",
 u'Mr. Speaker, why is this important now? In 1995, they found out there was a mole in our national labs. He had been operating during Carter, during Ronald Reagan and George Bush and also Bill Clinton. In 1996, the President was told of this. Nothing has happened. The mole was just arrested last week. That is a national security threat.Even worse, the White House, against the insistence of the National Security Agency, DOD and DOE, let China have three capabilities which are very important to this country and others as well. One was missile boost capability. North Korea and the nations that proliferate like China and Russia give this to Iran, Iraq and North Korea. They can now reach the United States. The second is MIRV. The Chinese stole small nuclear capability, and now they can put it on the tip of a missile in multiple launch. Targeting is also very deadly. They can hit the fourth apartment on 332nd Street in New York City now.',
 u"Mr. Speaker, the Electronic Surveillance Modernization Act, H.R. 5825, seeks to expand the administration's power by giving the President greater flexibility over a program that he has already abused. If our experience with this administration proves anything, it is that reducing congressional oversight would be a mistake.Less than a year ago the American public learned how the president had blatantly disregarded the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) by authorizing a warrantless eavesdropping program on American citizens. After this program was uncovered, we discovered that the administration had authorized the National Security Agency to build a massive phone records database. Now the President asks that we pass legislation to legitimatize illegal activities that have already occurred and the current Republican leadership is all too willing to comply.This legislation does not solve any problems or make our country more secure, it simply grants the administration the authority to implement more programs that violate the civil rights and liberties of American citizens.We must hold this administration accountable for its actions and not retroactively approve an illegal program. Surveillance activities must be done consistent with our Constitution and our laws, and should protect both the American people and our freedoms.",
 u"Mr. Chair, I commend Chairman Rogers and Ranking Member Ruppersberger for continuing their tradition for the third straight year of reporting a bipartisan Intelligence Authorization bill. H.R. 5743, the Intelligence Authorization Act, comes to the floor today after having passed the Intelligence Committee by a unanimous 19 0 vote.The bill allocates resources to critical national security programs including those that detect, prevent, and disrupt potential terrorist attacks against the American people. The bill enhances counter terrorism efforts against al Qaeda and its global affiliates; increases oversight of the spending at intelligence agencies and supports global initiatives to address emerging threats to our national security.The measure provides funding to the Central Intelligence Agency, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, the National Security Agency and other agencies, for operations, personnel and equipment. Though much of the funding is classified, each dollar is intended to address the funding needs of this country's clandestine services.The valiant American men and woman who toil anonymously in the shadows of the intelligence world deserve our full support for their dedicated service. The funding authorized by this bill will help ensure they have the resources they need to do their job.",
 u"Mr. Speaker, I rise today to recognize and honor our veterans.There are no words that can express the gratitude that the American people owe all of the men and women who choose to serve the United States of America in the armed services. We are all humbled by the sacrifice they make--knowingly putting themselves in harm's way while also leaving loved ones behind. This commitment is the mark of America's finest citizens and those who answer to a higher calling. Allow me to honor, from the United States Coast Guard: Sammie Stewart, Jr., Steven Bernard Rising, Omar K. Payton, Shane J. Nicholas, Randy Kevin Jopp, Jr., David R. Hetticher, Andrea Naomi Johnson, Christopher Daniels, William O'Boyle, Jacob G. Bryan, Sandy Guerra, Eric Driggs; from the National Security Agency: Allyn C. McKinney.Finally, it is not our tanks, weapons or machinery that make the United States Armed Forces the best military in the world. It is our young men and women who serve professionally with honor and distinction. If not for these exemplary citizens, freedom and the American way of life would not be safe and secure. For these sacrifices, we respect and should commend their service everyday of the year. Congress has designated, November 11th 2012 as the official day showing our gratitude.Please join me in honoring these American heroes for their bravery and sacrifice in defense of this great nation.",
