Lab 9 - Graphs & Networks

In this lab we will do the following:

  1. Get a LinkedIn API key
  2. Use oauth2 to get an acceess token
  3. First we are going to download our own LinkedIn data using the LinkedIn API.
  4. Then we are exporting this data as a csv file to be able to import it into Gephi.
  5. Before starting Gephi we will do some network analysis directly in python
  6. We will analyze our data with the external tool Gephi

You can download this notebook from here.

0. Install oauth2 package

In [87]:
!pip install oauth2
!pip install unidecode
Requirement already satisfied (use --upgrade to upgrade): oauth2 in c:\anaconda\lib\site-packages
Requirement already satisfied (use --upgrade to upgrade): httplib2 in c:\anaconda\lib\site-packages (from oauth2)
Cleaning up...
Requirement already satisfied (use --upgrade to upgrade): unidecode in c:\anaconda\lib\site-packages
Cleaning up...
In [1]:
%matplotlib inline
from collections import defaultdict
import json

import numpy as np
import scipy as sp
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import pandas as pd

from matplotlib import rcParams
import as cm
import matplotlib as mpl

#colorbrewer2 Dark2 qualitative color table
dark2_colors = [(0.10588235294117647, 0.6196078431372549, 0.4666666666666667),
                (0.8509803921568627, 0.37254901960784315, 0.00784313725490196),
                (0.4588235294117647, 0.4392156862745098, 0.7019607843137254),
                (0.9058823529411765, 0.1607843137254902, 0.5411764705882353),
                (0.4, 0.6509803921568628, 0.11764705882352941),
                (0.9019607843137255, 0.6705882352941176, 0.00784313725490196),
                (0.6509803921568628, 0.4627450980392157, 0.11372549019607843)]

rcParams['figure.figsize'] = (10, 6)
rcParams['figure.dpi'] = 150
rcParams['axes.color_cycle'] = dark2_colors
rcParams['lines.linewidth'] = 2
rcParams['axes.facecolor'] = 'white'
rcParams['font.size'] = 14
rcParams['patch.edgecolor'] = 'white'
rcParams['patch.facecolor'] = dark2_colors[0]
rcParams[''] = 'StixGeneral'

def remove_border(axes=None, top=False, right=False, left=True, bottom=True):
    Minimize chartjunk by stripping out unnecesasry plot borders and axis ticks
    The top/right/left/bottom keywords toggle whether the corresponding plot border is drawn
    ax = axes or plt.gca()
    #turn off all ticks
    #now re-enable visibles
    if top:
    if bottom:
    if left:
    if right:
pd.set_option('display.width', 500)
pd.set_option('display.max_columns', 100)


1. Get API key

Get a LinkedIn API key at (choose r_network)

Save your authentication:

In [2]:

#user_token = '6a516d33-786e-443c-b6e9-def654f88098'
#user_secret = 'c03c49da-9dae-4b05-a2af-82e40426439f'

#api_key = 'xpsswsigqw4r'
#secret_key = 'aIRpJHhA8JHTRsyb'


#api_key = 'g8lq60ilatfh'
#secret_key = 'XEOmeklHWHtmwgoQ'

#user_token = 'a8991ba6-9a27-40d7-ac6f-9280cc1dc650'
#user_secret = '43a11017-c1f3-4c30-afab-43df3c39b938'


user_token = 'd41f3e0c-6bb9-4db8-b324-25a723ff2f50'
user_secret = 'fc66e892-6f92-4e15-b9a9-b0cccbec5336'

api_key = 'kg7oy496e09a'
secret_key = 'oLCLRNxVjt8ZY6OE'

2. Get Access Token

Next we are scraping our data using the LinkedIn API. (Code for using the LinkedIn API is taken and adjusted from

In [3]:
import oauth2 as oauth
import urlparse
def request_token(consumer):
    client = oauth.Client(consumer)
    request_token_url = ''
    resp, content = client.request(request_token_url, "POST")
    if resp['status'] != '200':
        raise Exception("Invalid response %s." % resp['status'])
    request_token = dict(urlparse.parse_qsl(content))
    return request_token