 u"I thank my friend. Just one last point with respect to this technology conference where so many people walked away and thought their privacy was being protected by strong legal protections. General Alexander made additional confusing remarks that were in response to that same question with respect to the protections of law-abiding people.General Alexander said, `` . . . the story that we [the NSA] have millions or hundreds of millions of dossiers on people is absolutely false.''Now, I have indicated this morning as well, having served on the Intelligence Committee for a long time, I do not have the faintest idea of what anybody is talking about with respect to a dossier. So Senator Udall and I followed that up as well. We asked the Director to clarify that statement. We asked, ``Does the NSA collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans?'' So that, too, is a pretty straightforward question.The question Senators have been asking about this are not very complicated. If you are asking whether the National Security Agency is addressing these privacy issues, I think it is one of the most basic questions you can ask. Does the National Security Agency collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans? If the Agency saw fit, they could simply answer that with a yes or no. Instead, the Director of the Agency replied that while he appreciated our desire to have responses to those questions on the public record, there would not be a public response forthcoming.So to go over the exchange again, the Director of National Security Agency states that `` . . . the story that we have millions or hundreds of millions of dossiers on people is absolutely false.'' Senator Udall and I then asked: Does the NSA collect any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans? The Agency is unwilling to answer the question.So that is what this debate is all about, is reforming the FISA Amendments Act and, in particular, getting enough information so that it is possible for the Senate to say to our constituents: We are doing oversight over this program.I think right now, based on what we have outlined over the last 3 or more hours, it is clear that on so many of the central questions--the gap, for example, between the secret interpretation of the law and the public interpretation of the law, our inability to find out whether Americans in their wholly domestic communications have had their rights violated, how many law-abiding Americans have had their e-mails and phone calls swept up under FISA authorities, responses to these questions that stem from public remarks made by intelligence officials at public conferences--the inability to get answers to these questions means that this Senate cannot conduct the vigorous oversight that is our charge.I expect we will have colleagues coming in. With the weather, it is a special challenge to get here from our part of the country.I have a parliamentary inquiry. The distinguished chair of the committee already, I believe, got unanimous consent that the time in quorum calls be allocated to both sides. That was my understanding. Is that correct?",
 u'Madam President, before the Senator from Missouri leaves the floor, I thank him for his statement. I thank him for his kind words about Senator Collins and me, which she certainly deserves and I am glad to be along with her on that ride.I thank him for the specific question and assure the Senator on my behalf, one, that Senator Collins and our committee were focused throughout the deliberations on making sure this substantial reorganization of our intelligence assets not in any way diminish the availability of intelligence to the warfighter. In fact, in the best of all situations, we believe the recommendations that we have made will improve intelligence to the warfighter.By way of reassurance, I want to quote from GEN Michael Hayden, Director of the National Security Agency, who said in testimony before the other body:An empowered national intelligence director who would direct authority over the national agencies should not be viewed as diminishing our ability or willingness to fulfill our responsibilities as combat support agencies.He was speaking on behalf of the three.It was quite illuminating, in talking to General Hayden and others. They are in direct daily contact, particularly with the combatant commanders. They have people out in the field right now with those combatant commanders, particularly in the most active areas of the world, such as the central command, which includes Iraq and Pakistan. After having described that close integration of national intelligence assets with the warfighters, General Hayden concluded:It is inconceivable to me that any future leader of the National Security Agency could or would ever act any differently.GEN James Clapper, head of the NGA, National Geospatial Agency, expressed exactly the same sentiments to us.I want to reassure the Senator from Missouri, more to the point of his question, that to the extent we are able--and I am sure if we are not, the Armed Services Committee will--we will definitely keep a close eye as this new system is implemented to make sure our intention, which is that this reform improves intelligence for our warfighters, in fact is being realized.',
 u"Mr. Speaker, at a ceremony on October 19, 2001, the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) will designate as a ``Milestone in Engineering'' the U.S. Naval Computing Machine Laboratory, in Dayton, Ohio, which I represent.During World War II, the ability to analyze quickly coded enemy messages was one of our most critical military capabilities. To build a machine that could break codes from Nazi submarines, the Navy turned to Dayton's National Cash Register Company (NCR) and Joseph R. Desch, director of its Electrical Research Laboratory.For three years, Desch and his team of dedicated workers developed a machine which allowed our Nation to crack the secret code used by the Nazi military command to communicate its secret plans to its forces in the field. The device, called a Bombe, was the military's highest priority, second only to the development of the Atom Bomb. Its success gave the Allies a significant advantage, hastening the end of the war and saving the lives of American soldiers.Desch and his team faced enormous pressure as they labored daily to construct and produce the code-breaking device. They sacrificed their personal health, both emotional and physical. Many of these heroes are no longer living. Desch died on August 3, 1987, at age 80.The effort has been all but forgotten because of the enormous secrecy surrounding the project. In February and March 2001, the Dayton Daily News ran an extraordinary 8-part series by Jim DeBrosse about Desch. The series brought to light for the first time much information about NCR's code-breaking efforts. The IEEE ceremony later this month will bring additional honor to his memory.Perhaps the greatest tribute to the memory of Joe Desch and his contribution to the war effort would be the permanent display of an original NCR Bombe in Dayton. Of the more than 120 Bombes that were believed to have been constructed in Dayton, the sole known surviving Bombe is displayed at the National Security Agency's National Cryptologic Museum in Ft. Meade, Maryland. I have been in touch with the National Security Agency requesting assistance in tracking down another example of this extraordinary invention.As part the IEEE ceremony, the surviving members of this top-secret project will return to the site of the U.S. Naval Computing Machine Laboratory, at NCR. They will be joined by Desch's daughter, Debbie Anderson, whose persistence has helped the story be told.I offer my congratulations on this award to all the survivors of the project and to Debbie Anderson in honor of her father.",
 u"Mr. Speaker, I stand before you today to recognize and honor the accomplishments of a truly remarkable woman. On May 5, members of the Flint, Michigan, Northern High School Alumni Association will gather to honor five Distinguished Fellows, members of their alumni community who have contributed to legacy and rich history of Northern High School, and of Flint. One Distinguished Fellow to be honored is the late Ms. Cecile Hershon.Born in Lansing, Michigan in 1920, Cecile Hershon and her family eventually moved to Flint, where she graduated from Northern High School in 1938. In 1944, Cecile was recruited by the United States Army and began her long military career as a civilian clerk in Arlington, Virginia. From there she went on to become a part of the newly merged Army and Navy Signal Services, first known as the Armed Forces Security Agency as is currently what we know as the National Security Agency.Cecile began to further her career with the National Security Agency, becoming adept as intelligence research, analysis, and reporting, and soon became a exceptional cryptographer. She later accepted an overseas position where she continued to perfect her skills, allowing her to function in a variety of supervisory and management positions. Throughout her career, which spanned an incomparable 42 years, Cecile received numerous honors and commendations, including one of the agency's highest honors, the National Meritorious Civilian Service Award in 1986. Cecile also became involved in WIN--Women in NSA, an organization dedicated to increasing personal growth and development among both men and women within the NSA. As a member of WIN, Cecile was honored with their President's Award on two separate occasions. She was also the first recipient of WIN's Dorothy T. Blum Award for excellence in personal and professional development.In addition to being a model employee, Cecile was an ardent humanitarian as well. She was constantly found extending a helping hand to friends, colleagues, and sometimes mere acquaintances, sometimes at her own personal or professional expense, and with no thought of personal gain. Countless members of the NSA and the military attribute their success to Cecile's support and encouragement. There have been many accounts of people who were convinced by Cecile to remain in the NSA, complete their education, and honor familial obligations. Indeed, many of our military are better soldiers due to the influence of Cecile Hershon.Mr. Speaker, Cecile Hershon lived her life in a truly selfless and benevolent manner, and it goes without saying that her influence extends even to this day. Her life's work, serving her country for so long as a civilian, is commanding of the highest respect.",
 u"Very briefly, Mr. President, I have just received a copy of a letter that has been sent this morning to the majority leader, Senator Reid, and the Republican leader, Senator McConnell, from GEN Keith Alexander of the United States Army, Director of the National Security Agency and Chief of Cyber Command at the Department of Defense. He is a distinguished and honored leader of our military, one of the people who has the greatest single responsibility for protecting our security, both in terms of the extraordinary capabilities the National Security Agency has but now increasingly for the defense of our cyber system.This is a career military officer, not a politician. He is somebody who has a mission, and it is from that sense of responsibility that General Alexander has written to Senator Reid and Senator McConnell. He writes--and I will ask to have it printed in the Record--to express his ``strong support for passage of a comprehensive bipartisan cyber security bill by the Senate this week.'' Why? I continue to quote:The cyber threat facing the Nation is real and demands immediate action. The time to act is now; we simply cannot afford further delay.He adds:Moreover, to be most effective in protecting against this threat to our national security, cyber security legislation should address both information sharing and core critical infrastructure hardening.Then he explains both of those in very compelling language. He also says:Finally, any legislation needs to recognize that cyber security is a team sport. No single public or private entity has all of the required authorities, resources, and capabilities. Within the federal government, the Department of Defense and the Intelligence Community are now closely partnered with the Department of Homeland Security and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The benefits of this partnership are perhaps best evidenced by the Managed Security Service (MSS) program, which affords protection to certain government components and defense companies. The legislation will help enable us to make these same protections available widely to the private sector.I cannot thank General Alexander enough. He ends by saying this:The President and the Congress have rightly made cyber security a national priority. We need to move forward on comprehensive legislation now.He urged Senators Reid and McConnell ``to work together to get it passed.''I ask unanimous consent that this very compelling letter from GEN Keith Alexander be printed in the Record.",
 u"Mr. President, there is such an important subject that is looming over the country right now that Congress can do something about; that is, the possibility of cyber attack. We have had this discussed by a number of people in very high and responsible positions and the threat is real.What the threat means to all of us in our everyday lives is that electrical systems could be shut down, water systems could be shut down, the banking system could be shut down, sewer systems could go awry, and we can go on and on. For months we have been stymied from passing anything because of a disagreement in the business community, which is going to be one of the main recipients of a potential cyber attack.I will choose my words very carefully as a member of the Senate Intelligence Committee and say this potential attack is real. It is real not only from rogue players but also some state actors, and we need to get this legislation up and going. I am most encouraged to think we are at a position to get agreement; that the chairman and vice chairman of our Intelligence Committee are going to come together in an agreement. We need to pass this--this week--because this is deadly serious.I refer to a letter that has been made public from the commander of Cyber Command, a four-star general, GEN Keith Alexander. He is also the head of the National Security Agency. He has done a remarkable job. He sent a letter, dated today, to the majority leader imploring the Senate to move.Whatever disagreements there have been over the concern of the Department of Homeland Security being the interfacing agency can be worked out. The National Security Agency--which almost all of us have enormous confidence in--is going to be directly involved.It is my hope and I am expressing optimism that we are going to get this legislation out of here and to the House. If they can't pass it before this August recess, at least we can have some items over the August recess start to be informally conferenced to iron out any differences between the House and the Senate.",
 u"My colleague is asking a particularly important question because the Director of the National Security Agency, General Alexander, recently spoke at a large technology conference, and he said that with respect to communications from a good guy, which we obviously interpret as a law-abiding American, and someone overseas, the NSA has ``requirements from the FISA Court and the Attorney General to minimize that''--to find procedures to protect the individual, the law-abiding American's rights, essentially meaning, in the words of General Alexander, ``nobody else can see it unless there's a crime that's been committed.''If people hear that answer to my colleague's question--which, frankly, General Alexander responded to directly--they pretty much say that is what they were hoping to hear; that nobody is going to get access to their communications unless a crime has been committed.The only problem, I would say to my friend, is Senator Udall and I have found out that is not true. It is simply not true. The privacy protections provided by this minimization approach are not as strong as General Alexander made them out to be. Senator Udall and I wrote to General Alexander, and he said--and I put this up on my Web site so all Americans can see the response--the general said: That is not really how the minimization procedures work--these minimization procedures that have been described in such a glowing way--and that the privacy protections are not as strong as we have been led to believe. He may have misspoken and may have just been mistaken, but I am not sure the record would be correct even now had not Senator Udall and I tried to make an effort to follow it up.I can tell the Senator that at this very large technology conference--this was not something that was classified--at a very large technology conference recently in Nevada, what the head of the National Security Agency said was taking place with respect to protecting people, in response to my colleague's questions: Were their e-mails and phone calls protected, the general said to a big group: They are, unless a crime has been committed. The real answer is that is not correct.",
 u"Mr. Chairman, the amendment I offer this evening clarifies and confirms the scope of two programs that Mr. Snowden illegally exposed while sitting in a hotel room in Communist China.First, the amendment clarifies that under section 702 no U.S. citizen or person in the U.S. can be targeted, period. I say again, no U.S. person under section 702 may be targeted in any way by the United States Government. While there are other specific authorities the U.S. person may be subject to an investigation, the U.S. Government may not do so under section 702. That's what this amendment intends to clarify.The second part of the amendment clarifies section 215, also known as section 501 of FISA. The amendment clarifies that no content of communications can be stored or collected by the National Security Agency--that's no emails, no video clips, no Skype. No record of the actual conversation or the contents thereof may be recorded or collected by the National Security Agency. I can't repeat that enough. That's the intent of this amendment.I want to make clear to everyone that, contrary to the suggestions of some, the NSA has not been acting outside of the scope of its authorities. The Meta-Data program is carefully designed with program layers of oversight by all three branchs of government. This is precisely the way our government ought to operate, with input from Article I and Article II and Article III of the United States Constitution.It is, of course, our duty to ensure that the NSA stays within these legal bounds here in Congress, and this amendment makes those boundaries perfectly clear for everyone to know and understand.And we shouldn't mislead the American people into thinking that the NSA has been acting illegally. There is perhaps no program in the United States Government that is as carefully monitored and overseen as the programs this amendment attempts to clarify.To the extent that some in this Chamber wish to review or provide more protections and controls for these programs, we should proceed through a carefully considered and debated legislative process so that the full implications for our security are clearly understood.Mr. Chairman, I reserve the balance of my time.",
 u'Madam Chair, I rise in support of the Hastings-Rodriguez Amendment to H.R. 4061, the Cyber Security Enhancement Act.Our amendment aims to address the lack of minority representation in the cyber security industry. In addition it provides for a minority serving institution to participate in the university-industry task force authorized by this legislation.Our country is blessed to have many top-notch universities already training our future cyber security experts. For example, a minority serving institution in my district, the University of Texas--San Antonio, is producing both undergrads and graduate degrees in information assurance and computer science. UTSA has been designated a Center of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Education and a Center of Academic Excellence in Information Assurance Research by the National Security Agency and Department of Homeland Security. Only 23 programs in the nation have achieved the research designation.Universities like UTSA can play a major role in our national cyber policy and the training of our future cyber workforce. This underlying legislation will set us on our way to prepare our diverse workforce for our current and future needs.I would like to thank my colleague Mr. Hastings for his partnership on this amendment. I urge my colleagues to support the Hastings/Rodriguez amendment and support H.R. 4061.',
 u"I thank the gentleman.We've had 11 three- and four-star generals and admirals testify that we need a national intelligence assessment of the defense implications of global warming around the planet, and we have done that for the Pentagon. We have done that for the National Security Agency at their request. They believe it's real. They believe it has real implications for the defense of our country where we might have to project force.The same thing is true domestically, however. The same thing is true in terms of how we have to protect our own people because of rising rivers, because of increased drought, because of the melting of the Arctic, because villages are falling into the ocean up in Alaska because of the melting tundra. These are things that affect us here in the United States today. And to say, no, we are going to defund all aspects of that is a mistake.I yield back the balance of my time.",
 u" There being no objection, the material was ordered to be printed in the Record, as follows:1. Funds the FBI, our chief domestic national security agency, to take down terror cells and dirty bombs on U.S. soil ($7 billion). 2. Adds 85 FBI agents and forensic accounting professionals to combat mortgage and financial fraud ($10 million). 3. Funds DEA to fight international drug cartels that finance terrorism and infiltrate our neighborhoods with heroin and meth ($2 billion). 4. Funds ATF to partner with the military to dismantle IEDs that maim and kill our troops on the battlefield ($1 billion). 5. Supports cops on the beat--provides $3.2 billion for state and local law enforcement, $2.1 billion above the previous Administration's request--to help state and local police fight gangs, drugs, crime and child predators. 6. Highest funding level ever for the Violence Against Women Act programs to combat sexual assault and domestic violence and help victims get their lives back together ($415 million). 7. Protects our kids from predators by preventing, investigating and prosecuting crimes against children ($234 million). 8. Advances climate research and restores satellite climate sensors cut by the previous Administration ($270 million). 9. Enhances U.S. competitiveness and innovation by increasing science and technology research at NSF and NIST, a 7 percent increase over last year ($913 million). 10. Restores fiscal responsibility and accountability to ensure stewardship of taxpayer dollars--prohibits funds for lavish banquets, controls cost overruns, and requires IGs to do random audits of grantees.",
 u"Mr. President, today I would like to commemorate the life of a great soldier, strategic thinker and American, LTG William Odom. I was deeply saddened to learn of his recent sudden death.General Odom served our country with honor and distinction throughout his life. During his time serving as a military adviser in the White House, Director of the National Security Agency, and West Point and Yale professor, General Odom demonstrated an uncanny talent for assessing and advancing U.S. interests in a complex and challenging world.Over the years, the U.S. Congress has benefited greatly from General Odom's clear vision of U.S. interests in the Middle East. General Odom was a strong critic of the Iraq war even before it began. It is unfortunate that more Members of this body did not heed his insightful and prescient warnings of the perils of invading Iraq. His steadfast commitment to ending the war and restoring a balanced and focused national security strategy has been an inspiration. So, too, was his strong opposition to the President's illegal warrantless wiretapping program.Our thoughts are with his wife, son, and family during this difficult time. I hope that they can take some comfort knowing that he will be deeply missed by a grateful Nation. ",
 u"Madam Speaker, I am proud to rise in support of H.R. 6304. I would like to thank Chairman Reyes, Chairman Conyers, Majority Leader Hoyer, Minority Leader Blunt, and Ranking Member Hoekstra for coming together with a bill that we need on behalf of our country.My district includes the National Security Agency, and many of NSA's employees are my constituents. As a member of the House Committee on Intelligence and the chairman of the Subcommittee on Technical and Tactical Intelligence, which oversees NSA, I know that the men and women who work for our Nation's intelligence agencies work hard every day to keep our Nation safe.The intelligence agencies must do their work within the laws of this country, and they need those laws to be clear. The NSA employees in my district need a clear law with a bright line between legal and illegal surveillance activities, and this bill provides that.Our Constitution requires checks and balances for the three branches of government. This bill provides that the FISA Court must review surveillance requests to protect the constitutional rights of our citizens.I urge my colleagues to support this bill because it gives our intelligence community the tools they need to keep our Nation safe while protecting the constitutional rights of Americans.",
 u"Under this bill, large corporations and big government can work together to violate the United States Constitution, use massive databases to spy, to wiretap, to invade the privacy of the American people. There's no requirement for the government to seek a warrant for any intercepted communication that includes a U.S. citizen, as long as the program in general is directed towards foreign targets.This Congress must not allow the names of innocent U.S. citizens to be placed on secret intelligence lists. Under this bill, violations of Fourth Amendment rights and blanket wiretaps will be permissible for the next 4 years. Massive and untargeted collection of communications will continue and with the enactment of this bill.Furthermore, it allows the type of surveillance to be applied to all communications entering and exiting the United States. These blanket wiretaps make it impossible to know whose calls are being intercepted by the National Security Agency.Let's stand up for the fourth amendment. Let's remember, when this country was founded Benjamin Franklin said, those who would give up their essential liberties to achieve a measure of security deserve neither. Vote against it.",
 u"I ask the Senator from Pennsylvania that I use two of those to respond to this latest statement. Then I will defer to him for his statement.Mr. President, I want to respond to the statement by the Senator from Missouri about what all of the reports from the inspectors general would essentially deal with. I believe he said waste, fraud, and abuse, which is sort of the general purview of inspectors general.That is not my understanding. I understand the inspectors general have been asked to essentially do a review of this.The Inspectors General of the Department of Justice, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, the National Security Agency, the Department of Defense, and any other elements of the intelligence community that participated in the President's surveillance program--Shall all work together to do a report which will look into--I believe the review we are talking about here, and that we are legislating or proposing to legislate, is intended to tell the Congress and tell anybody who reads the report what this program consisted of. That is information we do not have today. And it is entirely appropriate that we get that report before we grant immunity.That is the thrust of my amendment, I hope all of my colleagues will support it. I appreciate my colleague from Pennsylvania yielding me additional time to speak in response.I yield the floor.",
 u" There being no objection, the material was ordered to be printed in the Record, as follows:Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,This Act may be cited as the ``Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Oversight and Resource Enhancement Act of (a) Authority for Additional Judges.--Section 103(a) of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1803(a)) is amended-- (1) by inserting ``(1)'' after ``(a)''; (2) in paragraph (1), as so designated, by inserting ``at least'' before ``seven of the United States judicial circuits''; (3) by designating the second sentence as paragraph (4) and indenting such paragraph, as so designated, accordingly; and (4) by inserting after paragraph (1), as so designated, the following new paragraph: ``(2) In addition to the judges designated under paragraph (1), the Chief Justice of the United States may designate as judges of the court established by paragraph (1) such judges appointed under Article III of the Constitution of the United States as the Chief Justice determines appropriate in order to provide for the prompt and timely consideration under section 105 of applications under section 104 for electronic surveillance under this title. Any judge designated under this paragraph shall be designated publicly.''. (b) Consideration of Emergency Applications.--Such section is further amended by inserting after paragraph (2), as added by subsection (a) of this section, the following new paragraph: ``(3) A judge of the court established by paragraph (1) shall make a determination to approve, deny, or seek modification of an application submitted under section subsection (f) or (g) of section 105 not later than 24 hours after the receipt of such application by the court.''.(a) Office of Intelligence Policy and Review.-- (1) Additional personnel.--The Office of Intelligence Policy and Review of the Department of Justice is authorized such additional personnel, including not fewer than 21 full- time attorneys, as may be necessary to carry out the prompt and timely preparation, modification, and review of applications under section 104 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1804) for orders under section 105 of that Act (50 U.S.C. 1805) approving electronic surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes. (2) Assignment.--The Attorney General shall assign personnel authorized by paragraph (1) to and among appropriate offices of the National Security Agency in order that such personnel may directly assist personnel of the Agency in preparing applications described in that paragraph. (b) Federal Bureau of Investigation.-- (1) Additional legal and other personnel.--The National Security Branch of the Federal Bureau of Investigation is authorized such additional legal and other personnel as may be necessary to carry out the prompt and timely preparation of applications under section 104 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 for orders under section 105 of that Act approving electronic surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes. (2) Assignment.--The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation shall assign personnel authorized by paragraph (1) to and among the field offices of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in order that such personnel may directly assist personnel of the Bureau in such field offices in preparing applications described in that paragraph. (c) Additional Legal and Other Personnel for National Security Agency.--The National Security Agency is authorized such additional legal and other personnel as may be necessary to carry out the prompt and timely preparation of applications under section 104 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 for orders under section 105 of that Act approving electronic surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes. (d) Additional Legal and Other Personnel for Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court.--There is authorized for the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court such additional personnel (other than judges) as may be necessary to facilitate the prompt and timely consideration by that Court of applications under section 104 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 for orders under section 105 of that Act approving electronic surveillance for foreign intelligence purposes. Personnel authorized by this paragraph shall perform such duties relating to the consideration of such applications as that Court shall direct. (e) Supplement Not Supplant.--The personnel authorized by this section are in addition to any other personnel authorized by law.The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Director of the National Security Agency shall each, in consultation with the Attorney General-- (1) develop regulations establishing procedures for conducting and seeking approval of electronic surveillance on an emergency basis, and for preparing and properly submitting and receiving applications and orders, under sections 104 and 105 of the Foreign Intellige