#consumer = oauth.Consumer(api_key, secret_key)
#r_token = request_token(consumer)
#print "Request Token: oauth_token: %s, oauth_token_secret: %s" % (r_token['oauth_token'], r_token['oauth_token_secret'])
In [4]:
def authorize(request_token):
    authorize_url =''
    print "Go to the following link in your browser:"
    print "%s?oauth_token=%s" % (authorize_url, request_token['oauth_token'])
    accepted = 'n'
    while accepted.lower() == 'n':
        accepted = raw_input('Have you authorized me? (y/n) ')
    oauth_verifier = raw_input('What is the PIN? ')
    return oauth_verifier
#oauth_verifier = authorize(r_token)
In [5]:
def access(consumer, request_token, oauth_verifier):
    access_token_url = ''
    token = oauth.Token(request_token['oauth_token'], request_token['oauth_token_secret'])
    client = oauth.Client(consumer, token)
    resp, content = client.request(access_token_url, "POST")
    access_token = dict(urlparse.parse_qsl(content))
    return access_token
#a_token = access(consumer, r_token, oauth_verifier)
#print a_token
#print "Access Token: oauth_token = %s, oauth_token_secret = %s" % (a_token['oauth_token'], a_token['oauth_token_secret'])
#print "You may now access protected resources using the access tokens above."
In [7]:
consumer = oauth.Consumer(api_key, secret_key)

r_token = request_token(consumer)
print "Request Token: oauth_token: %s, oauth_token_secret: %s" % (r_token['oauth_token'], r_token['oauth_token_secret'])

oauth_verifier = authorize(r_token)

a_token = access(consumer, r_token, oauth_verifier)
print a_token
print "Access Token: oauth_token = %s, oauth_token_secret = %s" % (a_token['oauth_token'], a_token['oauth_token_secret'])
print "You may now access protected resources using the access tokens above."
Request Token: oauth_token: 6c679f2c-b36a-4141-920c-344dfd03ac42, oauth_token_secret: 2ec1c351-9739-41d1-919b-f958eb25fc6d
Go to the following link in your browser:

Have you authorized me? (y/n) y
What is the PIN? 77475
{'oauth_token_secret': 'e9b54fde-671d-4533-85f0-3a793a98e8ff', 'oauth_authorization_expires_in': '5183989', 'oauth_token': '22210cf8-aad5-4f2b-b9ee-4630a57d0074', 'oauth_expires_in': '5183989'}
Access Token: oauth_token = 22210cf8-aad5-4f2b-b9ee-4630a57d0074, oauth_token_secret = e9b54fde-671d-4533-85f0-3a793a98e8ff
You may now access protected resources using the access tokens above.

3. Get data, clean it and store to disk

In [8]:
import simplejson
import codecs
output_file = 'linkedIn_links.csv'
my_name = 'Your Name'
def linkedin_connections():
    # Use your credentials to build the oauth client
    consumer = oauth.Consumer(key=api_key, secret=secret_key)
    token = oauth.Token(key=a_token['oauth_token'], secret=a_token['oauth_token_secret'])
    client = oauth.Client(consumer, token)
    # Fetch first degree connections
    resp, content = client.request('')
    results = simplejson.loads(content)
    # File that will store the results
    output =, 'w', 'utf-8')
    # Loop through the 1st degree connection and see how they connect to each other
    for result in results["values"]:
        con = "%s %s" % (result["firstName"].replace(",", " "), result["lastName"].replace(",", " "))
        print >>output, "%s,%s" % (my_name, con)
        # This is the trick, use the search API to get related connections
        u = "" % result["id"]
        resp, content = client.request(u)
        rels = simplejson.loads(content)
            for rel in rels['relationToViewer']['relatedConnections']['values']:
                sec = "%s %s" % (rel["firstName"].replace(",", " "), rel["lastName"].replace(",", " "))
                print >>output, "%s,%s" % (con, sec)

In [12]:
from operator import itemgetter
from unidecode import unidecode
clean_output_file = 'linkedIn_links_clean.csv'
def stringify(chain):
    # Simple utility to build the nodes labels
    allowed = '0123456789abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz_'
    c = unidecode(chain.strip().lower().replace(' ', '_'))
    return ''.join([letter for letter in c if letter in allowed])
def clean(f_input, f_output):
    output = open(f_output, 'w')
    # Store the edges inside a set for dedup
    edges = set()
    for line in, 'r', 'utf-8'):
        from_person, to_person = line.strip().split(',')
        _f = stringify(from_person)
        _t = stringify(to_person)
        # Reorder the edge tuple
        _e = tuple(sorted((_f, _t), key=itemgetter(0, 1)))
    for edge in edges:
        print >>output, '%s,%s' % (edge[0], edge[1])
clean(output_file, clean_output_file)

When you have run these cells you have a 'linkedIn_links_clean.csv' file in the directory of your notebook, that is compatible with gephi. If you don't have a LinkedIn account or think your network is boring you can use one of ours which you can get here.

4. Network Analysis with Gephi


Gephi requires Java to run, at least a JRE of version 6. To check if you have java installed, open a console and run

$ java -version
java version "1.7.0_25"
OpenJDK Runtime Environment (IcedTea 2.3.12) (7u25-2.3.12-4ubuntu3)
OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (build 23.7-b01, mixed mode)

If you don't have java or only an outdated version, go here to download it.

To install gephi, download it and follow these installation instructions.


The analysis with a GUI based tool is hard to convey in an IPython Notebook ;). If you don't want to watch the video, here is the Gephi Quick Start guide.

Here are the things we are doing:

  • Applying a force directed layout with increased repulsion strength
  • Remove yourself, explore shortest paths between partners
  • Run force-directed again
  • Calculating a PageRank
  • Color nodes by PageRank
  • Trying a couple of other statistics
  • Size by PageRank
  • Filter by Topology, Degree
  • "Cluster" by running Modularity. Try different parameters.
  • Highlight via "Partition"
In [ ]:

Page Rank


We'll show during this lab that the PageRank basically amounts to computing the largest eigen vector of a stochastic matrix, which can be done via the power iteration method.

Now, code it on your LinkedIn network!

In [12]:
import csv
from collections import defaultdict


with open('linkedIn_links_clean.csv', 'rb') as csvfile:
    allrows = csv.reader(csvfile, delimiter=',')
    for row in allrows:
#        if ((row[0]=='your_name') | (row[1]=='your_name')): continue   # exclude yourself ?
        pairlist.append((row[0], row[1]))
## Actual algorithm starts here        
## display the pagerank

and now, with NetworkX !

In [3]:
import networkx as nx
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import matplotlib
import math

g = nx.Graph()

remove_me = False

for user in userset:
    if remove_me & (user=='your_name'): continue
for user in userset:   
    if remove_me & (user=='your_name'): continue
    nconnec = 0
    for connection in connections[user]:
        if remove_me & (connection=='your_name'): continue
        g.add_edge(user, connection, weight = 1)
    if remove_me & (nconnec==0):
pagerank_nx = nx.pagerank_scipy(g)        
color = [(min(pagerank_nx[n]*30.,1),min(pagerank_nx[n]*30.,1), min(pagerank_nx[n]*30.,1)) for n in pagerank_nx]
pos = nx.spring_layout(g,  iterations=100)
nx.draw_networkx_edges(g, pos, width=1, alpha=0.4)
nx.draw_networkx_nodes(g, pos, node_color=color, node_size=100, alpha=1, linewidths =0.5)
#lbls = nx.draw_networkx_labels(g, pos)
In [4]:
# checks whether we have the same, or similar, pageranks
sorted_pr = sorted(pagerank_nx.iteritems(), reverse=True, key=lambda (k,v): v)
print sorted_pr[:10]
[('your_name', 0.09150666939924602), ('private_private', 0.024313132518953447), ('joaquim_jorge', 0.017076589118708827), ('sylvain_paris', 0.015784891188616052), ('bruno_levy', 0.013919912655348188), ('hanspeter_pfister', 0.013086705421394321), ('carsten_dachsbacher', 0.011960636727014962), ('george_drettakis', 0.010381639028622679), ('nicolas_holzschuch', 0.009624769481242655), ('adrien_bousseau', 0.009016059729843637)]

A few stats about your network:

In [11]:
# your number of connection
print 'my degree is: ','your_name'), '\n'

# diameter = maximum nb of edges between 2 nodes = always 2 in this case
print 'the graph diameter is: ',nx.diameter(g), '\n'

#center : surprising ?
print 'the center is: ',, '\n'

# number  of clique communities  of 5 nodes
print 'there are ', len(list(nx.k_clique_communities(g, 5))),'clique communities\n'

# most influential ?
print 'degree: ',[2]),'\n'

print 'shortest path between Hanspeter and a friend', nx.shortest_path(g,source='hanspeter_pfister',target='etienne_corteel'),'\n'
my degree is:  211 

the graph diameter is:  2 

the center is:  ['your_name'] 

there are  7 clique communities

degree:  {'joaquim_jorge': 51} 

shortest path between Hanspeter and a friend ['hanspeter_pfister', 'your_name', 'etienne_corteel'] 

In [ ]: