Extract Information With Regular Expression

Wikipedia: A regular expression is a sequence of characters that define a search pattern. Usually such patterns are used by string-searching algorithms for "find" or "find and replace" operations on strings, or for input validation.

In this notebook we will go over a series of handy regex patterns and see how to use them. The goal is to use the regex not to learn how to build whole regex patterns from scratch.

Regex is a super useful tool when working with text. It allows you to quickly extract or replace patterns in a long text. It's reliable, lightning fast and flexible.

But it does take getting used to using cryptic pattern definitions.

We'll start simple with :

  • finding #hashtags in tweets
  • extracting and replacing @usernames

#Hashtags

In [3]:
# Here is a small corpus of tweets that contain hashtags
tweets = [
    'An #autumn scene showing a beautiful #horse coming to visit me.', 
    'My new favourite eatery in #liverpool and I mean superb! #TheBrunchClub #breakfast #food', 
    '#nowplaying Pointer Sisters - Dare Me | #80s #disco #funk #radio']
    
# import the regex module
import re
['#autumn', '#horse']
['#liverpool', '#TheBrunchClub', '#breakfast', '#food']
['#nowplaying', '#80s', '#disco', '#funk', '#radio']

Define the pattern

This pattern find all the sequences of characters with the exclusion of spaces, tabs, line returns ... that start with a # sign:

# followed by a non empty sequence of letters and punctuation signs: S+

In [6]:
pattern = r'#\S+'

use re.findall to extract all the elements from the text that match the pattern

In [7]:
for text in tweets:
    print(re.findall(pattern, text))
['#autumn', '#horse']
['#liverpool', '#TheBrunchClub', '#breakfast', '#food']
['#nowplaying', '#80s', '#disco', '#funk', '#radio']

@usernames

Slightly modify the pattern to find all the @usernames

In [8]:
import re

text = 'Check out this new NLP course on @openclassrooms by @alexip'
    
# change the pattern # -> @
pattern = r'@\S+' 

print(re.findall(pattern, text))
['@openclassrooms', '@alexip']

We can also use re.sub to replace all the usernames by a special token.

For instance replace the usernames with the token USR. The pattern stay the same

In [12]:
print("\t",text)
print("becomes:")
print("\t",re.sub(pattern, 'USR', text))
	 Check out this new NLP course on @openclassrooms by @alexip
becomes:
	 Check out this new NLP course on USR by USR

remove html tags

A slightly more complex example. We have a web page and we want to remove all the html tags. Html tags are represented by < some text >.

So we want to remove all the elements that are comprised between < and > including the brackets.

We define the pattern

pattern = r"<[^>]*>"

Let's apply that to a web page that we download raw from wikipedia. For a change consider the page about House Music. The html element contains the raw html.

In [16]:
import requests
import re

# Music is in the House!
url = 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_music'

# GET the content 
# Note: requests.get().content returns a byte object 
# that we can cast as string with .decode('UTF-8')
html = requests.get(url).content.decode('UTF-8')

# remove the header part of the html 
html = html.split('</head>')[1]

print(html)
<body class="mediawiki ltr sitedir-ltr mw-hide-empty-elt ns-0 ns-subject mw-editable page-House_music rootpage-House_music skin-vector action-view skin-vector-legacy"><div id="mw-page-base" class="noprint"></div>
<div id="mw-head-base" class="noprint"></div>
<div id="content" class="mw-body" role="main">
	<a id="top"></a>
	<div id="siteNotice" class="mw-body-content"><!-- CentralNotice --></div>
	<div class="mw-indicators mw-body-content">
	</div>
	<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading" lang="en">House music</h1>
	<div id="bodyContent" class="mw-body-content">
		<div id="siteSub" class="noprint">From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</div>
		<div id="contentSub"></div>
		<div id="contentSub2"></div>
		
		<div id="jump-to-nav"></div>
		<a class="mw-jump-link" href="#mw-head">Jump to navigation</a>
		<a class="mw-jump-link" href="#searchInput">Jump to search</a>
		<div id="mw-content-text" lang="en" dir="ltr" class="mw-content-ltr"><div class="mw-parser-output"><div class="shortdescription nomobile noexcerpt noprint searchaux" style="display:none">Genre of electronic dance music</div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">For the Steven James Adams album, see <a href="/wiki/House_Music_(album)" title="House Music (album)">House Music (album)</a>.</div>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Not to be confused with <a href="/wiki/House_band" title="House band">House band</a>.</div>
<table class="infobox nowraplinks" style="width:22em"><tbody><tr><th colspan="2" style="text-align:center;font-size:125%;font-weight:bold;padding-top: 0.3em; padding-bottom: 0.3em; background-color: silver; color:black;">House music</th></tr><tr><th scope="row">Stylistic origins</th><td class="hlist">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Disco" title="Disco">Disco</a><sup id="cite_ref-allmusic.com_1-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-allmusic.com-1">&#91;1&#93;</a></sup></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hi-NRG" title="Hi-NRG">Hi-NRG</a><sup id="cite_ref-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-2">&#91;2&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-AMGNRG_3-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-AMGNRG-3">&#91;3&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-4">&#91;4&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-5">&#91;5&#93;</a></sup></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Boogie_(genre)" title="Boogie (genre)">boogie</a><sup id="cite_ref-BWTS_6-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-BWTS-6">&#91;6&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-7">&#91;7&#93;</a></sup></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Electro_music" class="mw-redirect" title="Electro music">electro</a><sup id="cite_ref-Vincent_8-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Vincent-8">&#91;8&#93;</a></sup></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Latin_soul" title="Latin soul">Latin soul</a><sup id="cite_ref-allmusic.com_1-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-allmusic.com-1">&#91;1&#93;</a></sup></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jazz" title="Jazz">jazz</a><sup id="cite_ref-allmusic.com_1-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-allmusic.com-1">&#91;1&#93;</a></sup></li></ul>
</td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Cultural origins</th><td class="hlist">1980s, <a href="/wiki/Chicago" title="Chicago">Chicago</a>, <a href="/wiki/Illinois" title="Illinois">Illinois</a>, United States</td></tr><tr><th scope="row">Derivative forms</th><td class="hlist"><div class="hlist hlist-separated"><ul><li><a href="/wiki/Electroclash" title="Electroclash">Electroclash</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Eurobeat" title="Eurobeat">Eurobeat</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Techno" title="Techno">techno</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/UK_garage" title="UK garage">UK garage</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Speed_garage" title="Speed garage">speed garage</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Trance_music" title="Trance music">trance</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Dance-pop" title="Dance-pop">dance-pop</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/2-step_garage" title="2-step garage">2-step garage</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Detroit_techno" title="Detroit techno">Detroit techno</a></li></ul></div></td></tr><tr><th colspan="2" style="text-align:center;background-color: silver; color: black;">Subgenres</th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="hlist" style="text-align:center"><div class="hlist hlist-separated"><ul><li><a href="/wiki/Acid_house" title="Acid house">Acid house</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Brazilian_bass" class="mw-redirect" title="Brazilian bass">Brazilian bass</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Deep_house" title="Deep house">deep house</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Diva_house" title="Diva house">diva house</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Funky_house" title="Funky house">funky house</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Future_house" title="Future house">future house</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Garage_house" title="Garage house">garage house</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Ghetto_house" title="Ghetto house">ghetto house</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Hardbag" title="Hardbag">hardbag</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Microhouse" title="Microhouse">microhouse</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Tribal_house" title="Tribal house">tribal house</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Tropical_house" title="Tropical house">tropical house</a></li></ul></div><br />(<a href="/wiki/Styles_of_house_music" title="Styles of house music">complete list</a>)</td></tr><tr><th colspan="2" style="text-align:center;background-color: silver; color: black;">Fusion genres</th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="hlist" style="text-align:center"><div class="hlist hlist-separated"><ul><li><a href="/wiki/Alternative_dance" title="Alternative dance">Alternative dance</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Ambient_house" title="Ambient house">ambient house</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Baltimore_club" title="Baltimore club">Baltimore club</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Electro_house" title="Electro house">electro house</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Electro_swing" title="Electro swing">electro swing</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Eurodance" title="Eurodance">Eurodance</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/French_house" title="French house">French house</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Future_garage" title="Future garage">future garage</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Hip_house" title="Hip house">hip house</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Jump_House_(music_genre)" class="mw-redirect" title="Jump House (music genre)">jump house</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Kuduro" title="Kuduro">Kuduro</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Latin_house" title="Latin house">Latin house</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Moombahton" title="Moombahton">moombahton</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Neo_soul" title="Neo soul">neo soul</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Nu-disco" title="Nu-disco">nu-disco</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Progressive_house" title="Progressive house">progressive house</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Tech_house" title="Tech house">tech house</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Witch_house_(music_genre)" class="mw-redirect" title="Witch house (music genre)">witch house</a></li></ul></div></td></tr><tr><th colspan="2" style="text-align:center;background-color: silver; color: black;">Regional scenes</th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="hlist" style="text-align:center"><div class="hlist hlist-separated"><ul><li><a href="/wiki/Latin_house" title="Latin house">Cancún</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Brazilian_bass" class="mw-redirect" title="Brazilian bass">Brazil</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Chicago_house" title="Chicago house">Chicago</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/French_house" title="French house">France</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Balearic_beat" title="Balearic beat">Ibiza</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Italo_house" title="Italo house">Italy</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Garage_house" title="Garage house">New Jersey</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Garage_house" title="Garage house">New York</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Kwaito" title="Kwaito">South Africa</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/UK_hard_house" title="UK hard house">United Kingdom</a></li></ul></div></td></tr><tr><th colspan="2" style="text-align:center;background-color: silver; color: black;">Other topics</th></tr><tr><td colspan="2" class="hlist" style="text-align:center">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/List_of_house_artists" class="mw-redirect" title="List of house artists">List of house artists</a></li></ul>
</td></tr></tbody></table>
<p><b>House</b> is a genre of <a href="/wiki/Electronic_dance_music" title="Electronic dance music">electronic dance music</a> characterized by a repetitive  <a href="/wiki/Four_on_the_floor_(music)" title="Four on the floor (music)">four-on-the-floor</a> beat and a tempo of 120 to 130 <a href="/wiki/Tempo" title="Tempo">beats per minute</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-laist.com_9-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-laist.com-9">&#91;9&#93;</a></sup> It was created by <a href="/wiki/Disc_jockey" title="Disc jockey">DJs</a> and music producers from <a href="/wiki/Chicago_metropolitan_area" title="Chicago metropolitan area">Chicago</a>'s underground <a href="/wiki/Clubbing_(subculture)" title="Clubbing (subculture)">club culture</a> in the 1980s, as DJs from the subculture began altering <a href="/wiki/Disco" title="Disco">disco</a> songs to give them a more mechanical beat and deeper <a href="/wiki/Bassline" title="Bassline">basslines</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-allmusic.com_1-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-allmusic.com-1">&#91;1&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The genre was pioneered by DJs and producers mainly from Chicago and New York such as <a href="/wiki/Frankie_Knuckles" title="Frankie Knuckles">Frankie Knuckles</a>, <a href="/wiki/Larry_Levan" title="Larry Levan">Larry Levan</a>, <a href="/wiki/Ron_Hardy" title="Ron Hardy">Ron Hardy</a>, <a href="/wiki/Jesse_Saunders" title="Jesse Saunders">Jesse Saunders</a>, <a href="/wiki/Chip_E." title="Chip E.">Chip E.</a>, <a href="/wiki/Steve_%22Silk%22_Hurley" title="Steve &quot;Silk&quot; Hurley">Steve "Silk" Hurley</a>, <a href="/wiki/Mr._Lee_(rapper)" title="Mr. Lee (rapper)">Mr. Lee</a>, <a href="/wiki/Farley_%22Jackmaster%22_Funk" title="Farley &quot;Jackmaster&quot; Funk">Farley "Jackmaster" Funk</a>, <a href="/wiki/Marshall_Jefferson" title="Marshall Jefferson">Marshall Jefferson</a>, <a href="/wiki/Phuture" title="Phuture">Phuture</a> and others. From its beginnings in the Chicago club and local radio scene, the genre expanded internationally to <a href="/wiki/London" title="London">London</a>, then to other American cities such as New York City and <a href="/wiki/Detroit" title="Detroit">Detroit</a> before becoming a worldwide phenomenon.<sup id="cite_ref-unesco_4_10-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-unesco_4-10">&#91;10&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>House has had a large impact on <a href="/wiki/Pop_music" title="Pop music">pop music</a>, especially <a href="/wiki/Dance_music" title="Dance music">dance music</a>. It was incorporated by major pop artists including <a href="/wiki/Janet_Jackson" title="Janet Jackson">Janet Jackson</a>, <a href="/wiki/Madonna_(entertainer)" class="mw-redirect" title="Madonna (entertainer)">Madonna</a> and <a href="/wiki/Kylie_Minogue" title="Kylie Minogue">Kylie Minogue</a>, but also produced some mainstream hits on its own, such as "<a href="/wiki/French_Kiss_(Lil_Louis_song)" title="French Kiss (Lil Louis song)">French Kiss</a>" by <a href="/wiki/Lil_Louis" title="Lil Louis">Lil Louis</a> (1989), "<a href="/wiki/Show_Me_Love_(Robin_S._song)" title="Show Me Love (Robin S. song)">Show Me Love</a>" by <a href="/wiki/Robin_S." title="Robin S.">Robin S.</a> (1992) or "<a href="/wiki/Push_the_Feeling_On" title="Push the Feeling On">Push the Feeling On</a>" by <a href="/wiki/Nightcrawlers_(band)" title="Nightcrawlers (band)">Nightcrawlers</a> (1992/1995). Many house producers also did and continue to do <a href="/wiki/Remix" title="Remix">remixes</a> for pop artists. Until today, house music has remained popular on radio and in clubs while retaining a foothold on the underground scenes across the globe.
</p>
<div id="toc" class="toc" role="navigation" aria-labelledby="mw-toc-heading"><input type="checkbox" role="button" id="toctogglecheckbox" class="toctogglecheckbox" style="display:none" /><div class="toctitle" lang="en" dir="ltr"><h2 id="mw-toc-heading">Contents</h2><span class="toctogglespan"><label class="toctogglelabel" for="toctogglecheckbox"></label></span></div>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#Characteristics"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">Characteristics</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2"><a href="#Influences_and_precursors"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">Influences and precursors</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-3"><a href="#Early_history_(1980s):_Chicago_house,_acid_house_and_deep_house"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Early history (1980s): Chicago house, acid house and deep house</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-4"><a href="#Origins_of_the_term_&quot;house&quot;"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Origins of the term "house"</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-5"><a href="#Social_and_political_aspects"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Social and political aspects</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-6"><a href="#House_dance"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">House dance</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-7"><a href="#Regional_scenes_(1980s–1990s)"><span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Regional scenes (1980s–1990s)</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-8"><a href="#Detroit_and_techno"><span class="tocnumber">7.1</span> <span class="toctext">Detroit and techno</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-9"><a href="#UK:_Acid_house,_rave_culture_and_the_Second_Summer_of_Love"><span class="tocnumber">7.2</span> <span class="toctext">UK: Acid house, rave culture and the Second Summer of Love</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-10"><a href="#Chicago&#39;s_second_wave:_Hip_house_and_ghetto_house"><span class="tocnumber">7.3</span> <span class="toctext">Chicago's second wave: Hip house and ghetto house</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-11"><a href="#New_York_and_New_Jersey:_Garage_house_and_the_&quot;Jersey_sound&quot;"><span class="tocnumber">7.4</span> <span class="toctext">New York and New Jersey: Garage house and the "Jersey sound"</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-12"><a href="#Ibiza"><span class="tocnumber">7.5</span> <span class="toctext">Ibiza</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-13"><a href="#Other_regional_scenes"><span class="tocnumber">7.6</span> <span class="toctext">Other regional scenes</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-14"><a href="#The_1990s"><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">The 1990s</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-15"><a href="#21st_century"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">21st century</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-16"><a href="#2000s"><span class="tocnumber">9.1</span> <span class="toctext">2000s</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-17"><a href="#2010s"><span class="tocnumber">9.2</span> <span class="toctext">2010s</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-18"><a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber">10</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-19"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumber">11</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-20"><a href="#Further_reading"><span class="tocnumber">12</span> <span class="toctext">Further reading</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-21"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocnumber">13</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li>
</ul>
</div>

<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Characteristics">Characteristics</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=House_music&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: Characteristics">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<table role="presentation" class="mbox-small noprint" style="background-color:#f9f9f9;border:1px solid #aaa;color:#000;">
<tbody><tr>
<td class="mbox-image"><div class="center"><div class="floatnone"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/Gnome-mime-sound-openclipart.svg/50px-Gnome-mime-sound-openclipart.svg.png" decoding="async" width="50" height="50" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/Gnome-mime-sound-openclipart.svg/75px-Gnome-mime-sound-openclipart.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/Gnome-mime-sound-openclipart.svg/100px-Gnome-mime-sound-openclipart.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="160" data-file-height="160" /></div></div></td>
<td class="mbox-text plainlist" style="line-height:1.1em"><div class="haudio">
<div style="padding:4px 0"><a href="/wiki/File:House_Music_Demo.ogg" title="File:House Music Demo.ogg">House Music Demo</a></div>
<div><div class="mediaContainer" style="width:220px"><audio id="mwe_player_0" controls="" preload="none" style="width:220px" class="kskin" data-durationhint="382.50489795918" data-startoffset="0" data-mwtitle="House_Music_Demo.ogg" data-mwprovider="wikimediacommons"><source src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/transcoded/8/88/House_Music_Demo.ogg/House_Music_Demo.ogg.mp3" type="audio/mpeg" data-title="MP3" data-shorttitle="MP3" data-transcodekey="mp3" data-width="0" data-height="0" data-bandwidth="223496" /><source src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/88/House_Music_Demo.ogg" type="audio/ogg; codecs=&quot;vorbis&quot;" data-title="Original Ogg file (275 kbps)" data-shorttitle="Ogg source" data-width="0" data-height="0" data-bandwidth="274791" /></audio></div></div>
<div class="description" style="padding:2px 0 0 0">A full house music track.</div></div></td></tr>
<tr><td colspan="2" class="mbox-text" style="line-height:1.1em"><hr /><i class="selfreference">Problems playing this file? See <a href="/wiki/Help:Media" title="Help:Media">media help</a>.</i></td></tr>
</tbody></table>
<p>In its most typical form, the genre is characterized by repetitive <a href="/wiki/Four_on_the_floor_(music)" title="Four on the floor (music)">4/4</a> <a href="/wiki/Rhythm" title="Rhythm">rhythms</a> including <a href="/wiki/Bass_drum" title="Bass drum">bass drums</a>, <a href="/wiki/Off-beat_(music)" class="mw-redirect" title="Off-beat (music)">off-beat</a> <a href="/wiki/Hi-hat" title="Hi-hat">hi-hats</a>, <a href="/wiki/Snare_drum" title="Snare drum">snare drums</a>, <a href="/wiki/Clapping" title="Clapping">claps</a>, and/or <a href="/wiki/Finger_snapping" title="Finger snapping">snaps</a> at a tempo between 120 and 130 <a href="/wiki/Tempo" title="Tempo">beats per minute (bpm)</a>, <a href="/wiki/Synthesizer" title="Synthesizer">synthesizer</a> <a href="/wiki/Riff_(music)" class="mw-redirect" title="Riff (music)">riffs</a>, deep <a href="/wiki/Bassline" title="Bassline">basslines</a>, and often, but not necessarily, sung, spoken or <a href="/wiki/Sampling_(music)" title="Sampling (music)">sampled</a> vocals. In house, the bass drum is sounded on beats one and three, and the snare drum, claps, or other higher-pitched percussion on beats two and four. The drum beats in house music are almost always provided by an electronic <a href="/wiki/Drum_machine" title="Drum machine">drum machine</a>, often a <a href="/wiki/Roland_TR-808" title="Roland TR-808">Roland TR-808</a>, <a href="/wiki/Roland_TR-909" title="Roland TR-909">TR-909</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-snoman_11-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-snoman-11">&#91;11&#93;</a></sup> or a <a href="/wiki/Roland_TR-707" title="Roland TR-707">TR-707</a>. Claps, shakers, snare drum, or hi-hat sounds are used to add <a href="/wiki/Syncopation" title="Syncopation">syncopation</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Hydlide_12-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hydlide-12">&#91;12&#93;</a></sup> One of the signature rhythm riffs, especially in early (Chicago) house, is built on the <a href="/wiki/Clave_(rhythm)" title="Clave (rhythm)">clave</a> pattern.<sup id="cite_ref-Clave_13-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Clave-13">&#91;13&#93;</a></sup>  Congas and bongos may be added for an African sound, or metallic percussion for a Latin feel.<sup id="cite_ref-Hydlide_12-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hydlide-12">&#91;12&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Sometimes, the drum sounds are "saturated" by <a href="/wiki/Distortion_(music)" title="Distortion (music)">boosting the gain</a> to create a more aggressive edge.<sup id="cite_ref-Hydlide_12-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Hydlide-12">&#91;12&#93;</a></sup> One classic subgenre, <a href="/wiki/Acid_house" title="Acid house">acid house</a>, is defined through the squelchy sounds created by the <a href="/wiki/Roland_TB-303" title="Roland TB-303">Roland TB-303</a> bass synthesizer. House music could be produced on "cheap and consumer-friendly electronic equipment" and used sound gear, which made it easier for independent labels and DJs to create tracks.<sup id="cite_ref-rietveld_14-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-rietveld-14">&#91;14&#93;</a></sup> The electronic drum machines and other gear used by house DJs and producers were formerly considered "too cheap-sounding" by "proper" musicians.<sup id="cite_ref-Warwick_15-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Warwick-15">&#91;15&#93;</a></sup> House music producers typically use sampled instruments, rather than bringing in <a href="/wiki/Session_musician" title="Session musician">session musicians</a> into a recording studio.<sup id="cite_ref-16" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-16">&#91;16&#93;</a></sup> Even though a key element of house production is layering sounds, such as drum machine beats, samples, synth basslines, and so on, the overall "texture...is relatively sparse".<sup id="cite_ref-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405_17-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405-17">&#91;17&#93;</a></sup> Unlike pop songs, which emphasize higher-pitched sounds, such as <a href="/wiki/Melody" title="Melody">melody</a>, in house music, the lower-pitched <a href="/wiki/Bass_(sound)" title="Bass (sound)">bass</a> register is most important.<sup id="cite_ref-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405_17-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405-17">&#91;17&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The structure of house music <a href="/wiki/Song" title="Song">songs</a> — or "tracks", as they are more commonly called — typically involves an <a href="/wiki/Introduction_(music)" title="Introduction (music)">intro</a>, a <a href="/wiki/Chorus_(song)" class="mw-redirect" title="Chorus (song)">chorus</a>, various <a href="/wiki/Verse_(popular_music)" class="mw-redirect" title="Verse (popular music)">verse</a> sections, a midsection and a brief <a href="/wiki/Outro_(music)" class="mw-redirect" title="Outro (music)">outro</a>. Some tracks do not have a verse, taking a vocal part from the chorus and repeating the same cycle. House music tracks are often based on eight-bar sections which are repeated.<sup id="cite_ref-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405_17-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405-17">&#91;17&#93;</a></sup> They are often built around bass-heavy <a href="/wiki/Loop_(music)" title="Loop (music)">loops</a> or <a href="/wiki/Bassline" title="Bassline">basslines</a> produced by a <a href="/wiki/Synthesizer" title="Synthesizer">synthesizer</a> and/or around <a href="/wiki/Sampling_(music)" title="Sampling (music)">samples</a> of <a href="/wiki/Disco" title="Disco">disco</a>, <a href="/wiki/Soul_music" title="Soul music">soul</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-Queer_18-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Queer-18">&#91;18&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Jazz-funk" title="Jazz-funk">jazz-funk</a><sup id="cite_ref-Vincent_8-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Vincent-8">&#91;8&#93;</a></sup> or <a href="/wiki/Funk" title="Funk">funk</a><sup id="cite_ref-Queer_18-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Queer-18">&#91;18&#93;</a></sup> songs. DJs and producers creating a house track to be played in clubs edit a "seven or eight-minute 12-inch mix"; if the track is intended to be played on radio, a "three-and-a-half-minute" <a href="/wiki/Radio_edit" title="Radio edit">radio edit</a> is used.<sup id="cite_ref-Inglis_19-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Inglis-19">&#91;19&#93;</a></sup> Unlike <a href="/wiki/Trance_music" title="Trance music">trance music</a>, which is designed to keep building in intensity, house music tracks are "more consistent" and rather based on "playing with the constituent parts and bringing them in and out" in a subtle way.<sup id="cite_ref-Inglis_19-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Inglis-19">&#91;19&#93;</a></sup> House tracks build up slowly, by adding layers of sound and texture, and by increasing the volume.<sup id="cite_ref-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405_17-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405-17">&#91;17&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>House tracks may have vocals like a pop song, but some are "completely minimal <a href="/wiki/Instrumental_music" class="mw-redirect" title="Instrumental music">instrumental music</a>", as vocals are not required for the house genre.<sup id="cite_ref-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405_17-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405-17">&#91;17&#93;</a></sup> If a house track does have vocals, the vocal lines may also be simple "words or phrases" that are repeated.<sup id="cite_ref-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405_17-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405-17">&#91;17&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Influences_and_precursors">Influences and precursors</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=House_music&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section: Influences and precursors">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>One of the main influences of house was <a href="/wiki/Disco" title="Disco">disco</a>; house music having been defined as a genre which "...picked up where disco left off in the late 1970's."<sup id="cite_ref-laist.com_9-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-laist.com-9">&#91;9&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-20" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-20">&#91;20&#93;</a></sup> Like disco DJs, house DJs used a "slow mix" to "lin[k] records together" into a mix.<sup id="cite_ref-rietveld_14-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-rietveld-14">&#91;14&#93;</a></sup> In the post-disco <a href="/wiki/Club_culture" class="mw-redirect" title="Club culture">club culture</a> during the early 1980s, DJs from the gay scene made their tracks "less pop-oriented", with a more mechanical, repetitive beat and deeper basslines, and many tracks were made without vocals, or with wordless melodies.<sup id="cite_ref-21" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-21">&#91;21&#93;</a></sup> Disco became so popular by the late 1970s that record companies pushed even non-disco artists (R&amp;B bands, for example) to produce disco songs. When the backlash against disco started, known as "<a href="/wiki/Disco_sucks" class="mw-redirect" title="Disco sucks">Disco sucks</a>", dance music went from being produced by major label studios to being created by DJs in the underground club scene.<sup id="cite_ref-rietveld_14-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-rietveld-14">&#91;14&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>While disco was associated with lush orchestration, with <a href="/wiki/String_orchestra" title="String orchestra">string orchestra</a>, flutes and <a href="/wiki/Horn_section" title="Horn section">horn sections</a>, various disco songs incorporated sounds produced with synthesizers and electronic drum machines, and some compositions were entirely electronic; examples include Italian composer <a href="/wiki/Giorgio_Moroder" title="Giorgio Moroder">Giorgio Moroder</a>'s late 1970s productions such as <a href="/wiki/Donna_Summer" title="Donna Summer">Donna Summer</a>'s hit single "<a href="/wiki/I_Feel_Love" title="I Feel Love">I Feel Love</a>" from 1977, <a href="/wiki/Cerrone" title="Cerrone">Cerrone</a>'s "<a href="/wiki/Supernature_(Cerrone_III)" title="Supernature (Cerrone III)">Supernature</a>" (1977),<sup id="cite_ref-22" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-22">&#91;22&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Yellow_Magic_Orchestra" title="Yellow Magic Orchestra">Yellow Magic Orchestra</a>'s synth-disco-pop productions from <i><a href="/wiki/Yellow_Magic_Orchestra_(album)" title="Yellow Magic Orchestra (album)">Yellow Magic Orchestra</a></i> (1978) or <i><a href="/wiki/Solid_State_Survivor" title="Solid State Survivor">Solid State Survivor</a></i> (1979),<sup id="cite_ref-allmusic_ymo_album_23-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-allmusic_ymo_album-23">&#91;23&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-24" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-24">&#91;24&#93;</a></sup> and several early 1980s productions by <a href="/wiki/Hi-NRG" title="Hi-NRG">hi-NRG</a> groups like <a href="/wiki/Lime_(band)" title="Lime (band)">Lime</a>, <a href="/wiki/Trans-X" title="Trans-X">Trans-X</a> and <a href="/wiki/Bobby_O" class="mw-redirect" title="Bobby O">Bobby O</a>.
</p><p>Also important for the development of house were <a href="/wiki/Audio_mixing" title="Audio mixing">audio mixing</a> and editing techniques earlier explored by disco, <a href="/wiki/Garage_music_(North_America)" class="mw-redirect" title="Garage music (North America)">garage music</a> and <a href="/wiki/Post-disco" title="Post-disco">post-disco</a> <a href="/wiki/DJ" class="mw-redirect" title="DJ">DJs</a>, <a href="/wiki/Record_producer" title="Record producer">record producers</a>, and audio engineers such as <a href="/wiki/Walter_Gibbons" title="Walter Gibbons">Walter Gibbons</a>, <a href="/wiki/Tom_Moulton" title="Tom Moulton">Tom Moulton</a>, <a href="/wiki/Jim_Burgess_(producer)" title="Jim Burgess (producer)">Jim Burgess</a>, <a href="/wiki/Larry_Levan" title="Larry Levan">Larry Levan</a>, <a href="/wiki/Morales_and_Munzibai" title="Morales and Munzibai">M &amp; M</a>, and others.
</p><p>While most post-disco disc jockeys primarily stuck to playing their conventional ensemble and playlist of dance records, <a href="/wiki/Frankie_Knuckles" title="Frankie Knuckles">Frankie Knuckles</a> and <a href="/wiki/Ron_Hardy" title="Ron Hardy">Ron Hardy</a>, two influential DJs of house music, were known for their unusual and non-mainstream playlists and mixing. Knuckles was influenced by and worked with New York City club <a href="/wiki/Paradise_Garage" title="Paradise Garage">Paradise Garage</a> resident <a href="/wiki/Larry_Levan" title="Larry Levan">Larry Levan</a>. Knuckles, often credited as "the Godfather of House" and resident DJ at the <a href="/wiki/Warehouse_(nightclub)" title="Warehouse (nightclub)">Warehouse</a> from 1977 to 1982, worked primarily with early disco music with a hint of new and different music (whether it was <a href="/wiki/Post-punk" title="Post-punk">post-punk</a> or post-disco).<sup id="cite_ref-25" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-25">&#91;25&#93;</a></sup> Knuckles started out as a disco DJ, but when he moved from <a href="/wiki/New_York_City" title="New York City">New York City</a> to Chicago, he changed from the typical disco mixing style of playing records one after another; instead, he mixed different songs together, including <a href="/wiki/Philadelphia_soul" title="Philadelphia soul">Philadelphia soul</a>, New York club tracks, and <a href="/wiki/Euro_disco" title="Euro disco">Euro disco</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405_17-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405-17">&#91;17&#93;</a></sup> He also explored adding a drum machine and a <a href="/wiki/Reel-to-reel" class="mw-redirect" title="Reel-to-reel">reel-to-reel</a> tape player so he could create new tracks, often with a boosted deep register and faster tempos.<sup id="cite_ref-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405_17-7" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405-17">&#91;17&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Ron Hardy produced unconventional <a href="/wiki/Do_it_yourself" title="Do it yourself">DIY</a> <a href="/wiki/Mixtape" title="Mixtape">mixtapes</a> which he later played straight-on in the successor of the Warehouse, the Music Box (reopened and renamed in 1983 after Knuckles left). Like Frankie Knuckles, Hardy "combined certain sounds, remixing tracks with added synths and drum machines", all "refracted through the <a href="/wiki/Futurism" title="Futurism">futurist</a> lens of European music."<sup id="cite_ref-Warwick_15-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Warwick-15">&#91;15&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Marshall_Jefferson" title="Marshall Jefferson">Marshall Jefferson</a>, who would later appear with the 1986 house classic "<a href="/wiki/Move_Your_Body_(Marshall_Jefferson_song)" title="Move Your Body (Marshall Jefferson song)">Move Your Body (The House Music Anthem)</a>" (originally released on Trax Records), describes how he got involved in house music after hearing Ron Hardy's music in the Music Box:
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<style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r996844942">.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}</style><blockquote class="templatequote"><p>"I wasn't even into dance music before I went to the Music Box [...]. I was into <a href="/wiki/Rock_and_roll" title="Rock and roll">rock and roll</a>. We would get drunk and listen to rock and roll. We didn't give a fuck, we were like '<a href="/wiki/Disco_Sucks" class="mw-redirect" title="Disco Sucks">Disco Sucks!</a>' and all that. I hated dance music 'cos I couldn't dance. I thought dance music was kind of wimpy, until I heard it at like Music Box volume."</p><div class="templatequotecite">—&#8201;<cite>Marshall Jefferson<sup id="cite_ref-26" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-26">&#91;26&#93;</a></sup></cite></div></blockquote>
<p>A precursor to house music is the <a href="/wiki/Colonel_Abrams" title="Colonel Abrams">Colonel Abrams</a> hit song "<a href="/wiki/Trapped_(Colonel_Abrams_song)" title="Trapped (Colonel Abrams song)">Trapped</a>", produced by <a href="/wiki/Richard_James_Burgess" title="Richard James Burgess">Richard James Burgess</a> in 1984,<sup id="cite_ref-27" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-27">&#91;27&#93;</a></sup> referred to as a <a href="https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/proto-#Prefix" class="extiw" title="wiktionary:proto-">proto</a>-house track and a precursor to <a href="/wiki/Garage_house" title="Garage house">garage house</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-28" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-28">&#91;28&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Rachel Cain, better known as <a href="/wiki/Screamin_Rachael" class="mw-redirect" title="Screamin Rachael">Screamin Rachael</a>, co-founder of the highly influential house label <a href="/wiki/Trax_Records" title="Trax Records">Trax Records</a>, was previously involved in the burgeoning <a href="/wiki/Punk_rock" title="Punk rock">punk</a> scene. Cain cites <a href="/wiki/Industrial_music" title="Industrial music">industrial music</a> (another genre pioneered in <a href="/wiki/Chicago" title="Chicago">Chicago</a>) and <a href="/wiki/Post-punk" title="Post-punk">post-punk</a> record store <a href="/wiki/Wax_Trax!_Records" title="Wax Trax! Records">Wax Trax! Records</a> (later a record label) as an important connection between the ever-changing underground sounds of Chicago.
</p><p>The electronic instrumentation and minimal arrangement of <a href="/wiki/Charanjit_Singh_(musician)" title="Charanjit Singh (musician)">Charanjit Singh</a>'s <i><a href="/wiki/Charanjit_Singh_(musician)#Synthesizing:_Ten_Ragas_to_a_Disco_Beat" title="Charanjit Singh (musician)">Synthesizing: Ten Ragas to a Disco Beat</a></i> (1982), an album of Indian <a href="/wiki/Raga" title="Raga">ragas</a> performed in a disco style, anticipated the sounds of <a href="/wiki/Acid_house" title="Acid house">acid house</a> music, but it is not known to have had any influence on the genre prior to the album's rediscovery in the 21st century.<sup id="cite_ref-guardian_2010_29-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-guardian_2010-29">&#91;29&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-guardian_2011_30-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-guardian_2011-30">&#91;30&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-ra_raga_31-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-ra_raga-31">&#91;31&#93;</a></sup> According to Hillegonda C. Rietveld, "elements of <a href="/wiki/Hip_hop_music" title="Hip hop music">hip hop and rap</a> can be found in contemporary house tracks", with hip hop acting as an "accent or inflection" that is inserted into the house sound.<sup id="cite_ref-rietveld_14-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-rietveld-14">&#91;14&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The constant bass drum in house music may have arisen from DJs experimenting with adding <a href="/wiki/Drum_machine" title="Drum machine">drum machines</a> to their live mixes at clubs, underneath the records they were playing.<sup id="cite_ref-32" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-32">&#91;32&#93;</a></sup>
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<h2><span id="Early_history_.281980s.29:_Chicago_house.2C_acid_house_and_deep_house"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Early_history_(1980s):_Chicago_house,_acid_house_and_deep_house">Early history (1980s): Chicago house, acid house and deep house</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=House_music&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="Edit section: Early history (1980s): Chicago house, acid house and deep house">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Chicago_house" title="Chicago house">Chicago house</a>, <a href="/wiki/Acid_house" title="Acid house">acid house</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Deep_house" title="Deep house">deep house</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:202px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Honorary_Frankie_Knuckles_Way.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/5/5b/Honorary_Frankie_Knuckles_Way.jpg/200px-Honorary_Frankie_Knuckles_Way.jpg" decoding="async" width="200" height="150" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/5/5b/Honorary_Frankie_Knuckles_Way.jpg/300px-Honorary_Frankie_Knuckles_Way.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/5/5b/Honorary_Frankie_Knuckles_Way.jpg/400px-Honorary_Frankie_Knuckles_Way.jpg 2x" data-file-width="640" data-file-height="480" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Honorary_Frankie_Knuckles_Way.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>An honorary <a href="/wiki/Street_name_sign" title="Street name sign">street name sign</a> in <a href="/wiki/Chicago" title="Chicago">Chicago</a> for house music and the seminal DJ <a href="/wiki/Frankie_Knuckles" title="Frankie Knuckles">Frankie Knuckles</a>.</div></div></div>
<p>In the early 1980s, Chicago radio jocks <a href="/wiki/Hot_Mix_5" title="Hot Mix 5">Hot Mix 5</a> from <a href="/wiki/WBMX_(FM)" title="WBMX (FM)">WBMX</a> radio station (among them <a href="/wiki/Farley_%22Jackmaster%22_Funk" title="Farley &quot;Jackmaster&quot; Funk">Farley "Jackmaster" Funk</a>), and club DJs <a href="/wiki/Ron_Hardy" title="Ron Hardy">Ron Hardy</a> and <a href="/wiki/Frankie_Knuckles" title="Frankie Knuckles">Frankie Knuckles</a> played a range of styles of dance music, including older <a href="/wiki/Disco" title="Disco">disco</a> records (mostly <a href="/wiki/Philly_soul" class="mw-redirect" title="Philly soul">Philly disco</a> and <a href="/wiki/Salsoul_Records" title="Salsoul Records">Salsoul</a><sup id="cite_ref-Slslpop_33-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Slslpop-33">&#91;33&#93;</a></sup> tracks), <a href="/wiki/Electro_music" class="mw-redirect" title="Electro music">electro funk</a> tracks by artists such as <a href="/wiki/Afrika_Bambaataa" title="Afrika Bambaataa">Afrika Bambaataa</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-Vincent_8-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Vincent-8">&#91;8&#93;</a></sup> newer <a href="/wiki/Italo_disco" title="Italo disco">Italo disco</a>, <a href="/wiki/Arthur_Baker_(musician)" title="Arthur Baker (musician)">Arthur Baker</a>, and <a href="/wiki/John_Robie" title="John Robie">John Robie</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Electropop" title="Electropop">electronic pop</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-allmusic.com_1-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-allmusic.com-1">&#91;1&#93;</a></sup> Some DJs made and played their own edits of their favorite songs on <a href="/wiki/Reel-to-reel_tape" class="mw-redirect" title="Reel-to-reel tape">reel-to-reel tape</a>, and sometimes mixed in <a href="/wiki/Effects_unit" title="Effects unit">electronic effects</a>, drum machines, synthesizers and other rhythmic electronic instrumentation.
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<div style="padding:4px 0"><a href="/wiki/File:Jesse_Saunders_-_On_and_On.ogg" title="File:Jesse Saunders - On and On.ogg">Jesse Saunders – "On and On" (1984)</a></div>
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<div class="description" style="padding:2px 0 0 0">"On and On" (1984) by <a href="/wiki/Jesse_Saunders" title="Jesse Saunders">Jesse Saunders</a> is often cited as the 'first' <a href="/wiki/Chicago_house" title="Chicago house">Chicago house</a> record. It utilized the <a href="/wiki/Roland_TB-303" title="Roland TB-303">TB-303</a>, <a href="/wiki/Roland_TR-808" title="Roland TR-808">TR-808</a>, <a href="/wiki/Korg_Poly-61" title="Korg Poly-61">Korg Poly-61</a>, minimal vocals, and <a href="/wiki/Sampling_(music)" title="Sampling (music)">sampled</a> <a href="/wiki/Bassline" title="Bassline">bassline</a> from <a href="/wiki/Player_One" title="Player One">Player One</a>'s <a href="/wiki/Space_disco" class="mw-redirect" title="Space disco">space disco</a> song "<a href="/wiki/Space_Invaders_(Player_One_song)" title="Space Invaders (Player One song)">Space Invaders</a>" (1979).</div></div></td></tr>
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<p>The hypnotic electronic dance song "On and On", produced in 1984 by Chicago DJ <a href="/wiki/Jesse_Saunders" title="Jesse Saunders">Jesse Saunders</a> and co-written by <a href="/wiki/Vince_Lawrence" title="Vince Lawrence">Vince Lawrence</a>, had typical elements of the early house sound, such as the <a href="/wiki/Roland_TB-303" title="Roland TB-303">Roland TB-303</a> bass synthesizer and minimal vocals as well as a <a href="/wiki/Roland_TR-808" title="Roland TR-808">Roland TR-808</a> drum machine and a <a href="/wiki/Korg_Poly-61" title="Korg Poly-61">Korg Poly-61</a> synthesizer. It also utilized the bassline from Player One's disco record "<a href="/wiki/Space_Invaders_(Player_One_song)" title="Space Invaders (Player One song)">Space Invaders</a>" (1979).<sup id="cite_ref-Saunders2010_34-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Saunders2010-34">&#91;34&#93;</a></sup> "On and On" is sometimes cited as the 'first house record',<sup id="cite_ref-35" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-35">&#91;35&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-36" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-36">&#91;36&#93;</a></sup> even though it was a remake of a Disco Bootleg "On and On" by Florida producer Mach. Other examples from around that time, such as <a href="/wiki/Steve_%22Silk%22_Hurley" title="Steve &quot;Silk&quot; Hurley">J.M. Silk</a>'s "<a href="/wiki/Music_Is_the_Key_(Steve_%22Silk%22_Hurley_song)" title="Music Is the Key (Steve &quot;Silk&quot; Hurley song)">Music is the Key</a>" (1985), have also been cited to be the first house tracks.<sup id="cite_ref-37" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-37">&#91;37&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-MusicIsTheKey2015_38-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-MusicIsTheKey2015-38">&#91;38&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Starting in 1985 and 1986, more and more Chicago DJs began producing and releasing original compositions. These compositions used newly affordable electronic instruments and enhanced styles of disco and other dance music they already favored. These homegrown productions were played on Chicago radio stations and in local clubs catering mainly to <a href="/wiki/African-American" class="mw-redirect" title="African-American">Black</a>, <a href="/wiki/Hispanic_and_Latino_Americans" title="Hispanic and Latino Americans">Hispanic</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Gay" title="Gay">gay</a> audiences.<sup id="cite_ref-brittanica1_39-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-brittanica1-39">&#91;39&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-unesco_1_40-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-unesco_1-40">&#91;40&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-unesco_2_41-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-unesco_2-41">&#91;41&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-unesco_3_42-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-unesco_3-42">&#91;42&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Billboard_19860621_1_43-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Billboard_19860621_1-43">&#91;43&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-Out_In_Culture_44-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Out_In_Culture-44">&#91;44&#93;</a></sup> By 1985, house music encompassed these locally produced recordings. Subgenres of house, including deep house and acid house, quickly emerged and gained traction.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
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<div style="padding:4px 0"><a href="/wiki/File:Mr_Fingers_-_Can_You_Feel_It.ogg" title="File:Mr Fingers - Can You Feel It.ogg">Mr. Fingers – "Can You Feel It?" (1986)</a></div>
<div><div class="mediaContainer" style="width:220px"><audio id="mwe_player_2" controls="" preload="none" style="width:220px" class="kskin" data-durationhint="30" data-startoffset="0" data-mwtitle="Mr_Fingers_-_Can_You_Feel_It.ogg" data-mwprovider="local"><source src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/5e/Mr_Fingers_-_Can_You_Feel_It.ogg" type="audio/ogg; codecs=&quot;vorbis&quot;" data-title="Original Ogg file (61 kbps)" data-shorttitle="Ogg source" data-width="0" data-height="0" data-bandwidth="60830" /><source src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/transcoded/5/5e/Mr_Fingers_-_Can_You_Feel_It.ogg/Mr_Fingers_-_Can_You_Feel_It.ogg.mp3" type="audio/mpeg" data-title="MP3" data-shorttitle="MP3" data-transcodekey="mp3" data-width="0" data-height="0" data-bandwidth="205416" /></audio></div></div>
<div class="description" style="padding:2px 0 0 0">"<a href="/wiki/Can_You_Feel_It%3F_(Larry_Heard_song)" class="mw-redirect" title="Can You Feel It? (Larry Heard song)">Can You Feel It?</a>" (1986) by <a href="/wiki/Fingers_Inc." title="Fingers Inc.">Mr. Fingers</a> (<a href="/wiki/Larry_Heard" title="Larry Heard">Larry Heard</a>). It was a seminal <a href="/wiki/Deep_house" title="Deep house">deep house</a> track.</div></div><hr /><div class="haudio">
<div style="padding:4px 0"><a href="/wiki/File:Phuture_-_Acid_Tracks.ogg" title="File:Phuture - Acid Tracks.ogg">Phuture – "Acid Tracks" (1987)</a></div>
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<div class="description" style="padding:2px 0 0 0"><a href="/wiki/Phuture" title="Phuture">Phuture</a>'s "<a href="/wiki/Acid_Tracks" title="Acid Tracks">Acid Tracks</a>" is often regarded as the first <a href="/wiki/Acid_house" title="Acid house">acid house</a> record. It was released in 1987 on <a href="/wiki/Trax_Records" title="Trax Records">Trax Records</a>, but is said to have been already played out in 1985 by DJ <a href="/wiki/Ron_Hardy" title="Ron Hardy">Ron Hardy</a> at the Music Box nightclub.<sup id="cite_ref-45" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-45">&#91;45&#93;</a></sup></div></div></td></tr>
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<p><a href="/wiki/Deep_house" title="Deep house">Deep house</a>'s origins can be traced to Chicago producer <a href="/wiki/Larry_Heard" title="Larry Heard">Mr Fingers</a>'s relatively <a href="/wiki/Jazz" title="Jazz">jazzy</a>, <a href="/wiki/Soul_music" title="Soul music">soulful</a> recordings "<a href="/wiki/Mystery_of_Love_(Larry_Heard_song)" title="Mystery of Love (Larry Heard song)">Mystery of Love</a>" (1985) and "<a href="/wiki/Can_You_Feel_It%3F_(Larry_Heard_song)" class="mw-redirect" title="Can You Feel It? (Larry Heard song)">Can You Feel It?</a>" (1986).<sup id="cite_ref-46" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-46">&#91;46&#93;</a></sup> According to author Richie Unterberger, it moved house music away from its "<a href="/wiki/Posthuman" title="Posthuman">posthuman</a> tendencies back towards the lush" <a href="/wiki/Soul_music" title="Soul music">soulful</a> sound of early disco music.<sup id="cite_ref-47" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-47">&#91;47&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Acid_house" title="Acid house">Acid house</a>, a rougher and more abstract subgenre, arose from Chicago artists' experiments with the squelchy sounds of the <a href="/wiki/Roland_TB-303" title="Roland TB-303">Roland TB-303</a> bass synthesizer that define the genre. Its origin on vinyl is generally cited as <a href="/wiki/Phuture" title="Phuture">Phuture</a>'s "<a href="/wiki/Acid_Tracks" title="Acid Tracks">Acid Tracks</a>" (Trax Records, 1987). Phuture, a group founded by Nathan "<a href="/wiki/DJ_Pierre" title="DJ Pierre">DJ Pierre</a>" Jones, Earl "Spanky" Smith Jr., and Herbert "Herb J" Jackson, is credited with having been the first to use the TB-303 in the house music context.<sup id="cite_ref-48" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-48">&#91;48&#93;</a></sup> The group's 12-minute "Acid Tracks" was recorded to tape and played by DJ <a href="/wiki/Ron_Hardy" title="Ron Hardy">Ron Hardy</a> at the Music Box,<sup id="cite_ref-49" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-49">&#91;49&#93;</a></sup> supposedly already in 1985.<sup id="cite_ref-50" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-50">&#91;50&#93;</a></sup> Hardy once played it four times over the course of an evening until the crowd responded favorably.<sup id="cite_ref-cheeseman_51-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-cheeseman-51">&#91;51&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Club play of house tracks by pioneering Chicago DJs such as Ron Hardy and <a href="/wiki/Lil_Louis" title="Lil Louis">Lil Louis</a>, local dance music record shops such as Importes Etc., State Street Records, Loop Records, Gramaphone Records and the popular <a href="/wiki/Hot_Mix_5" title="Hot Mix 5">Hot Mix 5</a> shows on radio station <a href="/wiki/WBMX_(FM)" title="WBMX (FM)">WBMX-FM</a> helped popularize house music in Chicago. Later, visiting DJs and producers from Detroit fell into the genre. <a href="/wiki/Trax_Records" title="Trax Records">Trax Records</a> and <a href="/wiki/DJ_International_Records" title="DJ International Records">DJ International Records</a>, Chicago labels with wider distribution, helped popularize house music inside and outside of Chicago.
</p><p>The first major success of house music outside the U.S. is considered to be <a href="/wiki/Farley_%22Jackmaster%22_Funk" title="Farley &quot;Jackmaster&quot; Funk">Farley "Jackmaster" Funk</a>'s "<a href="/wiki/Love_Can%27t_Turn_Around" title="Love Can&#39;t Turn Around">Love Can't Turn Around</a>" (feat. <a href="/wiki/Jesse_Saunders" title="Jesse Saunders">Jesse Saunders</a> and performed by <a href="/wiki/Darryl_Pandy" title="Darryl Pandy">Darryl Pandy</a>), which peaked at #10 in the <a href="/wiki/UK_singles_chart" class="mw-redirect" title="UK singles chart">UK singles chart</a> in 1986. Around that time, UK record labels started releasing house music by Chicago acts, but as the genre grew popular, the <a href="/wiki/United_Kingdom" title="United Kingdom">UK</a> itself became one of the new hot spots for house, acid house and <a href="/wiki/Techno" title="Techno">techno</a> music, experiencing the so-called <a href="/wiki/Second_summer_of_love" class="mw-redirect" title="Second summer of love">second summer of love</a> between 1988 and 1989.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
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<h2><span id="Origins_of_the_term_.22house.22"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Origins_of_the_term_&quot;house&quot;">Origins of the term "house"</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=House_music&amp;action=edit&amp;section=4" title="Edit section: Origins of the term &quot;house&quot;">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:232px;"><a href="/wiki/File:5LA_8757_house.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3a/5LA_8757_house.jpg/230px-5LA_8757_house.jpg" decoding="async" width="230" height="134" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3a/5LA_8757_house.jpg/345px-5LA_8757_house.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3a/5LA_8757_house.jpg/460px-5LA_8757_house.jpg 2x" data-file-width="3109" data-file-height="1811" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:5LA_8757_house.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>House music pioneers Alan King, Robert Williams and Derrick Carter.</div></div></div>
<p>One 2009 book states the name house music originated from a Chicago club called the <a href="/wiki/Warehouse_(nightclub)" title="Warehouse (nightclub)">Warehouse</a>, which existed from 1977 to 1983.<sup id="cite_ref-Snoman_52-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Snoman-52">&#91;52&#93;</a></sup> Clubbers to the Warehouse were primarily <a href="/wiki/Black_people" title="Black people">black</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-brittanica_53-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-brittanica-53">&#91;53&#93;</a></sup> who came to dance to music played by the club's resident DJ <a href="/wiki/Frankie_Knuckles" title="Frankie Knuckles">Frankie Knuckles</a>, who fans refer to as the "godfather of house". Frankie began the trend of splicing together different records when he found that the records he had weren't long enough to satisfy his audience of dancers.<sup id="cite_ref-54" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-54">&#91;54&#93;</a></sup> After the Warehouse closed in 1983, the crowds went to Knuckles' new club, <i>The Power Plant</i>,<sup id="cite_ref-Snoman_52-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Snoman-52">&#91;52&#93;</a></sup> while the club was renamed into Music Box with <a href="/wiki/Ron_Hardy" title="Ron Hardy">Ron Hardy</a> being resident DJ.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
</p><p>In the <a href="/wiki/Channel_4" title="Channel 4">Channel 4</a> documentary <i>Pump Up The Volume</i>, Knuckles remarks that the first time he heard the term "house music" was upon seeing "we play house music" on a sign in the window of a bar on Chicago's South Side. One of the people in the car with him joked, "you know that's the kind of music you play down at the Warehouse!".<sup id="cite_ref-55" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-55">&#91;55&#93;</a></sup> South-Side Chicago DJ Leonard "Remix" Rroy, in self-published statements, claims he put such a sign in a tavern window because it was where he played music that one might find in one's home; in his case, it referred to his mother's soul and disco records, which he worked into his sets.<sup id="cite_ref-56" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-56">&#91;56&#93;</a></sup> The documentary also explored how house music was something that anyone could do. Mostly the documentary looks at some of the DJs from that genre, and how they stumbled into the music.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Farley_%22Jackmaster%22_Funk" title="Farley &quot;Jackmaster&quot; Funk">Farley "Jackmaster" Funk</a> was quoted as saying "In 1982, I was DJing at a club called The Playground and there was this kid named Leonard 'Remix' Rroy who was a DJ at a rival club called The Rink. He came over to my club one night, and into the DJ booth and said to me, 'I've got the gimmick that's gonna take all the people out of your club and into mine – it's called House music.' Now, where he got that name from or what made him think of it I don't know, so the answer lies with him."<sup id="cite_ref-57" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-57">&#91;57&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Chip_E." title="Chip E.">Chip E.</a>'s 1985 recording "It's House" may also have helped to define this new form of electronic music.<sup id="cite_ref-58" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-58">&#91;58&#93;</a></sup> However, Chip E. himself lends credence to the Knuckles association, claiming the name came from methods of labeling records at the Importes Etc. record store, where he worked in the early 1980s: bins of music that DJ Knuckles played at the Warehouse nightclub were labelled in the store "As Heard At The Warehouse", which was shortened to simply "House". Patrons later asked for new music for the bins, which Chip E. implies was a demand the shop tried to meet by stocking newer local club hits.<sup id="cite_ref-59" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-59">&#91;59&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>In a 1986 interview, when Rocky Jones, the club DJ who ran the D.J. International record label, was asked about the "house" moniker, he did not mention Importes Etc., Frankie Knuckles, or the Warehouse by name. However, he agreed that "house" was a regional catch-all term for dance music, and that it was once synonymous with older <a href="/wiki/Disco" title="Disco">disco</a> music, before it became a way to refer to "new" dance music.<sup id="cite_ref-Billboard_19860621_2_60-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Billboard_19860621_2-60">&#91;60&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Larry_Heard" title="Larry Heard">Larry Heard</a>, a.k.a. "Mr. Fingers", claims that the term "house" came from DJs creating music in home studios using affordable synthesizers and drum machines, such as the <a href="/wiki/Roland_TB-303" title="Roland TB-303">Roland TB-303</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-61" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-61">&#91;61&#93;</a></sup>  <a href="/wiki/Roland_TR-808" title="Roland TR-808">Roland TR-808</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Roland_TR-909" title="Roland TR-909">TR-909</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-62" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-62">&#91;62&#93;</a></sup> These synthesizers were used to create the <a href="/wiki/Acid_house" title="Acid house">acid house</a> subgenre.<sup id="cite_ref-63" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-63">&#91;63&#93;</a></sup> <a href="/wiki/Juan_Atkins" title="Juan Atkins">Juan Atkins</a>, an originator of <a href="/wiki/Detroit_techno" title="Detroit techno">Detroit techno</a>, claims the term "house" reflected the association of particular tracks with particular clubs and DJs, considered their "house" records.<sup id="cite_ref-atkins_64-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-atkins-64">&#91;64&#93;</a></sup>
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<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Social_and_political_aspects">Social and political aspects</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=House_music&amp;action=edit&amp;section=5" title="Edit section: Social and political aspects">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>Early house lyrics contained positive, uplifting messages for all people, from every different walk of life but spoke especially to those who were considered to be outsiders, especially African-Americans, Latinos, and the gay subculture. The house music dance scene was one of the most integrated and progressive spaces in the 1980s; the black and gay populations, as well as other minority groups, were able to dance together in a positive environment.<sup id="cite_ref-65" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-65">&#91;65&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>House music DJs aimed to create a "dream world of emotions" with "stories, keywords and sounds", which helped to "glue" communities together.<sup id="cite_ref-rietveld_14-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-rietveld-14">&#91;14&#93;</a></sup> Many house tracks encourage the audience to "release yourself" or "let yourself go", which is further encouraged by the continuous dancing, "incessant beat", and use of <a href="/wiki/Club_drugs" class="mw-redirect" title="Club drugs">club drugs</a>, which can create a <a href="/wiki/Trance" title="Trance">trance</a>-like effect on dancers.<sup id="cite_ref-rietveld_14-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-rietveld-14">&#91;14&#93;</a></sup> Frankie Knuckles once said that the Warehouse club in Chicago was like "church for people who have fallen from grace". House record producer Marshall Jefferson compared it to "old-time religion in the way that people just get happy and screamin'".<sup id="cite_ref-Reynolds1998_66-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Reynolds1998-66">&#91;66&#93;</a></sup> The role of a house DJ has been compared to a "secular type of priest".<sup id="cite_ref-rietveld_14-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-rietveld-14">&#91;14&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Some house lyrics contained messages calling for equality, unity and freedom of expression beyond racial or sexual differences (e.g. "Can You Feel It" by <a href="/wiki/Fingers_Inc." title="Fingers Inc.">Fingers Inc.</a>, 1987, or "Follow Me" by <a href="/wiki/Aly-Us" title="Aly-Us">Aly-Us</a>, 1992). However, not all house music songs had vocals, and in many cases, the vocals were quite meaningless, as the most important element in house was the beat and rhythm. Later on in the 1990s, but autonomous from the Chicago scene, the idea of <a href="/wiki/PLUR" title="PLUR">Peace, Love, Unity &amp; Respect (PLUR)</a> became a widespread set of principles for the <a href="/wiki/Rave" title="Rave">rave</a> culture which developed out of house.
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<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="House_dance">House dance</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=House_music&amp;action=edit&amp;section=6" title="Edit section: House dance">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main article: <a href="/wiki/House_dance" title="House dance">House dance</a></div>
<p>At least three styles of dancing are associated with house music: <a href="/wiki/Jacking" title="Jacking">Jacking</a>, <a href="/wiki/Footwork_(genre)" title="Footwork (genre)">Footwork</a>, and Lofting.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (April 2010)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup> These styles include a variety of techniques and sub-styles, including skating, stomping, Vosho, Pouting Cat and <a href="/wiki/Tap_dance_technique#Steps_with_two_sounds" title="Tap dance technique">shuffle steps</a> (also see <a href="/wiki/Melbourne_Shuffle" class="mw-redirect" title="Melbourne Shuffle">Melbourne Shuffle</a>).<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (April 2010)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup> House music dancing styles can include movements from many other forms of dance, such as <a href="/wiki/Waacking" title="Waacking">waacking</a>, <a href="/wiki/Vogue_(dance)" title="Vogue (dance)">voguing</a>, African, Latin, Brazilian (including <a href="/wiki/Capoeira" title="Capoeira">Capoeira</a>), <a href="/wiki/Jazz_dance" title="Jazz dance">jazz dance</a>, <a href="/wiki/Lindy_Hop" title="Lindy Hop">Lindy Hop</a>, <a href="/wiki/Tap_dance" title="Tap dance">tap dance</a>, and even <a href="/wiki/Modern_dance" title="Modern dance">modern dance</a>.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (April 2010)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup> House dancing is concerned with the sensuality of the body and setting oneself free in <a href="/wiki/Ecstasy_(emotion)" title="Ecstasy (emotion)">ecstasy</a> — without the worry of outside barriers.<sup id="cite_ref-Reynolds1998_66-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Reynolds1998-66">&#91;66&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>One of the primary elements in house dancing is "the jack" or "<a href="/wiki/Jacking" title="Jacking">jacking</a>" — a style created in the early days of Chicago house that left its trace in numerous record titles such as "Time to Jack" by <a href="/wiki/Chip_E." title="Chip E.">Chip E.</a> from the "Jack Trax" EP (1985), "Jack’n the House" (1985) by <a href="/wiki/Farley_%22Jackmaster%22_Funk" title="Farley &quot;Jackmaster&quot; Funk">Farley "Jackmaster" Funk</a> (1985) or "<a href="/wiki/Jack_Your_Body" title="Jack Your Body">Jack Your Body</a>" by <a href="/wiki/Steve_%22Silk%22_Hurley" title="Steve &quot;Silk&quot; Hurley">Steve "Silk" Hurley</a> (1986). It involves moving the <a href="/wiki/Torso" title="Torso">torso</a> forward and backward in a rippling motion matching the beat of the music, as if a wave were passing through it.<sup id="cite_ref-Reynolds1998_66-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Reynolds1998-66">&#91;66&#93;</a></sup>
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<h2><span id="Regional_scenes_.281980s.E2.80.931990s.29"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Regional_scenes_(1980s–1990s)">Regional scenes (1980s–1990s)</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=House_music&amp;action=edit&amp;section=7" title="Edit section: Regional scenes (1980s–1990s)">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Detroit_and_techno">Detroit and techno</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=House_music&amp;action=edit&amp;section=8" title="Edit section: Detroit and techno">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Detroit_techno" title="Detroit techno">Detroit techno</a> and <a href="/wiki/Techno" title="Techno">techno</a></div>
<p>In <a href="/wiki/Music_of_Detroit" title="Music of Detroit">Detroit</a> during the early and mid-1980s, a new kind of electronic dance music began to emerge around <a href="/wiki/Juan_Atkins" title="Juan Atkins">Juan Atkins</a>, <a href="/wiki/Derrick_May_(musician)" title="Derrick May (musician)">Derrick May</a> and <a href="/wiki/Kevin_Saunderson" title="Kevin Saunderson">Kevin Saunderson</a>, known as <a href="/wiki/The_Belleville_Three" title="The Belleville Three">the Belleville Three</a>. The artists fused eclectic, <a href="/wiki/Futurism" title="Futurism">futuristic</a> sounds into a signature Detroit dance sound that was a main influence for the later <a href="/wiki/Techno" title="Techno">techno</a> genre. Their music included strong influences from <a href="/wiki/Chicago_house" title="Chicago house">Chicago house</a>, although the term "house" played a less important role in Detroit than in Chicago, and the term "techno" was established instead.<sup id="cite_ref-67" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-67">&#91;67&#93;</a></sup> One of their most successful hits was a vocal house track named "<a href="/wiki/Big_Fun_(Inner_City_song)" title="Big Fun (Inner City song)">Big Fun</a>" by <a href="/wiki/Inner_City_(band)" title="Inner City (band)">Inner City</a>, a group produced by Kevin Saunderson, in 1988.
</p><p>Another important and even earlier influence on the Detroit artists was electronic music in the tradition of Germany's <a href="/wiki/Kraftwerk" title="Kraftwerk">Kraftwerk</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-68" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-68">&#91;68&#93;</a></sup> Atkins had released <a href="/wiki/Electro_(music)" title="Electro (music)">electro</a> music in that style with his group <a href="/wiki/Cybotron_(American_band)" title="Cybotron (American band)">Cybotron</a> as early as 1981. Cybotron's best known songs are "Cosmic Cars" (1982) and "Clear" (1983); a 1984 release was titled "Techno City". In 1988, Atkins produced the track "Techno Music" that was featured on an influential compilation initially planned to be named "The House Sound of Detroit", but renamed into "<a href="/wiki/Techno!_The_New_Dance_Sound_of_Detroit" title="Techno! The New Dance Sound of Detroit">Techno! The New Dance Sound of Detroit</a>" after Atkins' song.<sup id="cite_ref-69" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-69">&#91;69&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The 1987 song "<a href="/wiki/Strings_of_Life" title="Strings of Life">Strings of Life</a>" by Derrick May (under the name Rhythm Is Rhythm) represented a darker, more intellectual strain of early Detroit electronic dance music. It is considered a classic in both the house and techno genre and shows the connection<sup id="cite_ref-70" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-70">&#91;70&#93;</a></sup> as well as the "boundary between house and techno."<sup id="cite_ref-71" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-71">&#91;71&#93;</a></sup> It made way to what was later known as "<a href="/wiki/Techno" title="Techno">techno</a>" in the internationally known sense of the word, referring to a harder, faster, colder, more machine-driven and minimal sound than house, as played by Detroit's <a href="/wiki/Underground_Resistance" title="Underground Resistance">Underground Resistance</a> and <a href="/wiki/Jeff_Mills" title="Jeff Mills">Jeff Mills</a>.
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<h3><span id="UK:_Acid_house.2C_rave_culture_and_the_Second_Summer_of_Love"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="UK:_Acid_house,_rave_culture_and_the_Second_Summer_of_Love">UK: Acid house, rave culture and the Second Summer of Love</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=House_music&amp;action=edit&amp;section=9" title="Edit section: UK: Acid house, rave culture and the Second Summer of Love">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a href="/wiki/Second_Summer_of_Love" title="Second Summer of Love">Second Summer of Love</a> and <a href="/wiki/Rave" title="Rave">Rave</a></div>
<p>With house music already important in the 1980s dance club scene, eventually house penetrated the UK pop charts. London DJ <a href="/wiki/Eddie_Richards" title="Eddie Richards">"Evil" Eddie Richards</a> spun at dance parties as resident at the Clink Street club. Richards' approach to house focuses on the deep <a href="/wiki/Bassline" title="Bassline">basslines</a>. Nicknamed the UK's "Godfather of House", he and Clink co-residents Kid Batchelor and <a href="/wiki/Mr._C" title="Mr. C">Mr. C</a> played a key role in early UK house. House first charted in the UK in Wolverhampton following the success of the <a href="/wiki/Northern_Soul" class="mw-redirect" title="Northern Soul">Northern Soul</a> scene. The record generally credited as the first house hit in the UK was Farley "Jackmaster" Funk's "<a href="/wiki/Love_Can%27t_Turn_Around" title="Love Can&#39;t Turn Around">Love Can't Turn Around</a>", which reached #10 in the UK singles chart in September 1986.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
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<td class="mbox-image"><div class="center"><div class="floatnone"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/Gnome-mime-sound-openclipart.svg/50px-Gnome-mime-sound-openclipart.svg.png" decoding="async" width="50" height="50" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/Gnome-mime-sound-openclipart.svg/75px-Gnome-mime-sound-openclipart.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/87/Gnome-mime-sound-openclipart.svg/100px-Gnome-mime-sound-openclipart.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="160" data-file-height="160" /></div></div></td>
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<div style="padding:4px 0"><a href="/wiki/File:Yazz_-_The_Only_Way_Is_Up.ogg" title="File:Yazz - The Only Way Is Up.ogg">Yazz – "The Only Way Is Up" (1988)</a></div>
<div><div class="mediaContainer" style="width:220px"><audio id="mwe_player_4" controls="" preload="none" style="width:220px" class="kskin" data-durationhint="24.723741496599" data-startoffset="0" data-mwtitle="Yazz_-_The_Only_Way_Is_Up.ogg" data-mwprovider="local"><source src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/5a/Yazz_-_The_Only_Way_Is_Up.ogg" type="audio/ogg; codecs=&quot;vorbis&quot;" data-title="Original Ogg file (67 kbps)" data-shorttitle="Ogg source" data-width="0" data-height="0" data-bandwidth="67380" /><source src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/transcoded/5/5a/Yazz_-_The_Only_Way_Is_Up.ogg/Yazz_-_The_Only_Way_Is_Up.ogg.mp3" type="audio/mpeg" data-title="MP3" data-shorttitle="MP3" data-transcodekey="mp3" data-width="0" data-height="0" data-bandwidth="205624" /></audio></div></div>
<div class="description" style="padding:2px 0 0 0">The acid house record "<a href="/wiki/The_Only_Way_Is_Up" title="The Only Way Is Up">The Only Way Is Up</a>" by <a href="/wiki/Yazz" title="Yazz">Yazz</a> was the second best-selling British single of 1988.</div></div></td></tr>
<tr><td colspan="2" class="mbox-text" style="line-height:1.1em"><hr /><i class="selfreference">Problems playing this file? See <a href="/wiki/Help:Media" title="Help:Media">media help</a>.</i></td></tr>
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<p>In January 1987, Chicago DJ/artist Steve "Silk" Hurley's "<a href="/wiki/Jack_Your_Body" title="Jack Your Body">Jack Your Body</a>" reached number one in the UK, showing it was possible for house music to achieve crossover success in the pop charts. The same month also saw <a href="/wiki/Raze_(house_music_group)" class="mw-redirect" title="Raze (house music group)">Raze</a> enter the top 20 with "Jack the Groove", and several further house hits reached the top ten that year. <a href="/wiki/Stock_Aitken_Waterman" title="Stock Aitken Waterman">Stock Aitken Waterman</a> (SAW) expensively-produced productions for <a href="/wiki/Mel_and_Kim" title="Mel and Kim">Mel and Kim</a>, including the number-one hit "Respectable", added elements of house to their previous <a href="/wiki/Europop" title="Europop">Europop</a> sound. SAW session group <a href="/wiki/Mirage_(medley_group)" class="mw-redirect" title="Mirage (medley group)">Mirage</a> scored top-ten hits with "Jack Mix II" and "Jack Mix IV", medleys of previous <a href="/wiki/Electro_music" class="mw-redirect" title="Electro music">electro</a> and Europop hits rearranged in a house music style. Key labels in the rise of house music in the UK included:<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
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<ul><li>Jack Trax, which specialized in licensing US club hits for the British market (and released an influential series of <a href="/wiki/Compilation_album" title="Compilation album">compilation albums</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rhythm_King" title="Rhythm King">Rhythm King</a>, which was set up as a <a href="/wiki/Hip_hop" title="Hip hop">hip hop</a> label but also issued house records</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jive_Records" title="Jive Records">Jive Records</a>' Club Records imprint</li></ul>
<p>In March 1987, the UK tour of influential US DJs such as Knuckles, Jefferson, Fingers Inc. (Heard) and Adonis, on the DJ International Tour boosted house's popularity in the UK. Following the number-one success of <a href="/wiki/MARRS" title="MARRS">MARRS</a>' "<a href="/wiki/Pump_Up_the_Volume_(song)" title="Pump Up the Volume (song)">Pump Up The Volume</a>" in October, in 1987 to 1989, UK acts such as The <a href="/wiki/Beatmasters" title="Beatmasters">Beatmasters</a>, <a href="/wiki/Krush" title="Krush">Krush</a>, <a href="/wiki/Coldcut" title="Coldcut">Coldcut</a>, <a href="/wiki/Yazz" title="Yazz">Yazz</a>, <a href="/wiki/Bomb_The_Bass" class="mw-redirect" title="Bomb The Bass">Bomb The Bass</a>, <a href="/wiki/S-Express" class="mw-redirect" title="S-Express">S-Express</a>, and Italy's <a href="/wiki/Black_Box_(band)" title="Black Box (band)">Black Box</a> opened the doors to house music success on the UK charts. Early British house music quickly set itself apart from the original Chicago house sound. Many of the early hits were based on <a href="/wiki/Sampling_(music)" title="Sampling (music)">sample</a> montage, and unlike the US soulful vocals, in UK house, <a href="/wiki/Rap" class="mw-redirect" title="Rap">rap</a> was often used for vocals (far more than in the US), and <a href="/wiki/Humor" class="mw-redirect" title="Humor">humor</a> and wit was an important element.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
</p><p>The second best-selling British single of 1988 was an <a href="/wiki/Acid_house" title="Acid house">acid house</a> record, the <a href="/wiki/Coldcut" title="Coldcut">Coldcut</a>-produced "<a href="/wiki/The_Only_Way_Is_Up" title="The Only Way Is Up">The Only Way Is Up</a>" by <a href="/wiki/Yazz" title="Yazz">Yazz</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-72" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-72">&#91;72&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-73" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-73">&#91;73&#93;</a></sup> One of the early club anthems, "Promised Land" by Joe Smooth, was covered and charted within a week by UK band <a href="/wiki/The_Style_Council" title="The Style Council">The Style Council</a>. Europeans embraced house, and began booking important American house DJs to play at the big clubs, such as <a href="/wiki/Ministry_of_Sound" title="Ministry of Sound">Ministry of Sound</a>, whose resident, <a href="/wiki/Justin_Berkmann" title="Justin Berkmann">Justin Berkmann</a> brought in US pioneer <a href="/wiki/Larry_Levan" title="Larry Levan">Larry Levan</a>.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
</p><p>The house music club scene in cities such as <a href="/wiki/Birmingham" title="Birmingham">Birmingham</a>, <a href="/wiki/Leeds" title="Leeds">Leeds</a>, <a href="/wiki/Sheffield" title="Sheffield">Sheffield</a>, <a href="/wiki/Wolverhampton" title="Wolverhampton">Wolverhampton</a> and <a href="/wiki/London" title="London">London</a> were provided with dance tracks by many underground <a href="/wiki/Pirate_Radio" class="mw-redirect" title="Pirate Radio">Pirate Radio</a> stations. Club DJs also brought in new house styles, which helped bolster this music genre. The earliest UK house and techno record labels such as <a href="/wiki/Warp_Records" class="mw-redirect" title="Warp Records">Warp Records</a> and <a href="/wiki/Network_Records" title="Network Records">Network Records</a> (otherwise known as Kool Kat records) helped introduce American and later Italian dance music to Britain. These labels also promoted UK dance music acts. By the end of the 1980s, UK DJs Jenö, Thomas, Markie and Garth moved to San Francisco, and called their group the Wicked Crew. The Wicked Crew's dance sound transmitted UK styles to the US, which helped to trigger the birth of the US west coast's rave scene.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
</p><p>The manager of Manchester's <a href="/wiki/The_Factory_(music_venue)" class="mw-redirect" title="The Factory (music venue)">Factory nightclub</a> and co-owner of <a href="/wiki/The_Ha%C3%A7ienda" title="The Haçienda">The Haçienda</a>, <a href="/wiki/Tony_Wilson" title="Tony Wilson">Tony Wilson</a>, also promoted acid house culture on his weekly TV show. The UK midlands also embraced the late 1980s house scene with illegal parties and <a href="/wiki/Rave" title="Rave">raves</a> and more legal dance clubs such as The Hummingbird.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
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<h3><span id="Chicago.27s_second_wave:_Hip_house_and_ghetto_house"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="Chicago's_second_wave:_Hip_house_and_ghetto_house">Chicago's second wave: Hip house and ghetto house</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=House_music&amp;action=edit&amp;section=10" title="Edit section: Chicago&#039;s second wave: Hip house and ghetto house">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Hip_house" title="Hip house">Hip house</a> and <a href="/wiki/Ghetto_house" title="Ghetto house">ghetto house</a></div>
<p>While the acid house hype spawned to the UK and Europe, in Chicago itself it reached its peak around 1988 and then declined in popularity.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (July 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup> Instead, a crossover of house and <a href="/wiki/Hip-hop_music" class="mw-redirect" title="Hip-hop music">hip-hop music</a>, known as <a href="/wiki/Hip_house" title="Hip house">hip house</a>, became popular. <a href="/wiki/Tyree_Cooper" title="Tyree Cooper">Tyree Cooper</a>'s single "Turn Up the Bass" featuring Kool Rock Steady from 1988 was an influential breakthrough for this subgenre, although the British trio the <a href="/wiki/Beatmasters" title="Beatmasters">Beatmasters</a> claimed having invented the genre with their 1986 release "<a href="/wiki/Rok_da_House" title="Rok da House">Rok da House</a>".<sup id="cite_ref-74" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-74">&#91;74&#93;</a></sup> Another notable figure in the hip house scene was <a href="/wiki/Fast_Eddie_(producer)" title="Fast Eddie (producer)">Fast Eddie</a> with "Hip House" and "Yo Yo Get Funky!" (both 1988). Even <a href="/wiki/Farley_%22Jackmaster%22_Funk" title="Farley &quot;Jackmaster&quot; Funk">Farley "Jackmaster" Funk</a> engaged himself in the genre, releasing "Free at Last", a song to free <a href="/wiki/James_Brown" title="James Brown">James Brown</a> from jail, featuring The Hip House Syndicate, in 1989, and producing a <i>Real Hip House</i> compilation on his label House Records in 1990.<sup id="cite_ref-75" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-75">&#91;75&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>The early 1990s saw new Chicago house artists emerge, such as <a href="/wiki/Armando_(producer)" title="Armando (producer)">Armando Gallop</a>, who had released seminal acid house records since 1987, but became even more influential by co-founding the new Warehouse nightclub in Chicago (on 738 W. Randolph Street<sup id="cite_ref-76" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-76">&#91;76&#93;</a></sup>) in which he also was resident DJ from 1992 until 1994, and founding Warehouse Records in 1988.<sup id="cite_ref-77" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-77">&#91;77&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Another important figure during the early to mid-1990s (until the 2000s) was DJ and producer <a href="/wiki/Paul_Johnson_(producer)" title="Paul Johnson (producer)">Paul Johnson</a>, who released the Warehouse-anthem "Welcome to the Warehouse" on Armando's label in 1994 in collaboration with Armando himself.<sup id="cite_ref-78" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-78">&#91;78&#93;</a></sup> He also had part in the development of an entirely new kind of Chicago house sound, "<a href="/wiki/Ghetto_house" title="Ghetto house">ghetto house</a>", which was prominently released and popularized through the <a href="/wiki/Dance_Mania_(record_label)" title="Dance Mania (record label)">Dance Mania</a> record label. It was originally founded by <a href="/wiki/Jesse_Saunders" title="Jesse Saunders">Jesse Saunders</a> in 1985 but passed on to Raymond Barney in 1988. It featured notable ghetto house artists like <a href="/wiki/DJ_Funk" title="DJ Funk">DJ Funk</a>, DJ Deeon, DJ Milton, Paul Johnson and others. The label is regarded as hugely influential in the history of <a href="/wiki/Chicago_house" title="Chicago house">Chicago house</a> music, and has been described as "ghetto house's <a href="/wiki/Motown" title="Motown">Motown</a>".<sup id="cite_ref-79" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-79">&#91;79&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>One of the prototypes for Dance Mania's new ghetto house sound was the single "(It's Time for the) Perculator" by Cajmere, also known as <a href="/wiki/Green_Velvet" title="Green Velvet">Green Velvet</a>, from 1992. Cajmere started the labels Cajual Records and Relief Records, the latter combining the sound of Chicago, acid and ghetto house with the harder sound of <a href="/wiki/Techno" title="Techno">techno</a>. By the early 1990s, artists of note on those two labels included <a href="/wiki/Dajae" title="Dajae">Dajae</a>, <a href="/wiki/DJ_Sneak" title="DJ Sneak">DJ Sneak</a>, <a href="/wiki/Derrick_Carter" title="Derrick Carter">Derrick Carter</a>, <a href="/wiki/DJ_Rush" title="DJ Rush">DJ Rush</a>, Paul Johnson, Joe Lewis, and Glenn Underground.
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<h3><span id="New_York_and_New_Jersey:_Garage_house_and_the_.22Jersey_sound.22"></span><span class="mw-headline" id="New_York_and_New_Jersey:_Garage_house_and_the_&quot;Jersey_sound&quot;">New York and New Jersey: Garage house and the "Jersey sound"</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=House_music&amp;action=edit&amp;section=11" title="Edit section: New York and New Jersey: Garage house and the &quot;Jersey sound&quot;">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">Main articles: <a href="/wiki/Garage_house" title="Garage house">Garage house</a> and <a href="/wiki/New_Jersey_house" class="mw-redirect" title="New Jersey house">New Jersey house</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Paradise_garage.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3f/Paradise_garage.jpg/220px-Paradise_garage.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="270" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3f/Paradise_garage.jpg/330px-Paradise_garage.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3f/Paradise_garage.jpg 2x" data-file-width="432" data-file-height="531" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Paradise_garage.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div>Building in New York City where the <a href="/wiki/Paradise_Garage" title="Paradise Garage">Paradise Garage</a> nightclub was located</div></div></div>
<p>While house conquered UK and continental Europe, the scene in the U.S. had still not progressed beyond a small number of clubs in Chicago, Detroit, <a href="/wiki/New_York_City" title="New York City">New York City</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Newark,_New_Jersey" title="Newark, New Jersey">Newark</a>. In New York and Newark, the terms "<a href="/wiki/Garage_house" title="Garage house">garage house</a>", "garage music", or simply "garage", and "Jersey sound", or "<a href="/wiki/New_Jersey_house" class="mw-redirect" title="New Jersey house">New Jersey house</a>", were coined for a deeper, more <a href="/wiki/Soul_music" title="Soul music">soulful</a>, <a href="/wiki/Contemporary_R%26B" title="Contemporary R&amp;B">R&amp;B</a>-derived subgenre of house that was developed in the <a href="/wiki/Paradise_Garage" title="Paradise Garage">Paradise Garage</a> nightclub in New York City and <a href="/wiki/Club_Zanzibar" title="Club Zanzibar">Club Zanzibar</a> in Newark, New Jersey, during the early-to-mid 1980s. It is argued that garage house predates the development of <a href="/wiki/Chicago_house" title="Chicago house">Chicago house</a>, as it is relatively closer to <a href="/wiki/Disco" title="Disco">disco</a> than other dance styles.<sup id="cite_ref-allmusic_80-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-allmusic-80">&#91;80&#93;</a></sup> As Chicago house gained international popularity, New York's and New Jersey's music scene was distinguished from the "house" umbrella.<sup id="cite_ref-allmusic_80-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-allmusic-80">&#91;80&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-81" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-81">&#91;81&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>In comparison to other forms of house music, garage house and Jersey sound include more <a href="/wiki/Gospel_music" title="Gospel music">gospel</a>-influenced piano riffs and female vocals.<sup id="cite_ref-techn_82-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-techn-82">&#91;82&#93;</a></sup> The genre was popular in the 1980s in the United States and the 1990s in the United Kingdom.<sup id="cite_ref-techn_82-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-techn-82">&#91;82&#93;</a></sup> DJs playing it include <a href="/wiki/Tony_Humphries_(musician)" title="Tony Humphries (musician)">Tony Humphries</a> at Club Zanzibar, <a href="/wiki/Larry_Levan" title="Larry Levan">Larry Levan</a>, who was resident DJ at the Paradise Garage from 1977 to 1987, <a href="/wiki/Todd_Terry" title="Todd Terry">Todd Terry</a>, <a href="/wiki/Kerri_Chandler" title="Kerri Chandler">Kerri Chandler</a>, <a href="/wiki/Masters_at_Work" title="Masters at Work">Masters at Work</a>, <a href="/wiki/Junior_Vasquez" title="Junior Vasquez">Junior Vasquez</a> and others.<sup id="cite_ref-traces_83-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-traces-83">&#91;83&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>In the late 1980s, <a href="/w/index.php?title=Nu_Groove_Records&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Nu Groove Records (page does not exist)">Nu Groove Records</a> launched and nurtured the careers of <a href="/wiki/Rheji_Burrell" title="Rheji Burrell">Rheji Burrell</a> and Rhano Burrell, collectively known as Burrell (after a brief stay on Virgin America via <a href="/wiki/Timmy_Regisford" title="Timmy Regisford">Timmy Regisford</a> and Frank Mendez). Nu Groove also had a stable of other NYC underground scene DJs. The Burrell's created the "New York Underground" sound of house, and they did more than 30 releases on this label featuring this sound.
</p><p>The emergence of New York's DJ and producer <a href="/wiki/Todd_Terry" title="Todd Terry">Todd Terry</a> in 1988 demonstrated the continuum from the underground disco approach to a new and commercially successful house sound. Terry's cover of Class Action's "Weekend" (mixed by <a href="/wiki/Larry_Levan" title="Larry Levan">Larry Levan</a>) shows how Terry drew on newer <a href="/wiki/Hip_hop_music" title="Hip hop music">hip-hop</a> influences, such as the quicker sampling and the more rugged <a href="/wiki/Bassline" title="Bassline">basslines</a>.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Ibiza">Ibiza</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=House_music&amp;action=edit&amp;section=12" title="Edit section: Ibiza">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a href="/wiki/Balearic_Beat" class="mw-redirect" title="Balearic Beat">Balearic Beat</a></div>
<p>House was also being developed by DJs and record producers in the booming dance club scene in <a href="/wiki/Ibiza" title="Ibiza">Ibiza</a>. While no house artists or labels came from this tiny island at the time, mixing experiments and innovations done by Ibiza DJs helped to influence the house style. By the mid-1980s a distinct <a href="/wiki/Balearic_Beat" class="mw-redirect" title="Balearic Beat">Balearic</a> mix of house was discernible. Several influential clubs in Ibiza, such as <a href="/wiki/Amnesia_(nightclub)" title="Amnesia (nightclub)">Amnesia</a>, with DJ Alfredo at the decks, were playing a mix of rock, pop, disco and house. These clubs, fuelled by their distinctive sound and copious consumption of the <a href="/wiki/Club_drug" title="Club drug">club drug</a> <a href="/wiki/Ecstasy_(drug)" class="mw-redirect" title="Ecstasy (drug)">Ecstasy</a> (MDMA), began to influence the British scene. By late 1987, DJs such as Trevor Fung, <a href="/wiki/Paul_Oakenfold" title="Paul Oakenfold">Paul Oakenfold</a> and <a href="/wiki/Danny_Rampling" title="Danny Rampling">Danny Rampling</a> were bringing the Ibiza sound to key UK clubs such as <a href="/wiki/The_Ha%C3%A7ienda" title="The Haçienda">the Haçienda</a> in Manchester. Ibiza influences also spread to DJs working London clubs such as Shoom in Southwark, <a href="/wiki/Heaven_(nightclub)" title="Heaven (nightclub)">Heaven</a>, Future and Spectrum.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Other_regional_scenes">Other regional scenes</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=House_music&amp;action=edit&amp;section=13" title="Edit section: Other regional scenes">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>By the late 1980s, house DJing and production had moved to the US's west coast, particularly to San Francisco, Oakland, Los Angeles, Fresno, San Diego and Seattle. Los Angeles saw an explosion of underground <a href="/wiki/Rave" title="Rave">raves</a>, where DJs mixed dance tracks. L.A. DJs Marques Wyatt and Billy Long spun at <a href="/wiki/Jewel%27s_Catch_One" title="Jewel&#39;s Catch One">Jewel's Catch One</a>. In 1989, the L.A.-based, former <a href="/wiki/EBN-OZN" class="mw-redirect" title="EBN-OZN">EBN-OZN</a> singer/rapper <a href="/wiki/Robert_Ozn" title="Robert Ozn">Robert Ozn</a> started indie house label One Voice Records. Ozn released the Mike "Hitman" Wilson remix of <a href="/wiki/Dada_Nada" class="mw-redirect" title="Dada Nada">Dada Nada</a>'s "Haunted House", which garnered club and mix show radio play in Chicago, Detroit and New York as well as in the UK and France. The record went up to number five on the <i>Billboard</i> Club Chart, marking it as the first house record by a white (Caucasian) artist to chart in the U.S. Dada Nada, the moniker for Ozn's solo act, did his first releases in 1990, using a jazz-based <a href="/wiki/Deep_house" title="Deep house">deep house</a> style. The <a href="/wiki/Frankie_Knuckles" title="Frankie Knuckles">Frankie Knuckles</a> and <a href="/wiki/David_Morales" title="David Morales">David Morales</a> remix of Dada Nada's "Deep Love" (One Voice Records in the US, Polydor in the UK), featuring Ozn's lush, <a href="/wiki/Crooning" class="mw-redirect" title="Crooning">crooning</a> vocals and jazzy improvisational solos by muted trumpet, underscored deep house's progression into a genre that integrated jazz and pop songwriting and song forms (unlike <a href="/wiki/Acid_house" title="Acid house">acid house</a> and <a href="/wiki/Techno" title="Techno">techno</a>).<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
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<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="The_1990s">The 1990s</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=House_music&amp;action=edit&amp;section=14" title="Edit section: The 1990s">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a href="/wiki/Eurodance" title="Eurodance">Eurodance</a>, <a href="/wiki/French_House" class="mw-redirect" title="French House">French House</a>, <a href="/wiki/Ambient_house" title="Ambient house">Ambient house</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Tech_house" title="Tech house">Tech house</a></div>
<p>In Britain, further experiments in the genre boosted its appeal. House and <a href="/wiki/Rave" title="Rave">rave</a> clubs such as <a href="/wiki/Lakota_(club)" title="Lakota (club)">Lakota</a> and <a href="/wiki/Cream_(nightclub)" title="Cream (nightclub)">Cream</a> emerged across Britain, hosting house and dance scene events. The 'chilling out' concept developed in Britain with <a href="/wiki/Ambient_house" title="Ambient house">ambient house</a> albums such as <a href="/wiki/The_KLF" title="The KLF">The KLF</a>'s <i><a href="/wiki/Chill_Out_(KLF_album)" title="Chill Out (KLF album)">Chill Out</a></i> and <i><a href="/wiki/Analogue_Bubblebath_Vol_I" class="mw-redirect" title="Analogue Bubblebath Vol I">Analogue Bubblebath</a></i> by <a href="/wiki/Aphex_Twin" title="Aphex Twin">Aphex Twin</a>. The <a href="/wiki/Godskitchen" title="Godskitchen">Godskitchen</a> superclub brand also began in the midst of the early 1990s rave scene. After initially hosting small nights in <a href="/wiki/Cambridge" title="Cambridge">Cambridge</a> and <a href="/wiki/Northampton" title="Northampton">Northampton</a>, the associated events scaled up at the <a href="/wiki/Sanctuary_Music_Arena" title="Sanctuary Music Arena">Sanctuary Music Arena</a> in <a href="/wiki/Milton_Keynes" title="Milton Keynes">Milton Keynes</a>, in <a href="/wiki/Birmingham" title="Birmingham">Birmingham</a> and in <a href="/wiki/Leeds" title="Leeds">Leeds</a>. A new indie dance scene also emerged in the 1990s. In New York, bands such as <a href="/wiki/Deee-Lite" title="Deee-Lite">Deee-Lite</a> furthered house's international influence. Two distinctive tracks from this era were <a href="/wiki/The_Orb" title="The Orb">the Orb</a>'s "<a href="/wiki/Little_Fluffy_Clouds" title="Little Fluffy Clouds">Little Fluffy Clouds</a>" (with a distinctive vocal sample from <a href="/wiki/Rickie_Lee_Jones" title="Rickie Lee Jones">Rickie Lee Jones</a>) and the <a href="/wiki/Happy_Mondays" title="Happy Mondays">Happy Mondays</a>' "<a href="/wiki/Wrote_for_Luck" class="mw-redirect" title="Wrote for Luck">Wrote for Luck</a>" ("WFL") which was transformed into a dance hit by <a href="/wiki/Vince_Clarke" title="Vince Clarke">Vince Clarke</a>.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
</p><p>In England, one of the few licensed venues was <a href="/wiki/The_Eclipse_(venue)" class="mw-redirect" title="The Eclipse (venue)">The Eclipse</a>, which attracted people from up and down the country as it was open until the early hours. Due to the lack of licensed, legal dance event venues, house music promoters began organising illegal events in unused warehouses, aeroplane hangars and in the countryside. The <a href="/wiki/Criminal_Justice_and_Public_Order_Act_1994" title="Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994">Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994</a> was a government attempt to ban large rave dance events featuring music with "repetitive beats", due to law enforcement allegations that these events were associated with illegal <a href="/wiki/Club_drug" title="Club drug">club drugs</a>. There were a number of "Kill the Bill" demonstrations by rave and <a href="/wiki/Electronic_dance_music" title="Electronic dance music">electronic dance music</a> fans. The <a href="/wiki/Spiral_Tribe" title="Spiral Tribe">Spiral Tribe</a> dance event at Castle Morten was the last of these illegal raves, as the bill, which became law, in November 1994, made unauthorised house music dance events illegal in the UK. Despite the new law, the music continued to grow and change, as typified by <a href="/wiki/Leftfield" title="Leftfield">Leftfield</a> with "<a href="/wiki/Release_the_Pressure" title="Release the Pressure">Release the Pressure</a>", which introduced dub and <a href="/wiki/Reggae" title="Reggae">reggae</a> into the house sound. Leftfield's prior releases, such as "Not Forgotten" released in 1990 on Sheffield's Outer Rhythm records used a more typical sound.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
</p><p>A new generation of clubs such as <a href="/wiki/Liverpool" title="Liverpool">Liverpool</a>'s <a href="/wiki/Cream_(nightclub)" title="Cream (nightclub)">Cream</a> and the <a href="/wiki/Ministry_of_Sound" title="Ministry of Sound">Ministry of Sound</a> were opened to provide a venue for more commercial house sounds. Major record companies began to open "<a href="/wiki/Superclub" title="Superclub">superclubs</a>" promoting their own groups and acts. These superclubs entered into sponsorship deals initially with fast food, soft drink, and clothing companies. Flyers in clubs in <a href="/wiki/Ibiza" title="Ibiza">Ibiza</a> often sported many corporate logos from sponsors. A new subgenre, Chicago hard house, was developed by DJs such as <a href="/wiki/Bad_Boy_Bill" title="Bad Boy Bill">Bad Boy Bill</a>, <a href="/wiki/DJ_Lynnwood" title="DJ Lynnwood">DJ Lynnwood</a>, and <a href="/wiki/DJ_Irene" title="DJ Irene">DJ Irene</a>, <a href="/wiki/Richard_%22Humpty%22_Vission" class="mw-redirect" title="Richard &quot;Humpty&quot; Vission">Richard "Humpty" Vission</a>, mixing elements of Chicago house, <a href="/wiki/Funky_house" title="Funky house">funky house</a> and <a href="/wiki/Hard_house" class="mw-redirect" title="Hard house">hard house</a>. Additionally, producers such as George Centeno, Darren Ramirez, and Martin O. Cairo developed the Los Angeles Hard House sound. Similar to <a href="/wiki/Gabber" title="Gabber">gabber</a> or <a href="/wiki/Hardcore_techno" class="mw-redirect" title="Hardcore techno">hardcore techno</a> from the Netherlands, this was associated with the "rebel", underground club subculture of the time. These three producers introduced new production approaches and sounds in late 20th century became more prominent and widely used during first decade of the 21st century.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
</p><p>Towards the end of the 1990s and into the 2000s, French DJ/producers such as <a href="/wiki/Daft_Punk" title="Daft Punk">Daft Punk</a>, <a href="/wiki/Bob_Sinclar" title="Bob Sinclar">Bob Sinclar</a>, <a href="/wiki/Stardust_(band)" class="mw-redirect" title="Stardust (band)">Stardust</a>, <a href="/wiki/Cassius_(band)" title="Cassius (band)">Cassius</a>, <a href="/wiki/St._Germain_(musician)" class="mw-redirect" title="St. Germain (musician)">St. Germain</a> and <a href="/wiki/DJ_Falcon" title="DJ Falcon">DJ Falcon</a> began producing a new sound in Paris' club scene. Together, they laid the groundwork for what would be known as the <a href="/wiki/French_house" title="French house">French house</a> movement. They combined the harder-edged-yet-soulful philosophy of Chicago house with the melodies of obscure funk records. As well, by using state-of-the-art digital production techniques blended with the retro sound of old-school analog synthesizers, they created a new sound and style which influenced house music around the world.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
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<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="21st_century">21st century</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=House_music&amp;action=edit&amp;section=15" title="Edit section: 21st century">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="2000s">2000s</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=House_music&amp;action=edit&amp;section=16" title="Edit section: 2000s">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a href="/wiki/Electroclash" title="Electroclash">Electroclash</a> and <a href="/wiki/Electro_house" title="Electro house">Electro house</a></div>
<p>Chicago Mayor <a href="/wiki/Richard_M._Daley" title="Richard M. Daley">Richard M. Daley</a> proclaimed August 10, 2005 to be "House Unity Day" in Chicago, in celebration of the "21st anniversary of house music" (actually the 21st anniversary of the founding of <a href="/wiki/Trax_Records" title="Trax Records">Trax Records</a>, an independent Chicago-based house label). The proclamation recognized Chicago as the original home of house music and that the music's original creators "were inspired by the love of their city, with the dream that someday their music would spread a message of peace and unity throughout the world". DJs such as <a href="/wiki/Frankie_Knuckles" title="Frankie Knuckles">Frankie Knuckles</a>, <a href="/wiki/Marshall_Jefferson" title="Marshall Jefferson">Marshall Jefferson</a>, <a href="/wiki/Paul_Johnson_(DJ)" class="mw-redirect" title="Paul Johnson (DJ)">Paul Johnson</a> and <a href="/wiki/Mickey_Oliver" title="Mickey Oliver">Mickey Oliver</a> celebrated the proclamation at the Summer Dance Series, an event organized by Chicago's Department of Cultural Affairs.<sup id="cite_ref-84" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-84">&#91;84&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>It was during this decade that vocal house became firmly established, both in the underground and as part of the pop market, and labels such as <a href="/wiki/Defected_Records" title="Defected Records">Defected Records</a>, <a href="/wiki/Roul%C3%A9" title="Roulé">Roulé</a> and Om were at the forefront of championing the emerging sound. In the mid-2000s, fusion genres such as <a href="/wiki/Electro_house" title="Electro house">electro house</a> and <a href="/wiki/Fidget_house" class="mw-redirect" title="Fidget house">fidget house</a> emerged.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (December 2011)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup> This fusion is apparent in the crossover of musical styles by artists such as <a href="/wiki/Dennis_Ferrer" title="Dennis Ferrer">Dennis Ferrer</a> and <a href="/wiki/Booka_Shade" title="Booka Shade">Booka Shade</a>, with the former's production style having evolved from the New York soulful house scene and the latter's roots in <a href="/wiki/Techno" title="Techno">techno</a>. Numerous live performance events dedicated to house music were founded during the course of the decade, including <a href="/wiki/Shambhala_Music_Festival" class="mw-redirect" title="Shambhala Music Festival">Shambhala Music Festival</a> and major industry sponsored events like Miami's <a href="/wiki/Winter_Music_Conference" title="Winter Music Conference">Winter Music Conference</a>. The genre even gained popularity through events like <a href="/wiki/Creamfields" title="Creamfields">Creamfields</a>. In the late 2000s, house style witnessed renewed chart success thanks to acts such as <a href="/wiki/Daft_Punk" title="Daft Punk">Daft Punk</a>, <a href="/wiki/Deadmau5" title="Deadmau5">Deadmau5</a>, <a href="/wiki/Fedde_Le_Grand" title="Fedde Le Grand">Fedde Le Grand</a>, <a href="/wiki/David_Guetta" title="David Guetta">David Guetta</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Calvin_Harris" title="Calvin Harris">Calvin Harris</a>.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
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<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="2010s">2010s</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=House_music&amp;action=edit&amp;section=17" title="Edit section: 2010s">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<table class="box-More_citations_needed_section plainlinks metadata ambox ambox-content ambox-Refimprove" role="presentation"><tbody><tr><td class="mbox-image"><div style="width:52px"><a href="/wiki/File:Question_book-new.svg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/99/Question_book-new.svg/50px-Question_book-new.svg.png" decoding="async" width="50" height="39" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/99/Question_book-new.svg/75px-Question_book-new.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/99/Question_book-new.svg/100px-Question_book-new.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="512" data-file-height="399" /></a></div></td><td class="mbox-text"><div class="mbox-text-span">This section <b>needs additional citations for <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">verification</a></b>.<span class="hide-when-compact"> Please help <a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=House_music&amp;action=edit">improve this article</a> by <a href="/wiki/Help:Referencing_for_beginners" title="Help:Referencing for beginners">adding citations to reliable sources</a>. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.</span>  <small class="date-container"><i>(<span class="date">May 2019</span>)</i></small><small class="hide-when-compact"><i> (<a href="/wiki/Help:Maintenance_template_removal" title="Help:Maintenance template removal">Learn how and when to remove this template message</a>)</i></small></div></td></tr></tbody></table><div role="note" class="hatnote navigation-not-searchable">See also: <a href="/wiki/Electro_house" title="Electro house">Electro house</a> and <a href="/wiki/Progressive_house" title="Progressive house">Progressive house</a></div>
<div class="thumb tright"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:222px;"><a href="/wiki/File:Swedish_House_Mafia_and_Benny_Benassi.jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ca/Swedish_House_Mafia_and_Benny_Benassi.jpg/220px-Swedish_House_Mafia_and_Benny_Benassi.jpg" decoding="async" width="220" height="165" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ca/Swedish_House_Mafia_and_Benny_Benassi.jpg/330px-Swedish_House_Mafia_and_Benny_Benassi.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ca/Swedish_House_Mafia_and_Benny_Benassi.jpg/440px-Swedish_House_Mafia_and_Benny_Benassi.jpg 2x" data-file-width="3648" data-file-height="2736" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:Swedish_House_Mafia_and_Benny_Benassi.jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Swedish_House_Mafia" title="Swedish House Mafia">Swedish House Mafia</a> and Italian DJ <a href="/wiki/Benny_Benassi" title="Benny Benassi">Benny Benassi</a> performing in 2011.</div></div></div>
<p>During the 2010s multiple new sounds in house music were developed by DJs, producers and artists. Sweden had "Swedish <a href="/wiki/Progressive_house" title="Progressive house">progressive house</a>" with the emergence of <a href="/wiki/Sebastian_Ingrosso" title="Sebastian Ingrosso">Sebastian Ingrosso</a>, <a href="/wiki/Axwell" title="Axwell">Axwell</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Steve_Angello" title="Steve Angello">Steve Angello</a>. While all three artists had solo careers, when they formed a trio called <a href="/wiki/Swedish_House_Mafia" title="Swedish House Mafia">Swedish House Mafia</a>, it showed that house could still produce chart-topping hits, such as their 2013 single "<a href="/wiki/Don%27t_You_Worry_Child" title="Don&#39;t You Worry Child">Don't You Worry Child</a>", which cracked the Billboard top 10. <a href="/wiki/Avicii" title="Avicii">Avicii</a> was a Swedish DJ/artist known for his hits such as "<a href="/wiki/Hey_Brother" title="Hey Brother">Hey Brother</a>", "<a href="/wiki/Addicted_to_You_(Avicii_song)" title="Addicted to You (Avicii song)">Addicted to You</a>", "<a href="/wiki/The_Days_(Avicii_song)" class="mw-redirect" title="The Days (Avicii song)">The Days</a>", "<a href="/wiki/The_Nights_(Avicii_song)" class="mw-redirect" title="The Nights (Avicii song)">The Nights</a>", "<a href="/wiki/Levels_(Avicii_song)" title="Levels (Avicii song)">Levels</a>", "<a href="/wiki/Waiting_for_Love_(Avicii_song)" title="Waiting for Love (Avicii song)">Waiting for Love</a>", and <a href="/wiki/Without_You_(Avicii_song)" title="Without You (Avicii song)">"Without You"</a>. Fellow Swedish DJ/artist <a href="/wiki/Alesso" title="Alesso">Alesso</a> collaborated with <a href="/wiki/Calvin_Harris" title="Calvin Harris">Calvin Harris</a>, <a href="/wiki/Usher_(singer)" class="mw-redirect" title="Usher (singer)">Usher</a>, and <a href="/wiki/David_Guetta" title="David Guetta">David Guetta</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-HMV_85-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-HMV-85">&#91;85&#93;</a></sup> In France, <a href="/wiki/Justice_(band)" title="Justice (band)">Justice</a> blended garage and alternative rock influences into their pop-infused house tracks, creating a big and funky sound. <a href="/wiki/Skrillex" title="Skrillex">Skrillex</a>, a former alternative rock singer, mixed <a href="/wiki/Dubstep" title="Dubstep">dubstep</a> and pop into his UK house music.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
</p><p>During the 2010s, in the UK and in the US, many records labels stayed true to the original house music sound from the 1980s. It includes labels like Dynamic Music, <a href="/wiki/Defected_Records" title="Defected Records">Defected Records</a>, Dirtybird, Fuse London, <a href="/w/index.php?title=Exploited_(record_label)&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Exploited (record label) (page does not exist)">Exploited</a>, Pampa, Cajual Records, <a href="/wiki/Hot_Creations" title="Hot Creations">Hot Creations</a>, Get Physical, and Pets Recordings.<sup id="cite_ref-86" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-86">&#91;86&#93;</a></sup>
</p><p>Netherlands brought together a concept of "Dirty Dutch", an <a href="/wiki/Electro_house" title="Electro house">electro house</a> subgenre characterized by abrasive lead synths and darker arpeggios, with prominent DJs being <a href="/wiki/Chuckie_(DJ)" title="Chuckie (DJ)">Chuckie</a>, <a href="/wiki/Hardwell" title="Hardwell">Hardwell</a>, <a href="/wiki/Laidback_Luke" title="Laidback Luke">Laidback Luke</a>, <a href="/wiki/Afrojack" title="Afrojack">Afrojack</a>, <a href="/wiki/R3hab" title="R3hab">R3hab</a>, <a href="/wiki/Bingo_Players" title="Bingo Players">Bingo Players</a>, <a href="/wiki/Quintino" title="Quintino">Quintino</a> and <a href="/wiki/Alvaro_(DJ)" title="Alvaro (DJ)">Alvaro</a>. Elsewhere, fusion genres derivative of 2000s progressive house returned, especially with the help of DJs/artists <a href="/wiki/Calvin_Harris" title="Calvin Harris">Calvin Harris</a>, <a href="/wiki/Eric_Prydz" title="Eric Prydz">Eric Prydz</a>, <a href="/wiki/Mat_Zo" title="Mat Zo">Mat Zo</a>, <a href="/wiki/Above_%26_Beyond_(band)" title="Above &amp; Beyond (band)">Above &amp; Beyond</a> and <a href="/wiki/Fonzerelli" title="Fonzerelli">Fonzerelli</a> in Europe.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
</p><p><a href="/wiki/Diplo" title="Diplo">Diplo</a>, a DJ/producer from Tupelo, Mississippi, was able to blend underground sounds with mainstream styles. As he came from the Southern US, Diplo fused house music with rap and dance/pop, while also integrating more obscure Southern US genres. Other North Americans playing house music include the Canadian <a href="/wiki/Deadmau5" title="Deadmau5">Deadmau5</a> (known for his unusual mask and unique musical style), <a href="/wiki/Kaskade" title="Kaskade">Kaskade</a>, <a href="/wiki/Steve_Aoki" title="Steve Aoki">Steve Aoki</a>, <a href="/wiki/Porter_Robinson" title="Porter Robinson">Porter Robinson</a> and <a href="/wiki/Wolfgang_Gartner" title="Wolfgang Gartner">Wolfgang Gartner</a>. The growing popularity of such artists led to the emergence of electro house and progressive house sounds in popular music, such as singles like <a href="/wiki/David_Guetta" title="David Guetta">David Guetta</a>" feat. <a href="/wiki/Avicii" title="Avicii">Avicii</a> "<a href="/wiki/Sunshine_(David_Guetta_and_Avicii_song)" title="Sunshine (David Guetta and Avicii song)">Sunshine</a>" <sup id="cite_ref-87" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-87">&#91;87&#93;</a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/Axwell" title="Axwell">Axwell</a>'s remix of "<a href="/wiki/In_the_Air_(TV_Rock_song)" title="In the Air (TV Rock song)">In The Air</a>."<sup id="cite_ref-88" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-88">&#91;88&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-89" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-89">&#91;89&#93;</a></sup>
</p>
<div class="thumb tleft"><div class="thumbinner" style="width:202px;"><a href="/wiki/File:[email protected]_Inox_Park_Paris_Chatou_2011_(cropped).jpg" class="image"><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7a/Avicii_%40_Inox_Park_Paris_Chatou_2011_%28cropped%29.jpg/200px-Avicii_%40_Inox_Park_Paris_Chatou_2011_%28cropped%29.jpg" decoding="async" width="200" height="176" class="thumbimage" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7a/Avicii_%40_Inox_Park_Paris_Chatou_2011_%28cropped%29.jpg/300px-Avicii_%40_Inox_Park_Paris_Chatou_2011_%28cropped%29.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7a/Avicii_%40_Inox_Park_Paris_Chatou_2011_%28cropped%29.jpg/400px-Avicii_%40_Inox_Park_Paris_Chatou_2011_%28cropped%29.jpg 2x" data-file-width="1055" data-file-height="929" /></a>  <div class="thumbcaption"><div class="magnify"><a href="/wiki/File:[email protected]_Inox_Park_Paris_Chatou_2011_(cropped).jpg" class="internal" title="Enlarge"></a></div><a href="/wiki/Avicii" title="Avicii">Avicii</a> in 2011 in Paris.</div></div></div>
<p><a href="/wiki/Big_room_house" title="Big room house">Big room house</a> was increasingly popular since 2010, through international dance music festivals such as <a href="/wiki/Tomorrowland_(festival)" title="Tomorrowland (festival)">Tomorrowland</a>, <a href="/wiki/Ultra_Music_Festival" title="Ultra Music Festival">Ultra Music Festival</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Electric_Daisy_Carnival" title="Electric Daisy Carnival">Electric Daisy Carnival</a>. In addition to these popular examples of house, there has also been a reunification of contemporary house and its roots. Many hip hop and R&amp;B artists also turned to house music to add a mass appeal and dance floor energy to the music they produce. <a href="/wiki/Tropical_house" title="Tropical house">Tropical house</a> went onto the top 40 on the <a href="/wiki/UK_Singles_Chart" title="UK Singles Chart">UK Singles Chart</a> in 2015 with artists such as <a href="/wiki/Kygo" title="Kygo">Kygo</a> and <a href="/wiki/Jonas_Blue" title="Jonas Blue">Jonas Blue</a>. In the mid-2010s, the influences of house began to also be seen in Korean <a href="/wiki/K-pop" title="K-pop">K-pop</a> music, examples of this being <a href="/wiki/F(x)_(band)" class="mw-redirect" title="F(x) (band)">f(x)</a>'s single "<a href="/wiki/4_Walls_(song)" title="4 Walls (song)">4 Walls</a>" and <a href="/wiki/SHINee" class="mw-redirect" title="SHINee">SHINee</a>'s title track "<a href="/wiki/Odd_(Shinee_album)" class="mw-redirect" title="Odd (Shinee album)">View</a>."
</p><p>Later in the 2010s, a more traditional house sound came to the forefront of the mainstream in the UK, with <a href="/wiki/Calvin_Harris" title="Calvin Harris">Calvin Harris</a>'s singles "<a href="/wiki/One_Kiss_(song)" title="One Kiss (song)">One Kiss</a>" and "<a href="/wiki/Promises_(Calvin_Harris_and_Sam_Smith_song)" title="Promises (Calvin Harris and Sam Smith song)">Promises</a>", with the latter also incorporating elements of nu-disco and <a href="/wiki/Italo_house" title="Italo house">Italo house</a>. These singles both went to No.1 in the UK,<sup id="cite_ref-90" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-90">&#91;90&#93;</a></sup><sup id="cite_ref-91" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-91">&#91;91&#93;</a></sup> showing that a classic house sound could still have great success in the modern day.<sup class="noprint Inline-Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" title="Wikipedia:Citation needed"><span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (February 2020)">citation needed</span></a></i>&#93;</sup>
</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=House_music&amp;action=edit&amp;section=18" title="Edit section: See also">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/List_of_electronic_music_genres" title="List of electronic music genres">List of electronic music genres</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_house_music_artists" title="List of house music artists">List of house music artists</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Styles_of_house_music" title="Styles of house music">Styles of house music</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Music_of_the_United_States" title="Music of the United States">Music of the United States</a></li></ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=House_music&amp;action=edit&amp;section=19" title="Edit section: References">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="reflist" style="list-style-type: decimal;">
<div class="mw-references-wrap mw-references-columns"><ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-allmusic.com-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-allmusic.com_1-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-allmusic.com_1-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-allmusic.com_1-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-allmusic.com_1-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-allmusic.com_1-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r999302996">.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}</style><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.allmusic.com/subgenre/house-ma0000002651">"House Music Genre Overview - AllMusic"</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20121006233620/http://www.allmusic.com/subgenre/house-ma0000002651">Archived</a> from the original on 6 October 2012<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">5 September</span> 2016</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=House+Music+Genre+Overview+-+AllMusic&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.allmusic.com%2Fsubgenre%2Fhouse-ma0000002651&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-2">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFFritz2000" class="citation book cs1">Fritz, Jimi (2000). <i>Rave Culture: An Insider's Overview</i>. SmallFry Press. p.&#160;94. <a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9780968572108" title="Special:BookSources/9780968572108"><bdi>9780968572108</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Rave+Culture%3A+An+Insider%27s+Overview&amp;rft.pages=94&amp;rft.pub=SmallFry+Press&amp;rft.date=2000&amp;rft.isbn=9780968572108&amp;rft.aulast=Fritz&amp;rft.aufirst=Jimi&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-AMGNRG-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-AMGNRG_3-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.allmusic.com/style/hi-nrg-ma0000012074">"Explore music ... Genre: Hi-NRG"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/AllMusic" title="AllMusic">AllMusic</a></i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120617152422/http://www.allmusic.com/style/hi-nrg-ma0000012074">Archived</a> from the original on 2012-06-17<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2009-07-20</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=AllMusic&amp;rft.atitle=Explore+music+...+Genre%3A+Hi-NRG&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.allmusic.com%2Fstyle%2Fhi-nrg-ma0000012074&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFGilbertPearson2002" class="citation book cs1">Gilbert, Jeremy; Pearson, Ewan (2002). <i>Discographies: Dance, Music, Culture and the Politics of Sound</i>. Routledge. p.&#160;??. <a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9781134698929" title="Special:BookSources/9781134698929"><bdi>9781134698929</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Discographies%3A+Dance%2C+Music%2C+Culture+and+the+Politics+of+Sound&amp;rft.pages=%3F%3F&amp;rft.pub=Routledge&amp;rft.date=2002&amp;rft.isbn=9781134698929&amp;rft.aulast=Gilbert&amp;rft.aufirst=Jeremy&amp;rft.au=Pearson%2C+Ewan&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFLangford2014" class="citation book cs1">Langford, Simon (2014). <i>The Remix Manual: The Art and Science of Dance Music Remixing with Logic</i>. CRC Press. p.&#160;99. <a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9781136114625" title="Special:BookSources/9781136114625"><bdi>9781136114625</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+Remix+Manual%3A+The+Art+and+Science+of+Dance+Music+Remixing+with+Logic&amp;rft.pages=99&amp;rft.pub=CRC+Press&amp;rft.date=2014&amp;rft.isbn=9781136114625&amp;rft.aulast=Langford&amp;rft.aufirst=Simon&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-BWTS-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-BWTS_6-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Walters, Barry (1986): <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.spin.com/2014/04/burning-down-the-house-chicago-club-80s/">Burning Down the House</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180405214757/https://www.spin.com/2014/04/burning-down-the-house-chicago-club-80s/">Archived</a> 2018-04-05 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>. <i>SPIN magazine</i>. Retrieved 2014-04-25.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-7">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFMalnig2009" class="citation book cs1">Malnig, Julie (2009). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/ballroomboogiesh0000unse/page/213"><i>Ballroom, Boogie, Shimmy Sham, Shake: A Social and Popular Dance Reader</i></a>. University of Illinois Press. p.&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/ballroomboogiesh0000unse/page/213">213</a>. <a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9780252075650" title="Special:BookSources/9780252075650"><bdi>9780252075650</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Ballroom%2C+Boogie%2C+Shimmy+Sham%2C+Shake%3A+A+Social+and+Popular+Dance+Reader&amp;rft.pages=213&amp;rft.pub=University+of+Illinois+Press&amp;rft.date=2009&amp;rft.isbn=9780252075650&amp;rft.aulast=Malnig&amp;rft.aufirst=Julie&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Farchive.org%2Fdetails%2Fballroomboogiesh0000unse%2Fpage%2F213&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Vincent-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Vincent_8-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Vincent_8-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Vincent_8-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFVincent2014" class="citation book cs1">Vincent, Rickey (4 November 2014). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=Tb-FBAAAQBAJ&amp;pg=PA289"><i>Funk: The Music, The People, and The Rhythm of The One</i></a>. St. Martin's Griffin. <a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9781466884526" title="Special:BookSources/9781466884526"><bdi>9781466884526</bdi></a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20161225223316/https://books.google.com/books?id=Tb-FBAAAQBAJ&amp;pg=PA289">Archived</a> from the original on 25 December 2016<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">5 September</span> 2016</span> &#8211; via Google Books.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Funk%3A+The+Music%2C+The+People%2C+and+The+Rhythm+of+The+One&amp;rft.pub=St.+Martin%27s+Griffin&amp;rft.date=2014-11-04&amp;rft.isbn=9781466884526&amp;rft.aulast=Vincent&amp;rft.aufirst=Rickey&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DTb-FBAAAQBAJ%26pg%3DPA289&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-laist.com-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-laist.com_9-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-laist.com_9-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREF(C)2007" class="citation web cs1">(C) (4 October 2007). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20171106124433/http://laist.com/2007/10/04/understanding_h.php">"Understanding House Music"</a>. <i>laist.com</i>. LAist. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://laist.com/2007/10/04/understanding_h.php">the original</a> on 6 November 2017<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=laist.com&amp;rft.atitle=Understanding+House+Music&amp;rft.date=2007-10-04&amp;rft.au=%28C%29&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Flaist.com%2F2007%2F10%2F04%2Funderstanding_h.php&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-unesco_4-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-unesco_4_10-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFFikentscher2000" class="citation journal cs1">Fikentscher, Kai (July–August 2000). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160303181437/http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001201/120152e.pdf">"The Club DJ: A Brief History of a Cultural Icon"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <i>UNESCO Courier</i>. UNESCO: 47. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001201/120152e.pdf">the original</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> on 2016-03-03<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2012-03-27</span></span>. <q>Around 1986/7, after the initial explosion of house music in Chicago, it became clear that the major recording companies and media institutions were reluctant to market this genre of music, associated with gay African Americans, on a mainstream level. House artists turned to Europe, chiefly London but also cities such as Amsterdam, Berlin, Manchester, Milan, Zurich, and Tel Aviv.&#160;... A third axis leads to Japan where, since the late 1980s, New York club DJs have had the opportunity to play guest-spots.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=UNESCO+Courier&amp;rft.atitle=The+Club+DJ%3A+A+Brief+History+of+a+Cultural+Icon&amp;rft.pages=47&amp;rft.date=2000-07%2F2000-08&amp;rft.aulast=Fikentscher&amp;rft.aufirst=Kai&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Funesdoc.unesco.org%2Fimages%2F0012%2F001201%2F120152e.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-snoman-11"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-snoman_11-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Rick Snoman, <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=GRdmAQAAQBAJ&amp;pg=PT267"><i>Dance Music Manual: Tools, Toys, and Techniques</i>, page 267</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170426062236/https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=GRdmAQAAQBAJ&amp;pg=PT267">Archived</a> 2017-04-26 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>, <a href="/wiki/CRC_Press" title="CRC Press">CRC Press</a></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Hydlide-12"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Hydlide_12-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hydlide_12-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Hydlide_12-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFHydlide2016" class="citation web cs1">Hydlide (12 October 2016). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.reasonexperts.com/basic-elements-house-music.html">"Basic Elements: House Music"</a>. <i>www.reasonexperts.com</i>. Reason. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200519174621/https://www.reasonexperts.com/basic-elements-house-music.html">Archived</a> from the original on 19 May 2020<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 January</span> 2020</span>. <q>Reasonexperts Propellerhead Reason tutorials made by Hydlide</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=www.reasonexperts.com&amp;rft.atitle=Basic+Elements%3A+House+Music&amp;rft.date=2016-10-12&amp;rft.au=Hydlide&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.reasonexperts.com%2Fbasic-elements-house-music.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Clave-13"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Clave_13-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Acland, Charles R. (2007). <i>Residual Media</i> . Minnesota Press. <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9780816644728" title="Special:BookSources/9780816644728">9780816644728</a>. Quote: "The legacy of musical adventures with Latin dance music can still be heard in, for example, the dominance of salsa clave rhythms in the riffs of house music."</span>
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<li id="cite_note-rietveld-14"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-rietveld_14-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-rietveld_14-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-rietveld_14-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-rietveld_14-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-rietveld_14-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-rietveld_14-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-rietveld_14-6"><sup><i><b>g</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Rietveld, Hillegonda C. (1998). <i>This is our House: House Music, Cultural Spaces and Technologies</i>, Aldershot Ashgate. Reissue: London/New York: Routledge 2018/2020. <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/036713411X" title="Special:BookSources/036713411X">036713411X</a>. Cited from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.de/books?id=1_eCDwAAQBAJ">online book preview</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20201008194549/https://books.google.de/books?id=1_eCDwAAQBAJ">Archived</a> 2020-10-08 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>, Jan. 20, 2020.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Warwick-15"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Warwick_15-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Warwick_15-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFWarwick2019" class="citation web cs1">Warwick, Oli (2 April 2019). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.redbull.com/ca-en/house-music-faq">"House music changed clubbing forever. From disco to footwork, via Frankie Knuckles, Mr Fingers and techno, here are the basics you need to know before stepping onto the dancefloor"</a>. <i>www.redbull.com</i>. Red Bull. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20201008194552/https://www.redbull.com/ca-en/house-music-faq">Archived</a> from the original on 8 October 2020<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">18 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=www.redbull.com&amp;rft.atitle=House+music+changed+clubbing+forever.+From+disco+to+footwork%2C+via+Frankie+Knuckles%2C+Mr+Fingers+and+techno%2C+here+are+the+basics+you+need+to+know+before+stepping+onto+the+dancefloor.&amp;rft.date=2019-04-02&amp;rft.aulast=Warwick&amp;rft.aufirst=Oli&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.redbull.com%2Fca-en%2Fhouse-music-faq&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-16"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-16">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Kernodle, Tammy Lynn; Maxile, Horace Joseph. <i>Encyclopedia of African American Music, Volume 1</i>. ABC-CLIO, 2011. p. 406</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405-17"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405_17-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405_17-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405_17-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405_17-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405_17-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405_17-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405_17-6"><sup><i><b>g</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Kernodle,_Tammy_Lynn_2011._p._405_17-7"><sup><i><b>h</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Kernodle, Tammy Lynn; Maxile, Horace Joseph. <i>Encyclopedia of African American Music, Volume 1</i>. ABC-CLIO, 2011. p. 405</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Queer-18"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Queer_18-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Queer_18-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFGerstner2012" class="citation book cs1">Gerstner, David A. (2012). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=851qoMjA3icC&amp;pg=PA154"><i>Routledge International Encyclopedia of Queer Culture</i></a>. Routledge. p.&#160;154. <a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9781136761812" title="Special:BookSources/9781136761812"><bdi>9781136761812</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Routledge+International+Encyclopedia+of+Queer+Culture&amp;rft.pages=154&amp;rft.pub=Routledge&amp;rft.date=2012&amp;rft.isbn=9781136761812&amp;rft.aulast=Gerstner&amp;rft.aufirst=David+A.&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3D851qoMjA3icC%26pg%3DPA154&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Inglis-19"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Inglis_19-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Inglis_19-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFInglis2004" class="citation web cs1">Inglis, Sam (November 2004). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.soundonsound.com/techniques/secrets-house-trance">"Secrets Of House &amp; Trance Darren Tate's Production Tips"</a>. <i>/soundonsound.com</i>. Sound on Sound. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200511144609/https://www.soundonsound.com/techniques/secrets-house-trance">Archived</a> from the original on 11 May 2020<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=%2Fsoundonsound.com&amp;rft.atitle=Secrets+Of+House+%26+Trance+Darren+Tate%27s+Production+Tips&amp;rft.date=2004-11&amp;rft.aulast=Inglis&amp;rft.aufirst=Sam&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.soundonsound.com%2Ftechniques%2Fsecrets-house-trance&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-20"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-20">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFCaswell2019" class="citation web cs1">Caswell, Estelle (2019-07-16). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.vox.com/videos/2019/7/16/20694881/chicago-house-music-disco-demolition-earworm">"How Chicago built house music from the ashes of disco"</a>. <i>Vox</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20191207081123/https://www.vox.com/videos/2019/7/16/20694881/chicago-house-music-disco-demolition-earworm">Archived</a> from the original on 2019-12-07<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2020-01-12</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Vox&amp;rft.atitle=How+Chicago+built+house+music+from+the+ashes+of+disco&amp;rft.date=2019-07-16&amp;rft.aulast=Caswell&amp;rft.aufirst=Estelle&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.vox.com%2Fvideos%2F2019%2F7%2F16%2F20694881%2Fchicago-house-music-disco-demolition-earworm&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-21"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-21">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.allmusic.com/subgenre/house-ma0000002651">"House"</a>. <i>www.allmusic.com</i>. AllMusic. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20121006233620/http://www.allmusic.com/subgenre/house-ma0000002651">Archived</a> from the original on 6 October 2012<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">7 January</span> 2020</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=www.allmusic.com&amp;rft.atitle=House&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.allmusic.com%2Fsubgenre%2Fhouse-ma0000002651&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-22"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-22">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120604234035/http://www.beatport.com/artist/cerrone/42443">"Cerrone Bio"</a>. <i>Beatport</i>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.beatport.com/artist/cerrone/42443">the original</a> on 2012-06-04<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2012-08-27</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Beatport&amp;rft.atitle=Cerrone+Bio&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.beatport.com%2Fartist%2Fcerrone%2F42443&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-allmusic_ymo_album-23"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-allmusic_ymo_album_23-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.allmusic.com/album/r632985">Yellow Magic Orchestra</a> at <a href="/wiki/AllMusic" title="AllMusic">AllMusic</a></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-24"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-24">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.allmusic.com/album/r181170">Solid State Survivor</a> at <a href="/wiki/AllMusic" title="AllMusic">AllMusic</a></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-25"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-25">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">RBMA (2011): Frankie Knuckles: A journey to the roots of house music. <i><a href="/wiki/Red_Bull_Music_Academy" title="Red Bull Music Academy">Red Bull Music Academy</a>.</i> Retrieved 2014-06-01.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-26"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-26">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Brewster, Bill (2014). "Ron Hardy, Chicago Legend—If Frankie Knuckles is the Godfather of House, Ron Hardy was its Baron Frankenstein", <i>Djhistory.com</i>, 2014-06-01. <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20140223184632/http://www.djhistory.com/features/ron-hardy-chicago-legend">"Archived copy"</a>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.djhistory.com/features/ron-hardy-chicago-legend">the original</a> on 2014-02-23<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2014-05-17</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Archived+copy&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.djhistory.com%2Ffeatures%2Fron-hardy-chicago-legend&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span><span class="cs1-maint citation-comment">CS1 maint: archived copy as title (<a href="/wiki/Category:CS1_maint:_archived_copy_as_title" title="Category:CS1 maint: archived copy as title">link</a>)</span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-27"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-27">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20111007183508/http://www.housegroove.net/history-of-house-music/">"History of House Music"</a>. Housegroove.net. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.housegroove.net/history-of-house-music/">the original</a> on 7 October 2011<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">8 October</span> 2011</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=History+of+House+Music&amp;rft.pub=Housegroove.net&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.housegroove.net%2Fhistory-of-house-music%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-28"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-28">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFBurgess2014" class="citation book cs1">Burgess, Richard James (17 August 2014). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=qMKiAwAAQBAJ&amp;pg=115"><i>The History of Music Production</i></a>. Oxford University Press. <a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9780199357178" title="Special:BookSources/9780199357178"><bdi>9780199357178</bdi></a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20201008194555/https://books.google.com/books?id=qMKiAwAAQBAJ&amp;pg=115">Archived</a> from the original on 8 October 2020<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">14 September</span> 2020</span> &#8211; via Google Books.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+History+of+Music+Production&amp;rft.pub=Oxford+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2014-08-17&amp;rft.isbn=9780199357178&amp;rft.aulast=Burgess&amp;rft.aufirst=Richard+James&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DqMKiAwAAQBAJ%26pg%3D115&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-guardian_2010-29"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-guardian_2010_29-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFPattison2010" class="citation news cs1">Pattison, Louis (2010-04-10). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/music/2010/apr/10/charanjit-singh-acid-house">"Charanjit Singh, acid house pioneer"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/The_Guardian" title="The Guardian">The Guardian</a></i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20161202015758/https://www.theguardian.com/music/2010/apr/10/charanjit-singh-acid-house">Archived</a> from the original on 2016-12-02<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2016-12-14</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Guardian&amp;rft.atitle=Charanjit+Singh%2C+acid+house+pioneer&amp;rft.date=2010-04-10&amp;rft.aulast=Pattison&amp;rft.aufirst=Louis&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Fmusic%2F2010%2Fapr%2F10%2Fcharanjit-singh-acid-house&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-guardian_2011-30"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-guardian_2011_30-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFAitken2011" class="citation news cs1">Aitken, Stuart (2011-05-10). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/music/2011/may/10/charanjit-singh-acid-house-ten-ragas">"Charanjit Singh on how he invented acid house&#160;... by mistake"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/The_Guardian" title="The Guardian">The Guardian</a></i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20161202015759/https://www.theguardian.com/music/2011/may/10/charanjit-singh-acid-house-ten-ragas">Archived</a> from the original on 2016-12-02<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2016-12-14</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Guardian&amp;rft.atitle=Charanjit+Singh+on+how+he+invented+acid+house+...+by+mistake&amp;rft.date=2011-05-10&amp;rft.aulast=Aitken&amp;rft.aufirst=Stuart&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Fmusic%2F2011%2Fmay%2F10%2Fcharanjit-singh-acid-house-ten-ragas&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-ra_raga-31"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-ra_raga_31-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFWilliam_Rauscher2010" class="citation magazine cs1">William Rauscher (2010-05-12). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.residentadvisor.net/review-view.aspx?id=7445">"Charanjit Singh – Synthesizing: Ten Ragas to a Disco Beat"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/Resident_Advisor" title="Resident Advisor">Resident Advisor</a></i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120112035759/http://www.residentadvisor.net/review-view.aspx?id=7445">Archived</a> from the original on 2012-01-12<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2011-06-03</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Resident+Advisor&amp;rft.atitle=Charanjit+Singh+%E2%80%93+Synthesizing%3A+Ten+Ragas+to+a+Disco+Beat&amp;rft.date=2010-05-12&amp;rft.au=William+Rauscher&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.residentadvisor.net%2Freview-view.aspx%3Fid%3D7445&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-32"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-32">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Manzo,V.J.; Kuhn, Will. <i>Interactive Composition: Strategies Using Ableton Live and Max for Live</i>.
Oxford University Press, Jan. 23, 2014. p. 134.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-Slslpop-33"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Slslpop_33-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFRoyBorthwick2004" class="citation book cs1">Roy, Ron; Borthwick, Stuart (2004). <i>Popular Music Genres: An Introduction</i>. Edinburgh University Press. p.&#160;255. <a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9780748617456" title="Special:BookSources/9780748617456"><bdi>9780748617456</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Popular+Music+Genres%3A+An+Introduction&amp;rft.pages=255&amp;rft.pub=Edinburgh+University+Press&amp;rft.date=2004&amp;rft.isbn=9780748617456&amp;rft.aulast=Roy&amp;rft.aufirst=Ron&amp;rft.au=Borthwick%2C+Stuart&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Saunders2010-34"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Saunders2010_34-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFChurch2010" class="citation web cs1">Church, Terry (2010-02-09). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.is/20150424070647/https://news.beatport.com/black-history-jesse-saunders-and-house-music/">"Black History Month: Jesse Saunders and house music"</a>. <i>BeatPortal</i>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://news.beatport.com/black-history-jesse-saunders-and-house-music/">the original</a> on 2015-04-24<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2010-04-10</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=BeatPortal&amp;rft.atitle=Black+History+Month%3A+Jesse+Saunders+and+house+music&amp;rft.date=2010-02-09&amp;rft.aulast=Church&amp;rft.aufirst=Terry&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fnews.beatport.com%2Fblack-history-jesse-saunders-and-house-music%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-35"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-35">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Mitchell, Euan. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.4clubbers.net/modules.php?name=News&amp;file=article&amp;sid=125">Interviews: Marshall Jefferson</a> www.4clubbers.net<sup class="noprint Inline-Template"><span style="white-space: nowrap;">&#91;<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Link_rot" title="Wikipedia:Link rot"><span title="&#160;Dead link since June 2016">dead link</span></a></i>&#93;</span></sup></span>
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<li id="cite_note-36"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-36">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120322041641/http://www.flyglobalmusic.com/fly/archives/uscanada_features/finding_jesse_-.html">"Finding Jesse – The Discovery of Jesse Saunders As the Founder of House"</a>. <i>Fly Global Music Culture</i>. 2004-10-25. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.flyglobalmusic.com/fly/archives/uscanada_features/finding_jesse_-.html">the original</a> on 2012-03-22<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2012-08-14</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Fly+Global+Music+Culture&amp;rft.atitle=Finding+Jesse+%E2%80%93+The+Discovery+of+Jesse+Saunders+As+the+Founder+of+House&amp;rft.date=2004-10-25&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.flyglobalmusic.com%2Ffly%2Farchives%2Fuscanada_features%2Ffinding_jesse_-.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-37"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-37">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFPaoletta1989" class="citation journal cs1">Paoletta, Michael (1989-12-16). "Back To Basics". <i>Dance Music Report</i>: 12.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Dance+Music+Report&amp;rft.atitle=Back+To+Basics&amp;rft.pages=12&amp;rft.date=1989-12-16&amp;rft.aulast=Paoletta&amp;rft.aufirst=Michael&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-MusicIsTheKey2015-38"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-MusicIsTheKey2015_38-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFGraves2015" class="citation web cs1">Graves, Richard (2015-04-23). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://djblackadam.typepad.com/history_of_house/2015/04/what-.html">"History of House: What Was The First HOUSE MUSIC SONG Released in Chicago?"</a>. <i>The History of House</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160804022948/http://djblackadam.typepad.com/history_of_house/2015/04/what-.html">Archived</a> from the original on 2016-08-04<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2016-05-25</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=The+History+of+House&amp;rft.atitle=History+of+House%3A+What+Was+The+First+HOUSE+MUSIC+SONG+Released+in+Chicago%3F&amp;rft.date=2015-04-23&amp;rft.aulast=Graves&amp;rft.aufirst=Richard&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fdjblackadam.typepad.com%2Fhistory_of_house%2F2015%2F04%2Fwhat-.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-brittanica1-39"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-brittanica1_39-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite class="citation encyclopaedia cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/273088/house">"house"</a>. <i>Encyclopædia Britannica</i>. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120319024632/http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/273088/house">Archived</a> from the original on 2012-03-19<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2012-06-05</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=house&amp;rft.btitle=Encyclop%C3%A6dia+Britannica&amp;rft.pub=Encyclop%C3%A6dia+Britannica+Inc.&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.britannica.com%2FEBchecked%2Ftopic%2F273088%2Fhouse&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-unesco_1-40"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-unesco_1_40-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFFikentscher2000" class="citation journal cs1">Fikentscher, Kai (July–August 2000). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160303181437/http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001201/120152e.pdf">"Youth's sonic forces: The club DJ: a brief history of a cultural icon"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <i><a href="/wiki/UNESCO_Courier" title="UNESCO Courier">UNESCO Courier</a></i>. <a href="/wiki/UNESCO" title="UNESCO">UNESCO</a>: 28. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001201/120152e.pdf">the original</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> on 2016-03-03<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2012-03-27</span></span>. <q>House music, in particular, is often held up as a kind of banner of cultural diversity owing to its origins in black and Latino discos, where it first found its audience. One could point to the 1980s, when African American producers / DJs, like Frankie Knuckles, Marshall Jefferson or DJ Pierre, began refining the all night dance floor workouts at underground gay and mixed clubs like the legendary Warehouse club in Chicago from which house music derives its name. Or there is DJ <a href="/wiki/Larry_Levan" title="Larry Levan">Larry Levan</a>, whose residence at New York's <a href="/wiki/Paradise_Garage" title="Paradise Garage">Paradise Garage</a> not only defined a distinct subgenre of its own ("<a href="/wiki/Garage_house" title="Garage house">garage</a>" is slower and more <a href="/wiki/Gospel" title="Gospel">gospel</a> oriented than "house") but set the tone for today's <a href="/wiki/Rave" title="Rave">raves</a>—no alcohol, heavy drug use, a mixed, "up for it crowd" and loud, pulsating music for 15-hour stretches without a break.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=UNESCO+Courier&amp;rft.atitle=Youth%27s+sonic+forces%3A+The+club+DJ%3A+a+brief+history+of+a+cultural+icon&amp;rft.pages=28&amp;rft.date=2000-07%2F2000-08&amp;rft.aulast=Fikentscher&amp;rft.aufirst=Kai&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Funesdoc.unesco.org%2Fimages%2F0012%2F001201%2F120152e.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-unesco_2-41"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-unesco_2_41-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFMelville2000" class="citation journal cs1">Melville, Caspar (July–August 2000). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160303181437/http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001201/120152e.pdf">"Mapping the meanings of dance music"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <i>UNESCO Courier</i>. UNESCO: 40. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001201/120152e.pdf">the original</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> on 2016-03-03<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2012-03-27</span></span>. <q>house music was born in the black-latino urban gay clubs of the U.S.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=UNESCO+Courier&amp;rft.atitle=Mapping+the+meanings+of+dance+music&amp;rft.pages=40&amp;rft.date=2000-07%2F2000-08&amp;rft.aulast=Melville&amp;rft.aufirst=Caspar&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Funesdoc.unesco.org%2Fimages%2F0012%2F001201%2F120152e.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-unesco_3-42"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-unesco_3_42-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFFikentscher2000" class="citation journal cs1">Fikentscher, Kai (July–August 2000). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160303181437/http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001201/120152e.pdf">"The club DJ: a brief history of a cultural icon"</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span>. <i>UNESCO Courier</i>. UNESCO: 46. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001201/120152e.pdf">the original</a> <span class="cs1-format">(PDF)</span> on 2016-03-03<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2012-03-27</span></span>. <q>Another New York DJ, Frankie Knuckles, moved to Chicago, following an invitation to become the resident DJ at the <a href="/wiki/Warehouse_(nightclub)" title="Warehouse (nightclub)">Warehouse</a>, a gay black club.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=UNESCO+Courier&amp;rft.atitle=The+club+DJ%3A+a+brief+history+of+a+cultural+icon&amp;rft.pages=46&amp;rft.date=2000-07%2F2000-08&amp;rft.aulast=Fikentscher&amp;rft.aufirst=Kai&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Funesdoc.unesco.org%2Fimages%2F0012%2F001201%2F120152e.pdf&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Billboard_19860621_1-43"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Billboard_19860621_1_43-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFGeorge1986" class="citation journal cs1">George, Nelson (1986-06-21). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=gyQEAAAAMBAJ&amp;lpg=PA27">"House Music: Will It Join Rap And Go-Go?"</a>. <i>Billboard</i>. <b>99</b> (25): 27. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20111228114555/http://books.google.com/books?id=gyQEAAAAMBAJ&amp;lpg=PA27">Archived</a> from the original on 2011-12-28<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2011-04-14</span></span>. <q>The initial audience started out black and gay in Chicago, but the genre has since attracted Hispanics and whites as well.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Billboard&amp;rft.atitle=House+Music%3A+Will+It+Join+Rap+And+Go-Go%3F&amp;rft.volume=99&amp;rft.issue=25&amp;rft.pages=27&amp;rft.date=1986-06-21&amp;rft.aulast=George&amp;rft.aufirst=Nelson&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DgyQEAAAAMBAJ%26lpg%3DPA27&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Out_In_Culture-44"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Out_In_Culture_44-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFCreekmurDoty1995" class="citation book cs1">Creekmur, Corey; Doty, Alexander (1995). <i>Out in Culture</i>. Duke University Press. pp.&#160;440–442. <a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-8223-1541-4" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-8223-1541-4"><bdi>978-0-8223-1541-4</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Out+in+Culture&amp;rft.pages=440-442&amp;rft.pub=Duke+University+Press&amp;rft.date=1995&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-8223-1541-4&amp;rft.aulast=Creekmur&amp;rft.aufirst=Corey&amp;rft.au=Doty%2C+Alexander&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-45"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-45">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.discogs.com/master/5108-Acid-Tracks/reviews#c690588">Review by Alain_Patrick</a> on <a href="/wiki/Discogs" title="Discogs">Discogs</a>; <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.thefader.com/2014/08/04/back-to-the-phuture-dj-pierre-on-inventing-acid-and-why-edm-fans-need-to-learn-their-history">Interview with DJ Pierre</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20191008070559/https://www.thefader.com/2014/08/04/back-to-the-phuture-dj-pierre-on-inventing-acid-and-why-edm-fans-need-to-learn-their-history">Archived</a> 2019-10-08 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a> in Fader magazine, August 04, 2014.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-46"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-46">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFIqbal2008" class="citation web cs1">Iqbal, Mohson (2008-01-31). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.residentadvisor.net/feature.aspx?875">"Larry Heard: Soul survivor"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/Resident_Advisor" title="Resident Advisor">Resident Advisor</a></i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20121112034954/http://www.residentadvisor.net/feature.aspx?875">Archived</a> from the original on 2012-11-12<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2012-07-23</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Resident+Advisor&amp;rft.atitle=Larry+Heard%3A+Soul+survivor&amp;rft.date=2008-01-31&amp;rft.aulast=Iqbal&amp;rft.aufirst=Mohson&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.residentadvisor.net%2Ffeature.aspx%3F875&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-47"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-47">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFUnterberger1999" class="citation book cs1">Unterberger, Richie (1999). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=uwtAx1xP9BMC&amp;pg=PA265"><i>Music USA: The Rough Guide</i></a>. London: Rough Guides. p.&#160;265. <a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-85828-421-7" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-85828-421-7"><bdi>978-1-85828-421-7</bdi></a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160101031527/https://books.google.com/books?id=uwtAx1xP9BMC&amp;pg=PA265">Archived</a> from the original on 2016-01-01<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2012-07-23</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Music+USA%3A+The+Rough+Guide&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.pages=265&amp;rft.pub=Rough+Guides&amp;rft.date=1999&amp;rft.isbn=978-1-85828-421-7&amp;rft.aulast=Unterberger&amp;rft.aufirst=Richie&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DuwtAx1xP9BMC%26pg%3DPA265&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-48"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-48">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFShapiro2000" class="citation book cs1">Shapiro, Peter (2000). <span class="cs1-lock-registration" title="Free registration required"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/modulationshisto00shap"><i>Modulations: A History of Electronic Music</i></a></span>. Caipirinha Productions Inc. p.&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://archive.org/details/modulationshisto00shap/page/32">32</a>. <a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-8195-6498-6" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-8195-6498-6"><bdi>978-0-8195-6498-6</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Modulations%3A+A+History+of+Electronic+Music&amp;rft.pages=32&amp;rft.pub=Caipirinha+Productions+Inc.&amp;rft.date=2000&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-8195-6498-6&amp;rft.aulast=Shapiro&amp;rft.aufirst=Peter&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Farchive.org%2Fdetails%2Fmodulationshisto00shap&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-49"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-49">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://djmag.com/content/game-changers-phuture-acid-tracks">Interview with Phuture's DJ Pierre</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190829220042/https://djmag.com/content/game-changers-phuture-acid-tracks">Archived</a> 2019-08-29 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a> in DJ mag, 2014.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-50"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-50">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.discogs.com/master/5108-Acid-Tracks/reviews#c690588">Review by Alain_Patrick</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20201008194555/https://www.discogs.com/master/5108-Acid-Tracks/reviews#c690588">Archived</a> 2020-10-08 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a> on <a href="/wiki/Discogs" title="Discogs">Discogs</a>; <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.thefader.com/2014/08/04/back-to-the-phuture-dj-pierre-on-inventing-acid-and-why-edm-fans-need-to-learn-their-history">Interview with DJ Pierre</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20191008070559/https://www.thefader.com/2014/08/04/back-to-the-phuture-dj-pierre-on-inventing-acid-and-why-edm-fans-need-to-learn-their-history">Archived</a> 2019-10-08 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a> in Fader Magazine, August 04, 2014.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-cheeseman-51"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-cheeseman_51-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Cheeseman, Phil. "<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://music.hyperreal.org/library/history_of_house.html">The History Of House</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20130906062503/http://music.hyperreal.org/library/history_of_house.html">Archived</a> 2013-09-06 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>".</span>
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<li id="cite_note-Snoman-52"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Snoman_52-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Snoman_52-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text">Snoman, Rick (2009). <i>The Dance Music Manual: Tools, Toys, and Techniques — Second Edition</i>. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Press. p.233</span>
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<li id="cite_note-brittanica-53"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-brittanica_53-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite class="citation encyclopaedia cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9097024/house">"House"</a>. <i>Encyclopædia Britannica</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20070929225540/http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9097024/house">Archived</a> from the original on 2007-09-29<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2007-05-01</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=bookitem&amp;rft.atitle=House&amp;rft.btitle=Encyclop%C3%A6dia+Britannica&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.britannica.com%2Feb%2Farticle-9097024%2Fhouse&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-54"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-54">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFRule1997" class="citation journal cs1">Rule, Greg (August 1997). "The Father of Chicago House". <i>Keyboard</i>. <b>23</b> (8): 65.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Keyboard&amp;rft.atitle=The+Father+of+Chicago+House&amp;rft.volume=23&amp;rft.issue=8&amp;rft.pages=65&amp;rft.date=1997-08&amp;rft.aulast=Rule&amp;rft.aufirst=Greg&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-55"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-55">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite class="citation audio-visual cs1">Frankie Knuckles (featured subject); Hindmarch, Carl (director) (2001). <i>Pump Up The Volume</i> (Television production). <a href="/wiki/Channel_4" title="Channel 4">Channel Four</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Pump+Up+The+Volume&amp;rft.pub=Channel+Four&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-56"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-56">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFArnold2010" class="citation web cs1">Arnold, Jacob (2010-01-07). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.gridface.com/features/leonard_remix_rroy.html">"Leonard "Remix" Rroy, Chicago's Unsung House DJ"</a>. gridface. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20110718161626/http://www.gridface.com/features/leonard_remix_rroy.html">Archived</a> from the original on 2011-07-18<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2011-01-12</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Leonard+%22Remix%22+Rroy%2C+Chicago%27s+Unsung+House+DJ&amp;rft.pub=gridface&amp;rft.date=2010-01-07&amp;rft.aulast=Arnold&amp;rft.aufirst=Jacob&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.gridface.com%2Ffeatures%2Fleonard_remix_rroy.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-57"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-57">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFFleming1995" class="citation book cs1">Fleming, Jonathan (1995). <i>What Kind Of House Party Is This</i>. London: MIY Publishing Ltd. <a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-9523932-1-4" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-9523932-1-4"><bdi>978-0-9523932-1-4</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=What+Kind+Of+House+Party+Is+This&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.pub=MIY+Publishing+Ltd&amp;rft.date=1995&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-9523932-1-4&amp;rft.aulast=Fleming&amp;rft.aufirst=Jonathan&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-58"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-58">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFBidder2001" class="citation book cs1">Bidder, Sean (2001). <i>Pump Up the Volume: A History of House</i>. London: Channel 4. <a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-7522-1986-8" title="Special:BookSources/978-0-7522-1986-8"><bdi>978-0-7522-1986-8</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Pump+Up+the+Volume%3A+A+History+of+House&amp;rft.place=London&amp;rft.pub=Channel+4&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-7522-1986-8&amp;rft.aulast=Bidder&amp;rft.aufirst=Sean&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-59"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-59">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite class="citation audio-visual cs1">Chip E. (interviewee); Hindmarch, Carl (director) (2001). <i>Pump Up The Volume</i> (Television production). <a href="/wiki/Channel_4" title="Channel 4">Channel Four</a>. <q>If you were a DJ in Chicago, if you wanted to have 'the' records, there was only one place to go and that was Importes. This is where Importes was. People come in, they're looking for 'Warehouse music', and we would put, you know, 'As heard at the Warehouse' or 'As played at the Warehouse', and then eventually we just shortened that down to – because people also just in the vernacular, they started saying 'yeah, what's up with that 'House music' – now at this time they were talkin' about the old, old classics, the Salsoul, the Philly classics and such – so we put on the labels for the bins, we'd say 'House music'. And people would start comin' in eventually and just start askin', 'yeah, where's the <i>new</i> House music?'</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Pump+Up+The+Volume&amp;rft.pub=Channel+Four&amp;rft.date=2001&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Billboard_19860621_2-60"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-Billboard_19860621_2_60-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFGeorge1986" class="citation journal cs1">George, Nelson (1986-06-21). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=gyQEAAAAMBAJ&amp;lpg=PA27">"House Music: Will It Join Rap And Go-Go?"</a>. <i>Billboard</i>. <b>99</b> (25): 27. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20111228114555/http://books.google.com/books?id=gyQEAAAAMBAJ&amp;lpg=PA27">Archived</a> from the original on 2011-12-28<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2011-04-14</span></span>. <q>The term 'house music' has become a generic phrase for modern dance-oriented music," says Jones. "At one time the phrase 'old house music' was used to refer to old disco music. Now 'house' is used to describe the new music.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Billboard&amp;rft.atitle=House+Music%3A+Will+It+Join+Rap+And+Go-Go%3F&amp;rft.volume=99&amp;rft.issue=25&amp;rft.pages=27&amp;rft.date=1986-06-21&amp;rft.aulast=George&amp;rft.aufirst=Nelson&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DgyQEAAAAMBAJ%26lpg%3DPA27&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-61"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-61">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFBainbridge2014" class="citation news cs1">Bainbridge, Luke (2014-02-22). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.theguardian.com/music/2014/feb/23/acid-house-dawn-rave-new-world">"Acid house and the dawn of a rave new world"</a>. <i>The Guardian</i>. <a href="/wiki/ISSN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISSN (identifier)">ISSN</a>&#160;<a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="//www.worldcat.org/issn/0261-3077">0261-3077</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170216150344/https://www.theguardian.com/music/2014/feb/23/acid-house-dawn-rave-new-world">Archived</a> from the original on 2017-02-16<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2017-01-24</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Guardian&amp;rft.atitle=Acid+house+and+the+dawn+of+a+rave+new+world&amp;rft.date=2014-02-22&amp;rft.issn=0261-3077&amp;rft.aulast=Bainbridge&amp;rft.aufirst=Luke&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.theguardian.com%2Fmusic%2F2014%2Ffeb%2F23%2Facid-house-dawn-rave-new-world&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-62"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-62">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20161010181350/http://www.oldschooldaw.com/forums/index.php?topic=1134.0">"larry heard equipment from 1992"</a>. <i>www.oldschooldaw.com</i>. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.oldschooldaw.com/forums/index.php?topic=1134.0">the original</a> on 2016-10-10<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2016-10-08</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=www.oldschooldaw.com&amp;rft.atitle=larry+heard+equipment+from+1992&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.oldschooldaw.com%2Fforums%2Findex.php%3Ftopic%3D1134.0&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-63"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-63">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFCowen1999" class="citation news cs1">Cowen, Andrew (1999-10-30). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.questia.com/read/1G1-60489757">"Sounds Amazing!; Music Live Andrew Cowen previews the giant show at the NEC which offers great new ideas for musicians of all styles and all levels"</a>. <i>The Birmingham Post (UK)</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20201008194604/https://www.questia.com/read/1G1-60489757/sounds-amazing-music-live-andrew-cowen-previews">Archived</a> from the original on 2020-10-08<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2007-08-11</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=The+Birmingham+Post+%28UK%29&amp;rft.atitle=Sounds+Amazing%21%3B+Music+Live+Andrew+Cowen+previews+the+giant+show+at+the+NEC+which+offers+great+new+ideas+for+musicians+of+all+styles+and+all+levels.&amp;rft.date=1999-10-30&amp;rft.aulast=Cowen&amp;rft.aufirst=Andrew&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.questia.com%2Fread%2F1G1-60489757&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-atkins-64"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-atkins_64-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFTrask1988" class="citation journal cs1">Trask, Simon (December 1988). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20080315234608/http://www.mobeus.org/archives/juanatkins/">"Future Shock (Juan Atkins Interview)"</a>. Music Technology Magazine. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.mobeus.org/archives/juanatkins/">the original</a> on 2008-03-15<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2008-04-05</span></span>. <q>The word 'house' comes from a record that you only hear in a certain club. The DJs would search out an import that was as obscure as possible, and that would be a house record. You'd hear a certain record only at the Powerplant, and that was Frankie Knuckles' house record. But you couldn't really be guaranteed an exclusive on an import, 'cos even if there were only 10 or 15 copies in the country, another DJ would track one down. So the DJs came up with the concept of making their own house records. It was like 'hey, I know I've got an exclusive because I made the record.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=Future+Shock+%28Juan+Atkins+Interview%29&amp;rft.date=1988-12&amp;rft.aulast=Trask&amp;rft.aufirst=Simon&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mobeus.org%2Farchives%2Fjuanatkins%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span> <span class="cs1-hidden-error error citation-comment">Cite journal requires <code class="cs1-code">&#124;journal=</code> (<a href="/wiki/Help:CS1_errors#missing_periodical" title="Help:CS1 errors">help</a>)</span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-65"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-65">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.complex.com/music/house-music-history">"A Brief History of House Music"</a>. <i>complex.com</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20201006081227/https://www.complex.com/music/house-music-history">Archived</a> from the original on 2020-10-06<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2020-01-12</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=complex.com&amp;rft.atitle=A+Brief+History+of+House+Music&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.complex.com%2Fmusic%2Fhouse-music-history&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-Reynolds1998-66"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-Reynolds1998_66-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Reynolds1998_66-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Reynolds1998_66-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFReynolds1999" class="citation book cs1">Reynolds, Simon (1999) [1998]. <i>Generation Ecstasy: Into the World of House Music and Rave Culture</i>. Routledge. pp.&#160;27–31.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Generation+Ecstasy%3A+Into+the+World+of+House+Music+and+Rave+Culture&amp;rft.pages=27-31&amp;rft.pub=Routledge&amp;rft.date=1999&amp;rft.aulast=Reynolds&amp;rft.aufirst=Simon&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-67"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-67">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFJacob_Arnold2017" class="citation web cs1">Jacob Arnold (2017). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://daily.redbullmusicacademy.com/2017/08/chicago-house-detroit-techno-feature">"When Techno Was House: Jacob Arnold looks at Chicago's impact on the birth of techno"</a>. Red Bull Music Academy Daily. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190114150230/http://daily.redbullmusicacademy.com/2017/08/chicago-house-detroit-techno-feature">Archived</a> from the original on 2019-01-14<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2019-01-14</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=When+Techno+Was+House%3A+Jacob+Arnold+looks+at+Chicago%27s+impact+on+the+birth+of+techno&amp;rft.pub=Red+Bull+Music+Academy+Daily&amp;rft.date=2017&amp;rft.au=Jacob+Arnold&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fdaily.redbullmusicacademy.com%2F2017%2F08%2Fchicago-house-detroit-techno-feature&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-68"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-68">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.electronicbeats.net/juan-atkins-about-kraftwerk/">Juan Atkins on Kraftwerk</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170630071959/http://www.electronicbeats.net/juan-atkins-about-kraftwerk/">Archived</a> 2017-06-30 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a>, on Electronic Beats, 2012 (retrieved on 26 July 2020).</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-69"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-69">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFBishopGlasspiegel2011" class="citation web cs1">Bishop, Marlon; Glasspiegel, Wills (14 June 2011). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20110623194409/http://www.afropop.org/multi/interview/ID/203/">"Juan Atkins &#91;interview for Afropop Worldwide&#93;"</a>. World Music Productions. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.afropop.org/multi/interview/ID/203/">the original</a> on 23 June 2011<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">17 June</span> 2011</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Juan+Atkins+%5Binterview+for+Afropop+Worldwide%5D&amp;rft.pub=World+Music+Productions&amp;rft.date=2011-06-14&amp;rft.aulast=Bishop&amp;rft.aufirst=Marlon&amp;rft.au=Glasspiegel%2C+Wills&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.afropop.org%2Fmulti%2Finterview%2FID%2F203%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span> "Neil Rushton came up with the idea to do a compilation for Virgin and call it <i>The House Sound of Detroit</i>. And my track that I put on this record was called 'Techno Music.' And they were like 'wait a minute, if he's deeming this record 'Techno Music' and all the rest of this stuff is similar sounding, let's call it <i>Techno: The New Dance Sound of Detroit</i>.' And hence, that album was released and the name stuck."</span>
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<li id="cite_note-70"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-70">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">On the influence of Chicago house on Derrick May, who says to have been musically "baptised by <a href="/wiki/Ron_Hardy" title="Ron Hardy">Ron Hardy</a>", see <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20130430083215/http://www.techno.de/mixmag/interviews/DerrickMay1.html">"Interview: Derrick May – The Secret of Techno (archived)"</a>. <i><a href="/wiki/Mixmag" title="Mixmag">Mixmag</a></i>. 1997. Archived from the original on 30 April 2013<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">25 July</span> 2012</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Mixmag&amp;rft.atitle=Interview%3A+Derrick+May+%E2%80%93+The+Secret+of+Techno+%28archived%29&amp;rft.date=1997&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.techno.de%2Fmixmag%2Finterviews%2FDerrickMay1.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span><span class="cs1-maint citation-comment">CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (<a href="/wiki/Category:CS1_maint:_bot:_original_URL_status_unknown" title="Category:CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown">link</a>)</span> The connection was two-sided, as Chicago's house DJ <a href="/wiki/Frankie_Knuckles" title="Frankie Knuckles">Frankie Knuckles</a> played the song in his club and even suggested its title (see also there).</span>
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<li id="cite_note-71"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-71">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.attackmagazine.com/technique/deconstructed/rhythim-is-rhythim-strings-of-life-derrick-may/">Derrick May - Strings of Life</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200726224846/https://www.attackmagazine.com/technique/deconstructed/rhythim-is-rhythim-strings-of-life-derrick-may/">Archived</a> 2020-07-26 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a> on Attack Magazine, 2018 (retrieved on 26 July 2020).</span>
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<li id="cite_note-72"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-72">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.pure80spop.co.uk/bestsellerssingles.htm">"Best selling singles of the 80s"</a>. Pure80spop.co.uk. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20081220165129/http://www.pure80spop.co.uk/bestsellerssingles.htm">Archived</a> from the original on 2008-12-20<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2012-08-14</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Best+selling+singles+of+the+80s&amp;rft.pub=Pure80spop.co.uk&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pure80spop.co.uk%2Fbestsellerssingles.htm&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-73"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-73">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.everyhit.com/chart4.html">"Chart Archive – 1980s Singles"</a>. EveryHit.com. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.webcitation.org/6AcDlbzCw?url=http://www.everyhit.com/chart4.html">Archived</a> from the original on 2012-09-12<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2012-08-04</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Chart+Archive+%E2%80%93+1980s+Singles&amp;rft.pub=EveryHit.com&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.everyhit.com%2Fchart4.html&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-74"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-74">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFDuthel" class="citation book cs1">Duthel, C. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://books.google.com/books?id=qN6fAwAAQBAJ&amp;q=beatmasters+rok+da+house+hip+house&amp;pg=PA165"><i>Pitbull - Mr. Worldwide</i></a>. <a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9781471090356" title="Special:BookSources/9781471090356"><bdi>9781471090356</bdi></a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20201008194601/https://books.google.com/books?id=qN6fAwAAQBAJ&amp;pg=PA165&amp;lpg=PA165&amp;dq=beatmasters+rok+da+house+hip+house#q=beatmasters+rok+da+house+hip+house">Archived</a> from the original on 2020-10-08<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2020-09-14</span></span> &#8211; via Google Books.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Pitbull+-+Mr.+Worldwide&amp;rft.isbn=9781471090356&amp;rft.aulast=Duthel&amp;rft.aufirst=C.&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DqN6fAwAAQBAJ%26q%3Dbeatmasters%2Brok%2Bda%2Bhouse%2Bhip%2Bhouse%26pg%3DPA165&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-75"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-75">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.discogs.com/artist/194667-Farley-Jackmaster-Funk">Farley Jackmaster Funk: Artist page</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200819192136/https://www.discogs.com/artist/194667-Farley-Jackmaster-Funk">Archived</a> 2020-08-19 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a> on <a href="/wiki/Discogs" title="Discogs">Discogs</a>.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-76"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-76">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://5mag.net/audio/classic-house-mixes/armando-gallop-warehouse/">Armando Gallop: Live at the Warehouse DJ Mix</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200726161310/https://5mag.net/audio/classic-house-mixes/armando-gallop-warehouse/">Archived</a> 2020-07-26 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a> on 5mag.com.</span>
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<li id="cite_note-77"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-77">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.allmusic.com/artist/armando-mn0000598095/biography">Biography of Armando</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200726161250/https://www.allmusic.com/artist/armando-mn0000598095/biography">Archived</a> 2020-07-26 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a> on <a href="/wiki/AllMusic" title="AllMusic">AllMusic</a>, retrieved on 27 Juli 2020.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-78"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-78">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.discogs.com/Paul-Johnson-Scene-001/release/1870">Paul Johnson: Scene #001, release page</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200813171347/https://www.discogs.com/Paul-Johnson-Scene-001/release/1870">Archived</a> 2020-08-13 at the <a href="/wiki/Wayback_Machine" title="Wayback Machine">Wayback Machine</a> on <a href="/wiki/Discogs" title="Discogs">Discogs</a>.</span>
</li>
<li id="cite_note-79"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-79">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFArnold2013" class="citation web cs1">Arnold, Jacob (May 15, 2013). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.residentadvisor.net/features/1806">"Dance Mania: Ghetto House's Motown"</a>. <a href="/wiki/Resident_Advisor" title="Resident Advisor">Resident Advisor</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180909035427/https://www.residentadvisor.net/features/1806">Archived</a> from the original on September 9, 2018<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">September 8,</span> 2018</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Dance+Mania%3A+Ghetto+House%27s+Motown&amp;rft.pub=Resident+Advisor&amp;rft.date=2013-05-15&amp;rft.aulast=Arnold&amp;rft.aufirst=Jacob&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.residentadvisor.net%2Ffeatures%2F1806&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-allmusic-80"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-allmusic_80-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-allmusic_80-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.allmusic.com/subgenre/garage-ma0000012308">"Garage"</a>. <a href="/wiki/AllMusic" title="AllMusic">AllMusic</a>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150404002422/http://www.allmusic.com/subgenre/garage-ma0000012308">Archived</a> from the original on 2015-04-04<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">2011-08-27</span></span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Garage&amp;rft.pub=AllMusic&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.allmusic.com%2Fsubgenre%2Fgarage-ma0000012308&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-81"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-81">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFSaunders2007" class="citation book cs1">Saunders, Jesse (2007). <i>House Music: The Real Story</i>. Publish America Baltimore. p.&#160;118. <a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/9781604740011" title="Special:BookSources/9781604740011"><bdi>9781604740011</bdi></a>. <q>New York did not truly develop a recognized House music scene of its own until 1988 with the success of DJ Todd Terry—not until then did they understand what House music truly was all about. They did, though, have Garage.</q></cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=House+Music%3A+The+Real+Story&amp;rft.pages=118&amp;rft.pub=Publish+America+Baltimore&amp;rft.date=2007&amp;rft.isbn=9781604740011&amp;rft.aulast=Saunders&amp;rft.aufirst=Jesse&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-techn-82"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_ref-techn_82-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-techn_82-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFVerderosa2002" class="citation book cs1">Verderosa, Tony (2002). <i>The techno primer: the essential reference for loop-based music styles</i>. U.S.: Hal Leonard Corporation, 2002. p.&#160;36. <a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0634017888" title="Special:BookSources/0634017888"><bdi>0634017888</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=The+techno+primer%3A+the+essential+reference+for+loop-based+music+styles&amp;rft.place=U.S.&amp;rft.pages=36&amp;rft.pub=Hal+Leonard+Corporation%2C+2002&amp;rft.date=2002&amp;rft.isbn=0634017888&amp;rft.aulast=Verderosa&amp;rft.aufirst=Tony&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-traces-83"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-traces_83-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFSylvan2002" class="citation book cs1">Sylvan, Robin (2002). <i>Traces of the spirit: the religious dimensions of popular music</i>. U.S.: NYU Press. p.&#160;120. <a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0814798098" title="Special:BookSources/0814798098"><bdi>0814798098</bdi></a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.btitle=Traces+of+the+spirit%3A+the+religious+dimensions+of+popular+music&amp;rft.place=U.S.&amp;rft.pages=120&amp;rft.pub=NYU+Press&amp;rft.date=2002&amp;rft.isbn=0814798098&amp;rft.aulast=Sylvan&amp;rft.aufirst=Robin&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-84"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-84">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite class="citation journal cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20090917031408/http://remixmag.com/transmissions/chicago-house-080405/">"Chicago Mayor Declares 'House Unity Day<span class="cs1-kern-right">'</span>"</a>. <i>Remix</i>. Penton Media, Inc. 2005-08-03. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://remixmag.com/transmissions/chicago-house-080405/">the original</a> on 2009-09-17.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.jtitle=Remix&amp;rft.atitle=Chicago+Mayor+Declares+%27House+Unity+Day%27&amp;rft.date=2005-08-03&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fremixmag.com%2Ftransmissions%2Fchicago-house-080405%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-HMV-85"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-HMV_85-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite class="citation news cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20141124084108/http://www.hmv.com/music/-my-album-is-coming-in-the-first-quarter-hmv-com-talks-to-alesso">"<span class="cs1-kern-left">"</span>My album is coming in the first quarter of 2015..." – hmv.com talks to Alesso"</a>. <a href="/wiki/HMV" title="HMV">HMV</a>. November 18, 2014. Archived from <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.hmv.com/music/-my-album-is-coming-in-the-first-quarter-hmv-com-talks-to-alesso">the original</a> on November 24, 2014<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">December 2,</span> 2014</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=article&amp;rft.atitle=%22My+album+is+coming+in+the+first+quarter+of+2015...%22+%E2%80%93+hmv.com+talks+to+Alesso&amp;rft.date=2014-11-18&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.hmv.com%2Fmusic%2F-my-album-is-coming-in-the-first-quarter-hmv-com-talks-to-alesso&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-86"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-86">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://mixmag.net/feature/most-influential-house-labels-of-the-last-decade/40/">"13 OF THE MOST INFLUENTIAL HOUSE LABELS OF THE LAST DECADE"</a>. mixmag. 19 April 2017. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190116200751/https://mixmag.net/feature/most-influential-house-labels-of-the-last-decade/40">Archived</a> from the original on 16 January 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">11 January</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=13+OF+THE+MOST+INFLUENTIAL+HOUSE+LABELS+OF+THE+LAST+DECADE&amp;rft.pub=mixmag&amp;rft.date=2017-04-19&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fmixmag.net%2Ffeature%2Fmost-influential-house-labels-of-the-last-decade%2F40%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-87"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-87">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.mtv.com/news/1678979/david-guetta-deadmau5-grammy/">"David Guetta, Deadmau5 Get EDM Some Grammy Shine"</a>. MTV. 2 October 2012. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20171021005016/http://www.mtv.com/news/1678979/david-guetta-deadmau5-grammy/">Archived</a> from the original on 21 October 2017<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">21 October</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=David+Guetta%2C+Deadmau5+Get+EDM+Some+Grammy+Shine&amp;rft.pub=MTV&amp;rft.date=2012-10-02&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mtv.com%2Fnews%2F1678979%2Fdavid-guetta-deadmau5-grammy%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-88"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-88">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.mtv.com/news/1660424/dirty-south-axwell-rudy-dreams/">"Dirty South Teams Up With Axwell, Rudy For 'Dreams<span class="cs1-kern-right">'</span>"</a>. MTV. 22 March 2017. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20171220212915/http://www.mtv.com/news/1660424/dirty-south-axwell-rudy-dreams/">Archived</a> from the original on 20 December 2017<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">21 October</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Dirty+South+Teams+Up+With+Axwell%2C+Rudy+For+%27Dreams%27&amp;rft.pub=MTV&amp;rft.date=2017-03-22&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mtv.com%2Fnews%2F1660424%2Fdirty-south-axwell-rudy-dreams%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-89"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-89">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite class="citation web cs1"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://weraveyou.com/2017/06/axwell-in-the-air-8-years/">"Axwell's Iconic Remix Of "In The Air" Turns 8 Years Old"</a>. We Rave You. 29 June 2017. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20171021164705/https://weraveyou.com/2017/06/axwell-in-the-air-8-years/">Archived</a> from the original on 21 October 2017<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">21 October</span> 2017</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.btitle=Axwell%27s+Iconic+Remix+Of+%22In+The+Air%22+Turns+8+Years+Old&amp;rft.pub=We+Rave+You&amp;rft.date=2017-06-29&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fweraveyou.com%2F2017%2F06%2Faxwell-in-the-air-8-years%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-90"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-90">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFMcIntyre" class="citation web cs1">McIntyre, Hugh. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.forbes.com/sites/hughmcintyre/2018/04/20/calvin-harris-and-dua-lipa-rocket-to-no-1-in-the-u-k-with-one-kiss/">"Calvin Harris And Dua Lipa Rocket To No. 1 In The U.K. With 'One Kiss<span class="cs1-kern-right">'</span>"</a>. <i>Forbes</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190724200454/https://www.forbes.com/sites/hughmcintyre/2018/04/20/calvin-harris-and-dua-lipa-rocket-to-no-1-in-the-u-k-with-one-kiss/">Archived</a> from the original on July 24, 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">November 22,</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Forbes&amp;rft.atitle=Calvin+Harris+And+Dua+Lipa+Rocket+To+No.+1+In+The+U.K.+With+%27One+Kiss%27&amp;rft.aulast=McIntyre&amp;rft.aufirst=Hugh&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.forbes.com%2Fsites%2Fhughmcintyre%2F2018%2F04%2F20%2Fcalvin-harris-and-dua-lipa-rocket-to-no-1-in-the-u-k-with-one-kiss%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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<li id="cite_note-91"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-91">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><cite id="CITEREFMcIntyre" class="citation web cs1">McIntyre, Hugh. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.forbes.com/sites/hughmcintyre/2018/09/07/sam-smith-and-calvin-harris-grab-yet-another-no-1-hit-in-the-u-k-with-promises/">"Sam Smith And Calvin Harris Grab Yet Another No. 1 Hit In The U.K. With 'Promises<span class="cs1-kern-right">'</span>"</a>. <i>Forbes</i>. <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190724200500/https://www.forbes.com/sites/hughmcintyre/2018/09/07/sam-smith-and-calvin-harris-grab-yet-another-no-1-hit-in-the-u-k-with-promises/">Archived</a> from the original on July 24, 2019<span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">November 22,</span> 2019</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal&amp;rft.genre=unknown&amp;rft.jtitle=Forbes&amp;rft.atitle=Sam+Smith+And+Calvin+Harris+Grab+Yet+Another+No.+1+Hit+In+The+U.K.+With+%27Promises%27&amp;rft.aulast=McIntyre&amp;rft.aufirst=Hugh&amp;rft_id=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.forbes.com%2Fsites%2Fhughmcintyre%2F2018%2F09%2F07%2Fsam-smith-and-calvin-harris-grab-yet-another-no-1-hit-in-the-u-k-with-promises%2F&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music" class="Z3988"></span></span>
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</ol></div></div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Further_reading">Further reading</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=House_music&amp;action=edit&amp;section=20" title="Edit section: Further reading">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<ul><li>Bidder, Sean (2002). <i>Pump Up the Volume: A History of House Music</i>, London: MacMillan. <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-7522-1986-3" title="Special:BookSources/0-7522-1986-3">0-7522-1986-3</a></li>
<li>Bidder, Sean (1999). <i>The Rough Guide to House Music</i>, Rough Guides. <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/1-85828-432-5" title="Special:BookSources/1-85828-432-5">1-85828-432-5</a></li>
<li>Brewster, Bill/Frank Broughton (2000). <i>Last Night a DJ Saved My Life: The History of the Disc Jockey</i>, Grove Press. <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-8021-3688-5" title="Special:BookSources/0-8021-3688-5">0-8021-3688-5</a>. UK edition: Headline 1999/2006.</li>
<li>Fikentscher, Kai (2000). '<i>You Better Work!' Underground Dance Music in New York City.</i> Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-8195-6404-4" title="Special:BookSources/0-8195-6404-4">0-8195-6404-4</a></li>
<li>Hewitt, Michael (2008). <i>Music Theory for Computer Musicians</i>. 1st Ed. U.S. Cengage Learning. <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-1-59863-503-4" title="Special:BookSources/978-1-59863-503-4">978-1-59863-503-4</a></li>
<li>Kempster, Chris (Ed) (1996). <i>History of House</i>, Castle Communications. <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/1-86074-134-7" title="Special:BookSources/1-86074-134-7">1-86074-134-7</a> (A reprinting of magazine articles from the 1980s and 90s)</li>
<li>Mireille, Silcott (1999). <i>Rave America: New School Dancescapes</i>, ECW Press. <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/1-55022-383-6" title="Special:BookSources/1-55022-383-6">1-55022-383-6</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Simon_Reynolds" title="Simon Reynolds">Reynolds, Simon</a> (1998). <i>Energy Flash: a Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture</i>, (UK title, Pan Macmillan. <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-330-35056-0" title="Special:BookSources/0-330-35056-0">0-330-35056-0</a>), also released in U.S. as <i>Generation Ecstasy&#160;: Into the World of Techno and Rave Culture</i>, London/New York: Routledge 1999. <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-415-92373-5" title="Special:BookSources/0-415-92373-5">0-415-92373-5</a></li>
<li>Rietveld, Hillegonda C. (1998). <i>This is our House: House Music, Cultural Spaces and Technologies</i>, Aldershot Ashgate. Reissue: London/New York: Routledge 2018/2020. <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/036713411X" title="Special:BookSources/036713411X">036713411X</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Peter_Shapiro_(journalist)" title="Peter Shapiro (journalist)">Shapiro, Peter</a> (2000). <i>Modulations: A History of Electronic Music: Throbbing Words on Sound</i>. <link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r999302996"/><a href="/wiki/ISBN_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="ISBN (identifier)">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/1-891024-06-X" title="Special:BookSources/1-891024-06-X">1-891024-06-X</a>.</li>
<li>Snoman, Rick (2009). <i>The Dance Music Manual: Tools, Toys, and Techniques — Second Edition</i>: Chapter 11: House. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Press. p.&#160;231–249.</li></ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=House_music&amp;action=edit&amp;section=21" title="Edit section: External links">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<ul><li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.spin.com/2014/04/burning-down-the-house-chicago-club-80s/">Barry Walters: Burning Down the House</a>. SPIN magazine, November 1986.</li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://music.hyperreal.org/library/history_of_house.html">Phil Cheeseman: The History of House</a>. DJ Magazine (December 28, 2003)</li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20080321215250/http://www.timlawrence.info/linernotes/2005/acidhousesj.php">Tim Lawrence: Acid ⎯ Can You Jack?</a> – Liner notes on the early history of house (2005)</li></ul>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="House_music" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks hlist mw-collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2" style="background: silver;"><style data-mw-deduplicate="TemplateStyles:r992953826">.mw-parser-output .navbar{display:inline;font-size:88%;font-weight:normal}.mw-parser-output .navbar-collapse{float:left;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .navbar-boxtext{word-spacing:0}.mw-parser-output .navbar ul{display:inline-block;white-space:nowrap;line-height:inherit}.mw-parser-output .navbar-brackets::before{margin-right:-0.125em;content:"[ "}.mw-parser-output .navbar-brackets::after{margin-left:-0.125em;content:" ]"}.mw-parser-output .navbar li{word-spacing:-0.125em}.mw-parser-output .navbar-mini abbr{font-variant:small-caps;border-bottom:none;text-decoration:none;cursor:inherit}.mw-parser-output .navbar-ct-full{font-size:114%;margin:0 7em}.mw-parser-output .navbar-ct-mini{font-size:114%;margin:0 4em}.mw-parser-output .infobox .navbar{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .navbox .navbar{display:block;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .navbox-title .navbar{float:left;text-align:left;margin-right:0.5em}</style><div class="navbar plainlinks hlist navbar-mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:House_music" title="Template:House music"><abbr title="View this template" style="background: silver;;;background:none transparent;border:none;box-shadow:none;padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:House_music" title="Template talk:House music"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style="background: silver;;;background:none transparent;border:none;box-shadow:none;padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:House_music&amp;action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style="background: silver;;;background:none transparent;border:none;box-shadow:none;padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="House_music" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a class="mw-selflink selflink">House music</a></div></th></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background: silver;;width:1%"><a href="/wiki/Styles_of_house_music" title="Styles of house music">Subgenres</a></th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background: silver;;width:1%">Specific</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Acid_house" title="Acid house">Acid house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ambient_house" title="Ambient house">Ambient house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Styles_of_house_music#B" title="Styles of house music">Bass house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Deep_house" title="Deep house">Deep house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Diva_house" title="Diva house">Diva house</a> (<a href="/wiki/Hardbag" title="Hardbag">Hardbag</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Electro_house" title="Electro house">Electro house</a> (<a href="/wiki/Big_room_house" title="Big room house">Big room house</a> • <a href="/wiki/Complextro" class="mw-redirect" title="Complextro">Complextro</a> • <a href="/wiki/Fidget_house" class="mw-redirect" title="Fidget house">Fidget house</a> • <a href="/wiki/Jungle_terror" class="mw-redirect" title="Jungle terror">Jungle terror</a> • <a href="/wiki/Melbourne_bounce" class="mw-redirect" title="Melbourne bounce">Melbourne bounce</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Funky_house" title="Funky house">Funky house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Future_house" title="Future house">Future house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Garage_house" title="Garage house">Garage house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ghetto_house" title="Ghetto house">Ghetto house</a> (<a href="/wiki/Ghettotech" title="Ghettotech">Ghettotech</a> • <a href="/wiki/Juke_house" class="mw-redirect" title="Juke house">Juke house</a> • <a href="/wiki/Footwork_(genre)" title="Footwork (genre)">Footwork</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hip_house" title="Hip house">Hip house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Microhouse" title="Microhouse">Microhouse</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Moombahton" title="Moombahton">Moombahton</a> (<a href="/wiki/Moombahcore" class="mw-redirect" title="Moombahcore">Moombahcore</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nu-disco" title="Nu-disco">Nu-disco</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Outsider_house" title="Outsider house">Outsider house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Progressive_house" title="Progressive house">Progressive house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tech_house" title="Tech house">Tech house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tribal_house" title="Tribal house">Tribal house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tropical_house" title="Tropical house">Tropical house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/UK_hard_house" title="UK hard house">UK hard house</a> (<a href="/wiki/Hard_dance" class="mw-redirect" title="Hard dance">Hard dance</a> • <a href="/wiki/Hard_NRG" title="Hard NRG">Hard NRG</a> • <a href="/wiki/Scouse_house" class="mw-redirect" title="Scouse house">Scouse house</a> (<a href="/wiki/Hardbass" title="Hardbass">Hardbass</a>))</li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background: silver;;width:1%">Regional</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Afro_house" class="mw-redirect" title="Afro house">Afro house</a> (<a href="/wiki/Amapiano" title="Amapiano">Amapiano</a> • <a href="/wiki/Gqom" title="Gqom">Gqom</a> • <a href="/wiki/Kidandali" title="Kidandali">Kidandali</a> • <a href="/wiki/Kwaito" title="Kwaito">Kwaito</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Balearic_beat" title="Balearic beat">Balearic beat</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Baltimore_club" title="Baltimore club">Baltimore club</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Brazilian_bass" class="mw-redirect" title="Brazilian bass">Brazilian bass</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Chicago_hard_house" class="mw-redirect" title="Chicago hard house">Chicago hard house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Chicago_house" title="Chicago house">Chicago house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dutch_house" class="mw-redirect" title="Dutch house">Dutch house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Euro_house" class="mw-redirect" title="Euro house">Euro house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/French_house" title="French house">French house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Italo_house" title="Italo house">Italo house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jersey_club" title="Jersey club">Jersey club</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Latin_house" title="Latin house">Latin house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/New_Jersey_sound" title="New Jersey sound">New Jersey sound</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background: silver;;width:1%">Related topics</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background: silver;;width:1%">Genres</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Bassline_(music_genre)" title="Bassline (music genre)">Bassline</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Big_beat" title="Big beat">Big beat</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Chill-out_music" title="Chill-out music">Chill-out</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Disco" title="Disco">Disco</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dream_trance" title="Dream trance">Dream trance</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Eurodance" title="Eurodance">Eurodance</a> (<a href="/wiki/Hard_dance" class="mw-redirect" title="Hard dance">Hard dance</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Madchester" title="Madchester">Madchester</a> (<a href="/wiki/Baggy" title="Baggy">Baggy</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/New_beat" title="New beat">New beat</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nu_jazz" title="Nu jazz">Nu jazz</a> (<a href="/wiki/Electro_swing" title="Electro swing">Electro swing</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Techno" title="Techno">Techno</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Witch_house_(genre)" title="Witch house (genre)">Witch house</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background: silver;;width:1%">Dance moves</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Jacking" title="Jacking">Jacking</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Footwork_(genre)" title="Footwork (genre)">Footwork</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="background: silver;;width:1%">Other</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Deejay_(Jamaican)" title="Deejay (Jamaican)">Deejay (Jamaican)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Disc_jockey" title="Disc jockey">DJ</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nightclub" title="Nightclub">Nightclub</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rave" title="Rave">Rave</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="Post-disco" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks hlist mw-collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r992953826"/><div class="navbar plainlinks hlist navbar-mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Post-disco" title="Template:Post-disco"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;box-shadow:none;padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Post-disco" title="Template talk:Post-disco"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;box-shadow:none;padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Post-disco&amp;action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;box-shadow:none;padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="Post-disco" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/wiki/Post-disco" title="Post-disco">Post-disco</a></div></th></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;background:transparent;"><a href="/wiki/Boogie_(genre)" title="Boogie (genre)">Boogie</a> connection</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Boogie_(genre)" title="Boogie (genre)">Boogie</a> (<a href="/wiki/City_pop" title="City pop">city pop</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Electro_(music)" title="Electro (music)">Electro</a> (<a href="/wiki/Latin_freestyle" title="Latin freestyle">Latin freestyle</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dance-pop" title="Dance-pop">Dance-pop</a></li>
<li><a class="mw-selflink selflink">House</a> (<a href="/wiki/Chicago_house" title="Chicago house">Chicago</a>)</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nu-disco" title="Nu-disco">Nu-disco</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;background:transparent;"><a href="/wiki/Post-punk" title="Post-punk">Post-punk</a> connection</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Dance-rock" title="Dance-rock">Dance-rock</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Alternative_dance" title="Alternative dance">Alternative dance</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%;background:transparent;">Other topics</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Lists</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><div class="hlist hlist-separated"><ul><li><a href="/wiki/List_of_post-disco_artists_and_songs" title="List of post-disco artists and songs">Post-disco artists</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/List_of_dance-rock_artists" title="List of dance-rock artists">dance-rock artists</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/List_of_dance-pop_artists" title="List of dance-pop artists">dance-pop artists</a></li></ul></div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Articles</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><div class="hlist hlist-separated"><ul><li><a href="/wiki/Larry_Levan" title="Larry Levan">Larry Levan</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/P-Funk" class="mw-redirect" title="P-Funk">P-Funk</a></li><li><i><a href="/wiki/Disco_Not_Disco" title="Disco Not Disco">Disco Not Disco</a></i></li><li><a href="/wiki/Disco_Demolition_Night" title="Disco Demolition Night">Disco Demolition Night</a></li></ul></div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">See also</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"><a href="/wiki/List_of_electronic_music_genres" title="List of electronic music genres">Electronic</a>, and <a href="/wiki/List_of_music_styles#R&amp;B_and_soul" title="List of music styles">R&amp;B</a> music genres</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><td class="navbox-abovebelow" colspan="2"><div><b>Categories:</b> <a href="/wiki/Category:Dance-rock" title="Category:Dance-rock">Dance-rock</a> and <a href="/wiki/Category:Boogie_(genre)" title="Category:Boogie (genre)">Boogie</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="Electronica_and_electronic-based_music_styles" style="padding:3px"><table class="nowraplinks mw-collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="border-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit"><tbody><tr><th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2"><link rel="mw-deduplicated-inline-style" href="mw-data:TemplateStyles:r992953826"/><div class="navbar plainlinks hlist navbar-mini"><ul><li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Electronica" title="Template:Electronica"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;box-shadow:none;padding:0;">v</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Electronica" title="Template talk:Electronica"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;box-shadow:none;padding:0;">t</abbr></a></li><li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Electronica&amp;action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;box-shadow:none;padding:0;">e</abbr></a></li></ul></div><div id="Electronica_and_electronic-based_music_styles" style="font-size:114%;margin:0 4em"><a href="/wiki/Electronica" title="Electronica">Electronica</a> and <a href="/wiki/Electronic_music" title="Electronic music">electronic</a>-based <a href="/wiki/List_of_electronic_music_genres" title="List of electronic music genres">music styles</a></div></th></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Genres by<br />decade of origin</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em"></div><table class="nowraplinks navbox-subgroup" style="border-spacing:0"><tbody><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">1960s</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Ambient_music" title="Ambient music">Ambient</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Drone_music" title="Drone music">Drone</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dub_music" title="Dub music">Dub</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Electronic_rock" title="Electronic rock">Electronic rock</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Krautrock" title="Krautrock">Krautrock</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Sampledelia" title="Sampledelia">Sampledelia</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">1970s</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Boogie_(genre)" title="Boogie (genre)">Boogie</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Chiptune" title="Chiptune">Chiptune</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Electropunk" class="mw-redirect" title="Electropunk">Electropunk</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Euro_disco" title="Euro disco">Euro disco</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hi-NRG" title="Hi-NRG">Hi-NRG</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Industrial_music" title="Industrial music">Industrial music</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Industrial_rock" title="Industrial rock">Industrial rock</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Minimal_wave" title="Minimal wave">Minimal wave</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/New_wave_music" title="New wave music">New wave</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Space_music" title="Space music">Space music</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Synth-pop" title="Synth-pop">Synth-pop</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Electropop" title="Electropop">Electropop</a></li></ul></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">1980s</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Acid_jazz" title="Acid jazz">Acid jazz</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Alternative_dance" title="Alternative dance">Alternative dance</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Breakbeat" title="Breakbeat">Breakbeat</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Breakbeat_hardcore" title="Breakbeat hardcore">Breakbeat hardcore</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dark_ambient" title="Dark ambient">Dark ambient</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dubtronica" title="Dubtronica">Dubtronica</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Electronic_dance_music" title="Electronic dance music">Electronic dance music</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Electro_(music)" title="Electro (music)">Electro</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Latin_freestyle" title="Latin freestyle">Latin freestyle</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Electronic_body_music" title="Electronic body music">Electronic body music</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Electro-industrial" title="Electro-industrial">Electro-industrial</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Eurobeat" title="Eurobeat">Eurobeat</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Eurodance" title="Eurodance">Eurodance</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Funky_house" title="Funky house">Funky house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hardcore_(electronic_dance_music_genre)" title="Hardcore (electronic dance music genre)">Hardcore</a></li>
<li><a class="mw-selflink selflink">House</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Latin_house" title="Latin house">Latin house</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Industrial_hip_hop" title="Industrial hip hop">Industrial hip hop</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Industrial_metal" title="Industrial metal">Industrial metal</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Italo_disco" title="Italo disco">Italo disco</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/New_beat" title="New beat">New beat</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Synth-metal" title="Synth-metal">Synth-metal</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Techno" title="Techno">Techno</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">1990s</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Ambient_techno" title="Ambient techno">Ambient techno</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Breakcore" title="Breakcore">Breakcore</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Digital_hardcore" title="Digital hardcore">Digital hardcore</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Downtempo" title="Downtempo">Downtempo</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Drum_and_bass" title="Drum and bass">Drum and bass</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Drill_%27n%27_bass" title="Drill &#39;n&#39; bass">Drill 'n' bass</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Dubstep" title="Dubstep">Dubstep</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Electroclash" title="Electroclash">Electroclash</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Electro_hop_music" class="mw-redirect" title="Electro hop music">Electro hop</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Electro_house" title="Electro house">Electro house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ethnic_electronica" title="Ethnic electronica">Ethnic electronica</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Folktronica" title="Folktronica">Folktronica</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Funktronica" class="mw-redirect" title="Funktronica">Funktronica</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Glitch_(music)" title="Glitch (music)">Glitch</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Goa_trance" title="Goa trance">Goa</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hardstyle" title="Hardstyle">Hardstyle</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Illbient" title="Illbient">Illbient</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Industrial_techno" title="Industrial techno">Industrial techno</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Intelligent_dance_music" title="Intelligent dance music">Intelligent dance music</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jungle_music" title="Jungle music">Jungle music</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Livetronica" class="mw-redirect" title="Livetronica">Livetronica</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/M%C3%A1kina" title="Mákina">Mákina</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mangue_bit" title="Mangue bit">Mangue bit</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nu_jazz" title="Nu jazz">Nu jazz</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Electro_swing" title="Electro swing">Electro swing</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Nu_skool_breaks" title="Nu skool breaks">Nu skool breaks</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Power_noise" title="Power noise">Power noise</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Progressive_electronica" class="mw-redirect" title="Progressive electronica">Progressive electronica</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Trance_music" title="Trance music">Trance</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Trip_hop" title="Trip hop">Trip hop</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/UK_garage" title="UK garage">UK garage</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/2-step_garage" title="2-step garage">2-step garage</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Breakstep" title="Breakstep">Breakstep</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Future_garage" title="Future garage">Future garage</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Speed_garage" title="Speed garage">Speed garage</a></li></ul></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">2000s</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Bassline_(music_genre)" title="Bassline (music genre)">Bassline</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Budots" title="Budots">Budots</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Christian_electronic_dance_music" title="Christian electronic dance music">Christian electronic dance music</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Crunk" title="Crunk">Crunk</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Chillwave" title="Chillwave">Chillwave</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Electro_house" title="Electro house">Electro house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Grime_(music_genre)" title="Grime (music genre)">Grime</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Hauntology_(music)" title="Hauntology (music)">Hauntology</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jumpstyle" title="Jumpstyle">Jumpstyle</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Lowercase_(music)" title="Lowercase (music)">Lowercase</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Synthwave" title="Synthwave">Synthwave</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Sovietwave" title="Sovietwave">Sovietwave</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/UK_bass" title="UK bass">UK bass</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/UK_funky" title="UK funky">UK funky</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Witch_house_(genre)" title="Witch house (genre)">Witch house</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">2010s</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Big_room_house" title="Big room house">Big room house</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Deconstructed_club" title="Deconstructed club">Deconstructed club</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Future_bass" title="Future bass">Future bass</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Powwow-step" title="Powwow-step">Powwow-step</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Slime_punk" title="Slime punk">Slime punk</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Trap_music_(EDM)" title="Trap music (EDM)">Trap</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Vaporwave" title="Vaporwave">Vaporwave</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Hardvapour" title="Hardvapour">Hardvapour</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Fashwave" class="mw-redirect" title="Fashwave">Fashwave</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Future_funk" class="mw-redirect" title="Future funk">Future funk</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Mallsoft" class="mw-redirect" title="Mallsoft">Mallsoft</a></li></ul></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table><div></div></td></tr><tr><th scope="row" class="navbox-group" style="width:1%">Other topics</th><td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px"><div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Chill-out_music" title="Chill-out music">Chill-out music</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Contemporary_R%26B" title="Contemporary R&amp;B">Contemporary R&amp;B</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Disco" title="Disco">Disco</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Post-disco" title="Post-disco">Post-disco</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Garage_house" title="Garage house">Garage house</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Electronics_in_rock_music" title="Electronics in rock music">Electronics in rock music</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_hip_hop_genres" title="List of hip hop genres">List of hip hop genres</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Plunderphonics" title="Plunderphonics">Plunderphonics</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Recording_studio_as_an_instrument" title="Recording studio as an instrument">Recording studio as an instrument</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Turntablism" title="Turntablism">Turntablism</a>
<ul><li><a href="/wiki/Hip-hop_music" class="mw-redirect" title="Hip-hop music">Hip-hop music</a></li></ul></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Industrial_music" title="Industrial music">Industrial</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Video_game_music" title="Video game music">Video game music</a></li></ul>
</div></td></tr></tbody></table></div>
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<ul><li><span class="nowrap"><a href="/wiki/BNF_(identifier)" class="mw-redirect" title="BNF (identifier)">BNF</a>: <span class="uid"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb12486957p">cb12486957p</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://data.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb12486957p">(data)</a></span></span></li>
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class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ca"><a href="https://ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%BAsica_house" title="Música house – Catalan" lang="ca" hreflang="ca" class="interlanguage-link-target">Català</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-cs"><a href="https://cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_music" title="House music – Czech" lang="cs" hreflang="cs" class="interlanguage-link-target">Čeština</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-cy"><a href="https://cy.wikipedia.org/wiki/House" title="House – Welsh" lang="cy" hreflang="cy" class="interlanguage-link-target">Cymraeg</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-da"><a href="https://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/House" title="House – Danish" lang="da" hreflang="da" class="interlanguage-link-target">Dansk</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-de"><a href="https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/House" title="House – German" lang="de" hreflang="de" class="interlanguage-link-target">Deutsch</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-et"><a href="https://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/House" title="House – Estonian" lang="et" hreflang="et" class="interlanguage-link-target">Eesti</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-es"><a href="https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_(m%C3%BAsica)" title="House (música) – Spanish" lang="es" hreflang="es" class="interlanguage-link-target">Español</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-eo"><a href="https://eo.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ha%C5%ADzo" title="Haŭzo – Esperanto" lang="eo" hreflang="eo" class="interlanguage-link-target">Esperanto</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fa"><a href="https://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%85%D9%88%D8%B3%DB%8C%D9%82%DB%8C_%D9%87%D8%A7%D9%88%D8%B3" title="موسیقی هاوس – Persian" lang="fa" hreflang="fa" class="interlanguage-link-target">فارسی</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fr"><a href="https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_music" title="House music – French" lang="fr" hreflang="fr" class="interlanguage-link-target">Français</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-gl"><a href="https://gl.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_(m%C3%BAsica)" title="House (música) – Galician" lang="gl" hreflang="gl" class="interlanguage-link-target">Galego</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ko"><a href="https://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/%ED%95%98%EC%9A%B0%EC%8A%A4_%EC%9D%8C%EC%95%85" title="하우스 음악 – Korean" lang="ko" hreflang="ko" class="interlanguage-link-target">한국어</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-hy"><a href="https://hy.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D5%80%D5%A1%D5%B8%D6%82%D5%BD_%D5%A5%D6%80%D5%A1%D5%AA%D5%B7%D5%BF%D5%B8%D6%82%D5%A9%D5%B5%D5%B8%D6%82%D5%B6" title="Հաուս երաժշտություն – Armenian" lang="hy" hreflang="hy" class="interlanguage-link-target">Հայերեն</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-hr"><a href="https://hr.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_glazba" title="House glazba – Croatian" lang="hr" hreflang="hr" class="interlanguage-link-target">Hrvatski</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-id"><a href="https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musik_house" title="Musik house – Indonesian" lang="id" hreflang="id" class="interlanguage-link-target">Bahasa Indonesia</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-is"><a href="https://is.wikipedia.org/wiki/H%C3%BAst%C3%B3nlist" title="Hústónlist – Icelandic" lang="is" hreflang="is" class="interlanguage-link-target">Íslenska</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-it"><a href="https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musica_house" title="Musica house – Italian" lang="it" hreflang="it" class="interlanguage-link-target">Italiano</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-he"><a href="https://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%94%D7%90%D7%95%D7%A1_(%D7%A1%D7%92%D7%A0%D7%95%D7%9F_%D7%9E%D7%95%D7%96%D7%99%D7%A7%D7%9C%D7%99)" title="האוס (סגנון מוזיקלי) – Hebrew" lang="he" hreflang="he" class="interlanguage-link-target">עברית</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ka"><a href="https://ka.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E1%83%B0%E1%83%90%E1%83%A3%E1%83%A1%E1%83%98" title="ჰაუსი – Georgian" lang="ka" hreflang="ka" class="interlanguage-link-target">ქართული</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-la"><a href="https://la.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musica_domestica" title="Musica domestica – Latin" lang="la" hreflang="la" class="interlanguage-link-target">Latina</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-lv"><a href="https://lv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hausm%C5%ABzika" title="Hausmūzika – Latvian" lang="lv" hreflang="lv" class="interlanguage-link-target">Latviešu</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-lt"><a href="https://lt.wikipedia.org/wiki/House" title="House – Lithuanian" lang="lt" hreflang="lt" class="interlanguage-link-target">Lietuvių</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-lmo"><a href="https://lmo.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musega_house" title="Musega house – Lombard" lang="lmo" hreflang="lmo" class="interlanguage-link-target">Lumbaart</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-hu"><a href="https://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/House" title="House – Hungarian" lang="hu" hreflang="hu" class="interlanguage-link-target">Magyar</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-mk"><a href="https://mk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A5%D0%B0%D1%83%D1%81_%D0%BC%D1%83%D0%B7%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B0" title="Хаус музика – Macedonian" lang="mk" hreflang="mk" class="interlanguage-link-target">Македонски</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-arz"><a href="https://arz.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D9%85%D8%B2%D9%8A%D9%83%D8%A7_%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%87%D8%A7%D9%88%D8%B3" title="مزيكا الهاوس – Egyptian Arabic" lang="arz" hreflang="arz" class="interlanguage-link-target">مصرى</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-nl"><a href="https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_(muziekstijl)" title="House (muziekstijl) – Dutch" lang="nl" hreflang="nl" class="interlanguage-link-target">Nederlands</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ja"><a href="https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%83%8F%E3%82%A6%E3%82%B9_(%E9%9F%B3%E6%A5%BD)" title="ハウス (音楽) – Japanese" lang="ja" hreflang="ja" class="interlanguage-link-target">日本語</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-no"><a href="https://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/House" title="House – Norwegian Bokmål" lang="nb" hreflang="nb" class="interlanguage-link-target">Norsk bokmål</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-nn"><a href="https://nn.wikipedia.org/wiki/House" title="House – Norwegian Nynorsk" lang="nn" hreflang="nn" class="interlanguage-link-target">Norsk nynorsk</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-oc"><a href="https://oc.wikipedia.org/wiki/House" title="House – Occitan" lang="oc" hreflang="oc" class="interlanguage-link-target">Occitan</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-pl"><a href="https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/House" title="House – Polish" lang="pl" hreflang="pl" class="interlanguage-link-target">Polski</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-pt"><a href="https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_music" title="House music – Portuguese" lang="pt" hreflang="pt" class="interlanguage-link-target">Português</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ro"><a href="https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muzic%C4%83_house" title="Muzică house – Romanian" lang="ro" hreflang="ro" class="interlanguage-link-target">Română</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-qu"><a href="https://qu.wikipedia.org/wiki/House" title="House – Quechua" lang="qu" hreflang="qu" class="interlanguage-link-target">Runa Simi</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ru"><a href="https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A5%D0%B0%D1%83%D1%81" title="Хаус – Russian" lang="ru" hreflang="ru" class="interlanguage-link-target">Русский</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sco"><a href="https://sco.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_muisic" title="House muisic – Scots" lang="sco" hreflang="sco" class="interlanguage-link-target">Scots</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sq"><a href="https://sq.wikipedia.org/wiki/House" title="House – Albanian" lang="sq" hreflang="sq" class="interlanguage-link-target">Shqip</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-si"><a href="https://si.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B7%84%E0%B7%80%E0%B7%94%E0%B7%83%E0%B7%8A_%E0%B7%83%E0%B6%82%E0%B6%9C%E0%B7%93%E0%B6%AD%E0%B6%BA" title="හවුස් සංගීතය – Sinhala" lang="si" hreflang="si" class="interlanguage-link-target">සිංහල</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-simple"><a href="https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_music" title="House music – Simple English" lang="en-simple" hreflang="en-simple" class="interlanguage-link-target">Simple English</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sk"><a href="https://sk.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_(hudba)" title="House (hudba) – Slovak" lang="sk" hreflang="sk" class="interlanguage-link-target">Slovenčina</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sl"><a href="https://sl.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_(glasbena_zvrst)" title="House (glasbena zvrst) – Slovenian" lang="sl" hreflang="sl" class="interlanguage-link-target">Slovenščina</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sr"><a href="https://sr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A5%D0%B0%D1%83%D1%81_%D0%BC%D1%83%D0%B7%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B0" title="Хаус музика – Serbian" lang="sr" hreflang="sr" class="interlanguage-link-target">Српски / srpski</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fi"><a href="https://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/House" title="House – Finnish" lang="fi" hreflang="fi" class="interlanguage-link-target">Suomi</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sv"><a href="https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_(musikstil)" title="House (musikstil) – Swedish" lang="sv" hreflang="sv" class="interlanguage-link-target">Svenska</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-th"><a href="https://th.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%B9%80%E0%B8%AE%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%AA%E0%B9%8C_(%E0%B9%81%E0%B8%99%E0%B8%A7%E0%B8%94%E0%B8%99%E0%B8%95%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%B5)" title="เฮาส์ (แนวดนตรี) – Thai" lang="th" hreflang="th" class="interlanguage-link-target">ไทย</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-tr"><a href="https://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_m%C3%BCzik" title="House müzik – Turkish" lang="tr" hreflang="tr" class="interlanguage-link-target">Türkçe</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-uk"><a href="https://uk.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A5%D0%B0%D1%83%D0%B7" title="Хауз – Ukrainian" lang="uk" hreflang="uk" class="interlanguage-link-target">Українська</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ur"><a href="https://ur.wikipedia.org/wiki/%DB%81%D8%A7%D8%A4%D8%B3_%D9%85%D9%88%D8%B3%DB%8C%D9%82%DB%8C" title="ہاؤس موسیقی – Urdu" lang="ur" hreflang="ur" class="interlanguage-link-target">اردو</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-vi"><a href="https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nh%E1%BA%A1c_house" title="Nhạc house – Vietnamese" lang="vi" hreflang="vi" class="interlanguage-link-target">Tiếng Việt</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-wuu"><a href="https://wuu.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_(%E9%9F%B3%E4%B9%90)" title="House (音乐) – Wu Chinese" lang="wuu" hreflang="wuu" class="interlanguage-link-target">吴语</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-zh"><a href="https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_(%E9%9F%B3%E6%A8%82)" title="House (音樂) – Chinese" lang="zh" hreflang="zh" class="interlanguage-link-target">中文</a></li></ul>
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	 House music 
	 
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		   Genre of electronic dance music 
 For the Steven James Adams album, see  House Music (album) . 
 Not to be confused with  House band . 
    House music    Stylistic origins  
   Disco   &#91;1&#93;   
  Hi-NRG   &#91;2&#93;    &#91;3&#93;    &#91;4&#93;    &#91;5&#93;   
  boogie   &#91;6&#93;    &#91;7&#93;   
  electro   &#91;8&#93;   
  Latin soul   &#91;1&#93;   
  jazz   &#91;1&#93;    
    Cultural origins  1980s,  Chicago ,  Illinois , United States    Derivative forms      Electroclash    Eurobeat    techno    UK garage    speed garage    trance    dance-pop    2-step garage    Detroit techno        Subgenres        Acid house    Brazilian bass    deep house    diva house    funky house    future house    garage house    ghetto house    hardbag    microhouse    tribal house    tropical house     ( complete list )    Fusion genres        Alternative dance    ambient house    Baltimore club    electro house    electro swing    Eurodance    French house    future garage    hip house    jump house    Kuduro    Latin house    moombahton    neo soul    nu-disco    progressive house    tech house    witch house        Regional scenes        Cancún    Brazil    Chicago    France    Ibiza    Italy    New Jersey    New York    South Africa    United Kingdom        Other topics    
   List of house artists   
    
  House  is a genre of  electronic dance music  characterized by a repetitive   four-on-the-floor  beat and a tempo of 120 to 130  beats per minute .  &#91;9&#93;   It was created by  DJs  and music producers from  Chicago 's underground  club culture  in the 1980s, as DJs from the subculture began altering  disco  songs to give them a more mechanical beat and deeper  basslines .  &#91;1&#93;  
  The genre was pioneered by DJs and producers mainly from Chicago and New York such as  Frankie Knuckles ,  Larry Levan ,  Ron Hardy ,  Jesse Saunders ,  Chip E. ,  Steve "Silk" Hurley ,  Mr. Lee ,  Farley "Jackmaster" Funk ,  Marshall Jefferson ,  Phuture  and others. From its beginnings in the Chicago club and local radio scene, the genre expanded internationally to  London , then to other American cities such as New York City and  Detroit  before becoming a worldwide phenomenon.  &#91;10&#93;  
  House has had a large impact on  pop music , especially  dance music . It was incorporated by major pop artists including  Janet Jackson ,  Madonna  and  Kylie Minogue , but also produced some mainstream hits on its own, such as " French Kiss " by  Lil Louis  (1989), " Show Me Love " by  Robin S.  (1992) or " Push the Feeling On " by  Nightcrawlers  (1992/1995). Many house producers also did and continue to do  remixes  for pop artists. Until today, house music has remained popular on radio and in clubs while retaining a foothold on the underground scenes across the globe.
 
    Contents      
 
   1   Characteristics   
   2   Influences and precursors   
   3   Early history (1980s): Chicago house, acid house and deep house   
   4   Origins of the term "house"   
   5   Social and political aspects   
   6   House dance   
   7   Regional scenes (1980s–1990s)  
 
   7.1   Detroit and techno   
   7.2   UK: Acid house, rave culture and the Second Summer of Love   
   7.3   Chicago's second wave: Hip house and ghetto house   
   7.4   New York and New Jersey: Garage house and the "Jersey sound"   
   7.5   Ibiza   
   7.6   Other regional scenes   
 
 
   8   The 1990s   
   9   21st century  
 
   9.1   2000s   
   9.2   2010s   
 
 
   10   See also   
   11   References   
   12   Further reading   
   13   External links   
 
 

  Characteristics   [  edit  ]   
 
  
       
  
  House Music Demo  
        
 A full house music track.    
    Problems playing this file? See  media help .   
  
 In its most typical form, the genre is characterized by repetitive  4/4   rhythms  including  bass drums ,  off-beat   hi-hats ,  snare drums ,  claps , and/or  snaps  at a tempo between 120 and 130  beats per minute (bpm) ,  synthesizer   riffs , deep  basslines , and often, but not necessarily, sung, spoken or  sampled  vocals. In house, the bass drum is sounded on beats one and three, and the snare drum, claps, or other higher-pitched percussion on beats two and four. The drum beats in house music are almost always provided by an electronic  drum machine , often a  Roland TR-808 ,  TR-909 ,  &#91;11&#93;   or a  TR-707 . Claps, shakers, snare drum, or hi-hat sounds are used to add  syncopation .  &#91;12&#93;   One of the signature rhythm riffs, especially in early (Chicago) house, is built on the  clave  pattern.  &#91;13&#93;    Congas and bongos may be added for an African sound, or metallic percussion for a Latin feel.  &#91;12&#93;  
  Sometimes, the drum sounds are "saturated" by  boosting the gain  to create a more aggressive edge.  &#91;12&#93;   One classic subgenre,  acid house , is defined through the squelchy sounds created by the  Roland TB-303  bass synthesizer. House music could be produced on "cheap and consumer-friendly electronic equipment" and used sound gear, which made it easier for independent labels and DJs to create tracks.  &#91;14&#93;   The electronic drum machines and other gear used by house DJs and producers were formerly considered "too cheap-sounding" by "proper" musicians.  &#91;15&#93;   House music producers typically use sampled instruments, rather than bringing in  session musicians  into a recording studio.  &#91;16&#93;   Even though a key element of house production is layering sounds, such as drum machine beats, samples, synth basslines, and so on, the overall "texture...is relatively sparse".  &#91;17&#93;   Unlike pop songs, which emphasize higher-pitched sounds, such as  melody , in house music, the lower-pitched  bass  register is most important.  &#91;17&#93;  
  The structure of house music  songs  — or "tracks", as they are more commonly called — typically involves an  intro , a  chorus , various  verse  sections, a midsection and a brief  outro . Some tracks do not have a verse, taking a vocal part from the chorus and repeating the same cycle. House music tracks are often based on eight-bar sections which are repeated.  &#91;17&#93;   They are often built around bass-heavy  loops  or  basslines  produced by a  synthesizer  and/or around  samples  of  disco ,  soul ,  &#91;18&#93;    jazz-funk   &#91;8&#93;   or  funk   &#91;18&#93;   songs. DJs and producers creating a house track to be played in clubs edit a "seven or eight-minute 12-inch mix"; if the track is intended to be played on radio, a "three-and-a-half-minute"  radio edit  is used.  &#91;19&#93;   Unlike  trance music , which is designed to keep building in intensity, house music tracks are "more consistent" and rather based on "playing with the constituent parts and bringing them in and out" in a subtle way.  &#91;19&#93;   House tracks build up slowly, by adding layers of sound and texture, and by increasing the volume.  &#91;17&#93;  
  House tracks may have vocals like a pop song, but some are "completely minimal  instrumental music ", as vocals are not required for the house genre.  &#91;17&#93;   If a house track does have vocals, the vocal lines may also be simple "words or phrases" that are repeated.  &#91;17&#93;  
 
  Influences and precursors   [  edit  ]   
 One of the main influences of house was  disco ; house music having been defined as a genre which "...picked up where disco left off in the late 1970's."  &#91;9&#93;    &#91;20&#93;   Like disco DJs, house DJs used a "slow mix" to "lin[k] records together" into a mix.  &#91;14&#93;   In the post-disco  club culture  during the early 1980s, DJs from the gay scene made their tracks "less pop-oriented", with a more mechanical, repetitive beat and deeper basslines, and many tracks were made without vocals, or with wordless melodies.  &#91;21&#93;   Disco became so popular by the late 1970s that record companies pushed even non-disco artists (R&amp;B bands, for example) to produce disco songs. When the backlash against disco started, known as " Disco sucks ", dance music went from being produced by major label studios to being created by DJs in the underground club scene.  &#91;14&#93;  
  While disco was associated with lush orchestration, with  string orchestra , flutes and  horn sections , various disco songs incorporated sounds produced with synthesizers and electronic drum machines, and some compositions were entirely electronic; examples include Italian composer  Giorgio Moroder 's late 1970s productions such as  Donna Summer 's hit single " I Feel Love " from 1977,  Cerrone 's " Supernature " (1977),  &#91;22&#93;    Yellow Magic Orchestra 's synth-disco-pop productions from   Yellow Magic Orchestra   (1978) or   Solid State Survivor   (1979),  &#91;23&#93;    &#91;24&#93;   and several early 1980s productions by  hi-NRG  groups like  Lime ,  Trans-X  and  Bobby O .
  Also important for the development of house were  audio mixing  and editing techniques earlier explored by disco,  garage music  and  post-disco   DJs ,  record producers , and audio engineers such as  Walter Gibbons ,  Tom Moulton ,  Jim Burgess ,  Larry Levan ,  M &amp; M , and others.
  While most post-disco disc jockeys primarily stuck to playing their conventional ensemble and playlist of dance records,  Frankie Knuckles  and  Ron Hardy , two influential DJs of house music, were known for their unusual and non-mainstream playlists and mixing. Knuckles was influenced by and worked with New York City club  Paradise Garage  resident  Larry Levan . Knuckles, often credited as "the Godfather of House" and resident DJ at the  Warehouse  from 1977 to 1982, worked primarily with early disco music with a hint of new and different music (whether it was  post-punk  or post-disco).  &#91;25&#93;   Knuckles started out as a disco DJ, but when he moved from  New York City  to Chicago, he changed from the typical disco mixing style of playing records one after another; instead, he mixed different songs together, including  Philadelphia soul , New York club tracks, and  Euro disco .  &#91;17&#93;   He also explored adding a drum machine and a  reel-to-reel  tape player so he could create new tracks, often with a boosted deep register and faster tempos.  &#91;17&#93;  
  Ron Hardy produced unconventional  DIY   mixtapes  which he later played straight-on in the successor of the Warehouse, the Music Box (reopened and renamed in 1983 after Knuckles left). Like Frankie Knuckles, Hardy "combined certain sounds, remixing tracks with added synths and drum machines", all "refracted through the  futurist  lens of European music."  &#91;15&#93;    Marshall Jefferson , who would later appear with the 1986 house classic " Move Your Body (The House Music Anthem) " (originally released on Trax Records), describes how he got involved in house music after hearing Ron Hardy's music in the Music Box:
 
 .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}   "I wasn't even into dance music before I went to the Music Box [...]. I was into  rock and roll . We would get drunk and listen to rock and roll. We didn't give a fuck, we were like ' Disco Sucks! ' and all that. I hated dance music 'cos I couldn't dance. I thought dance music was kind of wimpy, until I heard it at like Music Box volume."  —&#8201; Marshall Jefferson  &#91;26&#93;     
 A precursor to house music is the  Colonel Abrams  hit song " Trapped ", produced by  Richard James Burgess  in 1984,  &#91;27&#93;   referred to as a  proto -house track and a precursor to  garage house .  &#91;28&#93;  
  Rachel Cain, better known as  Screamin Rachael , co-founder of the highly influential house label  Trax Records , was previously involved in the burgeoning  punk  scene. Cain cites  industrial music  (another genre pioneered in  Chicago ) and  post-punk  record store  Wax Trax! Records  (later a record label) as an important connection between the ever-changing underground sounds of Chicago.
  The electronic instrumentation and minimal arrangement of  Charanjit Singh 's   Synthesizing: Ten Ragas to a Disco Beat   (1982), an album of Indian  ragas  performed in a disco style, anticipated the sounds of  acid house  music, but it is not known to have had any influence on the genre prior to the album's rediscovery in the 21st century.  &#91;29&#93;    &#91;30&#93;    &#91;31&#93;   According to Hillegonda C. Rietveld, "elements of  hip hop and rap  can be found in contemporary house tracks", with hip hop acting as an "accent or inflection" that is inserted into the house sound.  &#91;14&#93;  
  The constant bass drum in house music may have arisen from DJs experimenting with adding  drum machines  to their live mixes at clubs, underneath the records they were playing.  &#91;32&#93;  
 
    Early history (1980s): Chicago house, acid house and deep house   [  edit  ]   
 Main articles:  Chicago house ,  acid house , and  deep house  
            An honorary  street name sign  in  Chicago  for house music and the seminal DJ  Frankie Knuckles .   
 In the early 1980s, Chicago radio jocks  Hot Mix 5  from  WBMX  radio station (among them  Farley "Jackmaster" Funk ), and club DJs  Ron Hardy  and  Frankie Knuckles  played a range of styles of dance music, including older  disco  records (mostly  Philly disco  and  Salsoul   &#91;33&#93;   tracks),  electro funk  tracks by artists such as  Afrika Bambaataa ,  &#91;8&#93;   newer  Italo disco ,  Arthur Baker , and  John Robie , and  electronic pop .  &#91;1&#93;   Some DJs made and played their own edits of their favorite songs on  reel-to-reel tape , and sometimes mixed in  electronic effects , drum machines, synthesizers and other rhythmic electronic instrumentation.
 
 
  
       
  
  Jesse Saunders – "On and On" (1984)  
        
 "On and On" (1984) by  Jesse Saunders  is often cited as the 'first'  Chicago house  record. It utilized the  TB-303 ,  TR-808 ,  Korg Poly-61 , minimal vocals, and  sampled   bassline  from  Player One 's  space disco  song " Space Invaders " (1979).    
    Problems playing this file? See  media help .   
  
 The hypnotic electronic dance song "On and On", produced in 1984 by Chicago DJ  Jesse Saunders  and co-written by  Vince Lawrence , had typical elements of the early house sound, such as the  Roland TB-303  bass synthesizer and minimal vocals as well as a  Roland TR-808  drum machine and a  Korg Poly-61  synthesizer. It also utilized the bassline from Player One's disco record " Space Invaders " (1979).  &#91;34&#93;   "On and On" is sometimes cited as the 'first house record',  &#91;35&#93;    &#91;36&#93;   even though it was a remake of a Disco Bootleg "On and On" by Florida producer Mach. Other examples from around that time, such as  J.M. Silk 's " Music is the Key " (1985), have also been cited to be the first house tracks.  &#91;37&#93;    &#91;38&#93;  
  Starting in 1985 and 1986, more and more Chicago DJs began producing and releasing original compositions. These compositions used newly affordable electronic instruments and enhanced styles of disco and other dance music they already favored. These homegrown productions were played on Chicago radio stations and in local clubs catering mainly to  Black ,  Hispanic , and  gay  audiences.  &#91;39&#93;    &#91;40&#93;    &#91;41&#93;    &#91;42&#93;    &#91;43&#93;    &#91;44&#93;   By 1985, house music encompassed these locally produced recordings. Subgenres of house, including deep house and acid house, quickly emerged and gained traction. &#91;   citation needed   &#93; 
 
 
  
       
  
  Mr. Fingers – "Can You Feel It?" (1986)  
        
 " Can You Feel It? " (1986) by  Mr. Fingers  ( Larry Heard ). It was a seminal  deep house  track.    
  Phuture – "Acid Tracks" (1987)  
        
  Phuture 's " Acid Tracks " is often regarded as the first  acid house  record. It was released in 1987 on  Trax Records , but is said to have been already played out in 1985 by DJ  Ron Hardy  at the Music Box nightclub.  &#91;45&#93;      
    Problems playing these files? See  media help .   
  
  Deep house 's origins can be traced to Chicago producer  Mr Fingers 's relatively  jazzy ,  soulful  recordings " Mystery of Love " (1985) and " Can You Feel It? " (1986).  &#91;46&#93;   According to author Richie Unterberger, it moved house music away from its " posthuman  tendencies back towards the lush"  soulful  sound of early disco music.  &#91;47&#93;  
   Acid house , a rougher and more abstract subgenre, arose from Chicago artists' experiments with the squelchy sounds of the  Roland TB-303  bass synthesizer that define the genre. Its origin on vinyl is generally cited as  Phuture 's " Acid Tracks " (Trax Records, 1987). Phuture, a group founded by Nathan " DJ Pierre " Jones, Earl "Spanky" Smith Jr., and Herbert "Herb J" Jackson, is credited with having been the first to use the TB-303 in the house music context.  &#91;48&#93;   The group's 12-minute "Acid Tracks" was recorded to tape and played by DJ  Ron Hardy  at the Music Box,  &#91;49&#93;   supposedly already in 1985.  &#91;50&#93;   Hardy once played it four times over the course of an evening until the crowd responded favorably.  &#91;51&#93;  
  Club play of house tracks by pioneering Chicago DJs such as Ron Hardy and  Lil Louis , local dance music record shops such as Importes Etc., State Street Records, Loop Records, Gramaphone Records and the popular  Hot Mix 5  shows on radio station  WBMX-FM  helped popularize house music in Chicago. Later, visiting DJs and producers from Detroit fell into the genre.  Trax Records  and  DJ International Records , Chicago labels with wider distribution, helped popularize house music inside and outside of Chicago.
  The first major success of house music outside the U.S. is considered to be  Farley "Jackmaster" Funk 's " Love Can't Turn Around " (feat.  Jesse Saunders  and performed by  Darryl Pandy ), which peaked at #10 in the  UK singles chart  in 1986. Around that time, UK record labels started releasing house music by Chicago acts, but as the genre grew popular, the  UK  itself became one of the new hot spots for house, acid house and  techno  music, experiencing the so-called  second summer of love  between 1988 and 1989. &#91;   citation needed   &#93; 
 
    Origins of the term "house"   [  edit  ]   
            House music pioneers Alan King, Robert Williams and Derrick Carter.   
 One 2009 book states the name house music originated from a Chicago club called the  Warehouse , which existed from 1977 to 1983.  &#91;52&#93;   Clubbers to the Warehouse were primarily  black ,  &#91;53&#93;   who came to dance to music played by the club's resident DJ  Frankie Knuckles , who fans refer to as the "godfather of house". Frankie began the trend of splicing together different records when he found that the records he had weren't long enough to satisfy his audience of dancers.  &#91;54&#93;   After the Warehouse closed in 1983, the crowds went to Knuckles' new club,  The Power Plant ,  &#91;52&#93;   while the club was renamed into Music Box with  Ron Hardy  being resident DJ. &#91;   citation needed   &#93; 
  In the  Channel 4  documentary  Pump Up The Volume , Knuckles remarks that the first time he heard the term "house music" was upon seeing "we play house music" on a sign in the window of a bar on Chicago's South Side. One of the people in the car with him joked, "you know that's the kind of music you play down at the Warehouse!".  &#91;55&#93;   South-Side Chicago DJ Leonard "Remix" Rroy, in self-published statements, claims he put such a sign in a tavern window because it was where he played music that one might find in one's home; in his case, it referred to his mother's soul and disco records, which he worked into his sets.  &#91;56&#93;   The documentary also explored how house music was something that anyone could do. Mostly the documentary looks at some of the DJs from that genre, and how they stumbled into the music. &#91;   citation needed   &#93; 
   Farley "Jackmaster" Funk  was quoted as saying "In 1982, I was DJing at a club called The Playground and there was this kid named Leonard 'Remix' Rroy who was a DJ at a rival club called The Rink. He came over to my club one night, and into the DJ booth and said to me, 'I've got the gimmick that's gonna take all the people out of your club and into mine – it's called House music.' Now, where he got that name from or what made him think of it I don't know, so the answer lies with him."  &#91;57&#93;  
   Chip E. 's 1985 recording "It's House" may also have helped to define this new form of electronic music.  &#91;58&#93;   However, Chip E. himself lends credence to the Knuckles association, claiming the name came from methods of labeling records at the Importes Etc. record store, where he worked in the early 1980s: bins of music that DJ Knuckles played at the Warehouse nightclub were labelled in the store "As Heard At The Warehouse", which was shortened to simply "House". Patrons later asked for new music for the bins, which Chip E. implies was a demand the shop tried to meet by stocking newer local club hits.  &#91;59&#93;  
  In a 1986 interview, when Rocky Jones, the club DJ who ran the D.J. International record label, was asked about the "house" moniker, he did not mention Importes Etc., Frankie Knuckles, or the Warehouse by name. However, he agreed that "house" was a regional catch-all term for dance music, and that it was once synonymous with older  disco  music, before it became a way to refer to "new" dance music.  &#91;60&#93;  
   Larry Heard , a.k.a. "Mr. Fingers", claims that the term "house" came from DJs creating music in home studios using affordable synthesizers and drum machines, such as the  Roland TB-303 ,  &#91;61&#93;     Roland TR-808 , and  TR-909 .  &#91;62&#93;   These synthesizers were used to create the  acid house  subgenre.  &#91;63&#93;    Juan Atkins , an originator of  Detroit techno , claims the term "house" reflected the association of particular tracks with particular clubs and DJs, considered their "house" records.  &#91;64&#93;  
 
  Social and political aspects   [  edit  ]   
 Early house lyrics contained positive, uplifting messages for all people, from every different walk of life but spoke especially to those who were considered to be outsiders, especially African-Americans, Latinos, and the gay subculture. The house music dance scene was one of the most integrated and progressive spaces in the 1980s; the black and gay populations, as well as other minority groups, were able to dance together in a positive environment.  &#91;65&#93;  
  House music DJs aimed to create a "dream world of emotions" with "stories, keywords and sounds", which helped to "glue" communities together.  &#91;14&#93;   Many house tracks encourage the audience to "release yourself" or "let yourself go", which is further encouraged by the continuous dancing, "incessant beat", and use of  club drugs , which can create a  trance -like effect on dancers.  &#91;14&#93;   Frankie Knuckles once said that the Warehouse club in Chicago was like "church for people who have fallen from grace". House record producer Marshall Jefferson compared it to "old-time religion in the way that people just get happy and screamin'".  &#91;66&#93;   The role of a house DJ has been compared to a "secular type of priest".  &#91;14&#93;  
  Some house lyrics contained messages calling for equality, unity and freedom of expression beyond racial or sexual differences (e.g. "Can You Feel It" by  Fingers Inc. , 1987, or "Follow Me" by  Aly-Us , 1992). However, not all house music songs had vocals, and in many cases, the vocals were quite meaningless, as the most important element in house was the beat and rhythm. Later on in the 1990s, but autonomous from the Chicago scene, the idea of  Peace, Love, Unity &amp; Respect (PLUR)  became a widespread set of principles for the  rave  culture which developed out of house.
 
  House dance   [  edit  ]   
 Main article:  House dance  
 At least three styles of dancing are associated with house music:  Jacking ,  Footwork , and Lofting. &#91;   citation needed   &#93;  These styles include a variety of techniques and sub-styles, including skating, stomping, Vosho, Pouting Cat and  shuffle steps  (also see  Melbourne Shuffle ). &#91;   citation needed   &#93;  House music dancing styles can include movements from many other forms of dance, such as  waacking ,  voguing , African, Latin, Brazilian (including  Capoeira ),  jazz dance ,  Lindy Hop ,  tap dance , and even  modern dance . &#91;   citation needed   &#93;  House dancing is concerned with the sensuality of the body and setting oneself free in  ecstasy  — without the worry of outside barriers.  &#91;66&#93;  
  One of the primary elements in house dancing is "the jack" or " jacking " — a style created in the early days of Chicago house that left its trace in numerous record titles such as "Time to Jack" by  Chip E.  from the "Jack Trax" EP (1985), "Jack’n the House" (1985) by  Farley "Jackmaster" Funk  (1985) or " Jack Your Body " by  Steve "Silk" Hurley  (1986). It involves moving the  torso  forward and backward in a rippling motion matching the beat of the music, as if a wave were passing through it.  &#91;66&#93;  
 
    Regional scenes (1980s–1990s)   [  edit  ]   
  Detroit and techno   [  edit  ]   
 Main articles:  Detroit techno  and  techno  
 In  Detroit  during the early and mid-1980s, a new kind of electronic dance music began to emerge around  Juan Atkins ,  Derrick May  and  Kevin Saunderson , known as  the Belleville Three . The artists fused eclectic,  futuristic  sounds into a signature Detroit dance sound that was a main influence for the later  techno  genre. Their music included strong influences from  Chicago house , although the term "house" played a less important role in Detroit than in Chicago, and the term "techno" was established instead.  &#91;67&#93;   One of their most successful hits was a vocal house track named " Big Fun " by  Inner City , a group produced by Kevin Saunderson, in 1988.
  Another important and even earlier influence on the Detroit artists was electronic music in the tradition of Germany's  Kraftwerk .  &#91;68&#93;   Atkins had released  electro  music in that style with his group  Cybotron  as early as 1981. Cybotron's best known songs are "Cosmic Cars" (1982) and "Clear" (1983); a 1984 release was titled "Techno City". In 1988, Atkins produced the track "Techno Music" that was featured on an influential compilation initially planned to be named "The House Sound of Detroit", but renamed into " Techno! The New Dance Sound of Detroit " after Atkins' song.  &#91;69&#93;  
  The 1987 song " Strings of Life " by Derrick May (under the name Rhythm Is Rhythm) represented a darker, more intellectual strain of early Detroit electronic dance music. It is considered a classic in both the house and techno genre and shows the connection  &#91;70&#93;   as well as the "boundary between house and techno."  &#91;71&#93;   It made way to what was later known as " techno " in the internationally known sense of the word, referring to a harder, faster, colder, more machine-driven and minimal sound than house, as played by Detroit's  Underground Resistance  and  Jeff Mills .
 
    UK: Acid house, rave culture and the Second Summer of Love   [  edit  ]   
 See also:  Second Summer of Love  and  Rave  
 With house music already important in the 1980s dance club scene, eventually house penetrated the UK pop charts. London DJ  "Evil" Eddie Richards  spun at dance parties as resident at the Clink Street club. Richards' approach to house focuses on the deep  basslines . Nicknamed the UK's "Godfather of House", he and Clink co-residents Kid Batchelor and  Mr. C  played a key role in early UK house. House first charted in the UK in Wolverhampton following the success of the  Northern Soul  scene. The record generally credited as the first house hit in the UK was Farley "Jackmaster" Funk's " Love Can't Turn Around ", which reached #10 in the UK singles chart in September 1986. &#91;   citation needed   &#93; 
 
 
  
       
  
  Yazz – "The Only Way Is Up" (1988)  
        
 The acid house record " The Only Way Is Up " by  Yazz  was the second best-selling British single of 1988.    
    Problems playing this file? See  media help .   
  
 In January 1987, Chicago DJ/artist Steve "Silk" Hurley's " Jack Your Body " reached number one in the UK, showing it was possible for house music to achieve crossover success in the pop charts. The same month also saw  Raze  enter the top 20 with "Jack the Groove", and several further house hits reached the top ten that year.  Stock Aitken Waterman  (SAW) expensively-produced productions for  Mel and Kim , including the number-one hit "Respectable", added elements of house to their previous  Europop  sound. SAW session group  Mirage  scored top-ten hits with "Jack Mix II" and "Jack Mix IV", medleys of previous  electro  and Europop hits rearranged in a house music style. Key labels in the rise of house music in the UK included: &#91;   citation needed   &#93; 
 
  Jack Trax, which specialized in licensing US club hits for the British market (and released an influential series of  compilation albums ) 
  Rhythm King , which was set up as a  hip hop  label but also issued house records 
  Jive Records ' Club Records imprint  
 In March 1987, the UK tour of influential US DJs such as Knuckles, Jefferson, Fingers Inc. (Heard) and Adonis, on the DJ International Tour boosted house's popularity in the UK. Following the number-one success of  MARRS ' " Pump Up The Volume " in October, in 1987 to 1989, UK acts such as The  Beatmasters ,  Krush ,  Coldcut ,  Yazz ,  Bomb The Bass ,  S-Express , and Italy's  Black Box  opened the doors to house music success on the UK charts. Early British house music quickly set itself apart from the original Chicago house sound. Many of the early hits were based on  sample  montage, and unlike the US soulful vocals, in UK house,  rap  was often used for vocals (far more than in the US), and  humor  and wit was an important element. &#91;   citation needed   &#93; 
  The second best-selling British single of 1988 was an  acid house  record, the  Coldcut -produced " The Only Way Is Up " by  Yazz .  &#91;72&#93;    &#91;73&#93;   One of the early club anthems, "Promised Land" by Joe Smooth, was covered and charted within a week by UK band  The Style Council . Europeans embraced house, and began booking important American house DJs to play at the big clubs, such as  Ministry of Sound , whose resident,  Justin Berkmann  brought in US pioneer  Larry Levan . &#91;   citation needed   &#93; 
  The house music club scene in cities such as  Birmingham ,  Leeds ,  Sheffield ,  Wolverhampton  and  London  were provided with dance tracks by many underground  Pirate Radio  stations. Club DJs also brought in new house styles, which helped bolster this music genre. The earliest UK house and techno record labels such as  Warp Records  and  Network Records  (otherwise known as Kool Kat records) helped introduce American and later Italian dance music to Britain. These labels also promoted UK dance music acts. By the end of the 1980s, UK DJs Jenö, Thomas, Markie and Garth moved to San Francisco, and called their group the Wicked Crew. The Wicked Crew's dance sound transmitted UK styles to the US, which helped to trigger the birth of the US west coast's rave scene. &#91;   citation needed   &#93; 
  The manager of Manchester's  Factory nightclub  and co-owner of  The Haçienda ,  Tony Wilson , also promoted acid house culture on his weekly TV show. The UK midlands also embraced the late 1980s house scene with illegal parties and  raves  and more legal dance clubs such as The Hummingbird. &#91;   citation needed   &#93; 
 
    Chicago's second wave: Hip house and ghetto house   [  edit  ]   
 Main articles:  Hip house  and  ghetto house  
 While the acid house hype spawned to the UK and Europe, in Chicago itself it reached its peak around 1988 and then declined in popularity. &#91;   citation needed   &#93;  Instead, a crossover of house and  hip-hop music , known as  hip house , became popular.  Tyree Cooper 's single "Turn Up the Bass" featuring Kool Rock Steady from 1988 was an influential breakthrough for this subgenre, although the British trio the  Beatmasters  claimed having invented the genre with their 1986 release " Rok da House ".  &#91;74&#93;   Another notable figure in the hip house scene was  Fast Eddie  with "Hip House" and "Yo Yo Get Funky!" (both 1988). Even  Farley "Jackmaster" Funk  engaged himself in the genre, releasing "Free at Last", a song to free  James Brown  from jail, featuring The Hip House Syndicate, in 1989, and producing a  Real Hip House  compilation on his label House Records in 1990.  &#91;75&#93;  
  The early 1990s saw new Chicago house artists emerge, such as  Armando Gallop , who had released seminal acid house records since 1987, but became even more influential by co-founding the new Warehouse nightclub in Chicago (on 738 W. Randolph Street  &#91;76&#93;  ) in which he also was resident DJ from 1992 until 1994, and founding Warehouse Records in 1988.  &#91;77&#93;  
  Another important figure during the early to mid-1990s (until the 2000s) was DJ and producer  Paul Johnson , who released the Warehouse-anthem "Welcome to the Warehouse" on Armando's label in 1994 in collaboration with Armando himself.  &#91;78&#93;   He also had part in the development of an entirely new kind of Chicago house sound, " ghetto house ", which was prominently released and popularized through the  Dance Mania  record label. It was originally founded by  Jesse Saunders  in 1985 but passed on to Raymond Barney in 1988. It featured notable ghetto house artists like  DJ Funk , DJ Deeon, DJ Milton, Paul Johnson and others. The label is regarded as hugely influential in the history of  Chicago house  music, and has been described as "ghetto house's  Motown ".  &#91;79&#93;  
  One of the prototypes for Dance Mania's new ghetto house sound was the single "(It's Time for the) Perculator" by Cajmere, also known as  Green Velvet , from 1992. Cajmere started the labels Cajual Records and Relief Records, the latter combining the sound of Chicago, acid and ghetto house with the harder sound of  techno . By the early 1990s, artists of note on those two labels included  Dajae ,  DJ Sneak ,  Derrick Carter ,  DJ Rush , Paul Johnson, Joe Lewis, and Glenn Underground.
 
    New York and New Jersey: Garage house and the "Jersey sound"   [  edit  ]   
 Main articles:  Garage house  and  New Jersey house  
            Building in New York City where the  Paradise Garage  nightclub was located   
 While house conquered UK and continental Europe, the scene in the U.S. had still not progressed beyond a small number of clubs in Chicago, Detroit,  New York City , and  Newark . In New York and Newark, the terms " garage house ", "garage music", or simply "garage", and "Jersey sound", or " New Jersey house ", were coined for a deeper, more  soulful ,  R&amp;B -derived subgenre of house that was developed in the  Paradise Garage  nightclub in New York City and  Club Zanzibar  in Newark, New Jersey, during the early-to-mid 1980s. It is argued that garage house predates the development of  Chicago house , as it is relatively closer to  disco  than other dance styles.  &#91;80&#93;   As Chicago house gained international popularity, New York's and New Jersey's music scene was distinguished from the "house" umbrella.  &#91;80&#93;    &#91;81&#93;  
  In comparison to other forms of house music, garage house and Jersey sound include more  gospel -influenced piano riffs and female vocals.  &#91;82&#93;   The genre was popular in the 1980s in the United States and the 1990s in the United Kingdom.  &#91;82&#93;   DJs playing it include  Tony Humphries  at Club Zanzibar,  Larry Levan , who was resident DJ at the Paradise Garage from 1977 to 1987,  Todd Terry ,  Kerri Chandler ,  Masters at Work ,  Junior Vasquez  and others.  &#91;83&#93;  
  In the late 1980s,  Nu Groove Records  launched and nurtured the careers of  Rheji Burrell  and Rhano Burrell, collectively known as Burrell (after a brief stay on Virgin America via  Timmy Regisford  and Frank Mendez). Nu Groove also had a stable of other NYC underground scene DJs. The Burrell's created the "New York Underground" sound of house, and they did more than 30 releases on this label featuring this sound.
  The emergence of New York's DJ and producer  Todd Terry  in 1988 demonstrated the continuum from the underground disco approach to a new and commercially successful house sound. Terry's cover of Class Action's "Weekend" (mixed by  Larry Levan ) shows how Terry drew on newer  hip-hop  influences, such as the quicker sampling and the more rugged  basslines . &#91;   citation needed   &#93; 
 
  Ibiza   [  edit  ]   
 See also:  Balearic Beat  
 House was also being developed by DJs and record producers in the booming dance club scene in  Ibiza . While no house artists or labels came from this tiny island at the time, mixing experiments and innovations done by Ibiza DJs helped to influence the house style. By the mid-1980s a distinct  Balearic  mix of house was discernible. Several influential clubs in Ibiza, such as  Amnesia , with DJ Alfredo at the decks, were playing a mix of rock, pop, disco and house. These clubs, fuelled by their distinctive sound and copious consumption of the  club drug   Ecstasy  (MDMA), began to influence the British scene. By late 1987, DJs such as Trevor Fung,  Paul Oakenfold  and  Danny Rampling  were bringing the Ibiza sound to key UK clubs such as  the Haçienda  in Manchester. Ibiza influences also spread to DJs working London clubs such as Shoom in Southwark,  Heaven , Future and Spectrum. &#91;   citation needed   &#93; 
 
  Other regional scenes   [  edit  ]   
 By the late 1980s, house DJing and production had moved to the US's west coast, particularly to San Francisco, Oakland, Los Angeles, Fresno, San Diego and Seattle. Los Angeles saw an explosion of underground  raves , where DJs mixed dance tracks. L.A. DJs Marques Wyatt and Billy Long spun at  Jewel's Catch One . In 1989, the L.A.-based, former  EBN-OZN  singer/rapper  Robert Ozn  started indie house label One Voice Records. Ozn released the Mike "Hitman" Wilson remix of  Dada Nada 's "Haunted House", which garnered club and mix show radio play in Chicago, Detroit and New York as well as in the UK and France. The record went up to number five on the  Billboard  Club Chart, marking it as the first house record by a white (Caucasian) artist to chart in the U.S. Dada Nada, the moniker for Ozn's solo act, did his first releases in 1990, using a jazz-based  deep house  style. The  Frankie Knuckles  and  David Morales  remix of Dada Nada's "Deep Love" (One Voice Records in the US, Polydor in the UK), featuring Ozn's lush,  crooning  vocals and jazzy improvisational solos by muted trumpet, underscored deep house's progression into a genre that integrated jazz and pop songwriting and song forms (unlike  acid house  and  techno ). &#91;   citation needed   &#93; 
 
  The 1990s   [  edit  ]   
 See also:  Eurodance ,  French House ,  Ambient house , and  Tech house  
 In Britain, further experiments in the genre boosted its appeal. House and  rave  clubs such as  Lakota  and  Cream  emerged across Britain, hosting house and dance scene events. The 'chilling out' concept developed in Britain with  ambient house  albums such as  The KLF 's   Chill Out   and   Analogue Bubblebath   by  Aphex Twin . The  Godskitchen  superclub brand also began in the midst of the early 1990s rave scene. After initially hosting small nights in  Cambridge  and  Northampton , the associated events scaled up at the  Sanctuary Music Arena  in  Milton Keynes , in  Birmingham  and in  Leeds . A new indie dance scene also emerged in the 1990s. In New York, bands such as  Deee-Lite  furthered house's international influence. Two distinctive tracks from this era were  the Orb 's " Little Fluffy Clouds " (with a distinctive vocal sample from  Rickie Lee Jones ) and the  Happy Mondays ' " Wrote for Luck " ("WFL") which was transformed into a dance hit by  Vince Clarke . &#91;   citation needed   &#93; 
  In England, one of the few licensed venues was  The Eclipse , which attracted people from up and down the country as it was open until the early hours. Due to the lack of licensed, legal dance event venues, house music promoters began organising illegal events in unused warehouses, aeroplane hangars and in the countryside. The  Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994  was a government attempt to ban large rave dance events featuring music with "repetitive beats", due to law enforcement allegations that these events were associated with illegal  club drugs . There were a number of "Kill the Bill" demonstrations by rave and  electronic dance music  fans. The  Spiral Tribe  dance event at Castle Morten was the last of these illegal raves, as the bill, which became law, in November 1994, made unauthorised house music dance events illegal in the UK. Despite the new law, the music continued to grow and change, as typified by  Leftfield  with " Release the Pressure ", which introduced dub and  reggae  into the house sound. Leftfield's prior releases, such as "Not Forgotten" released in 1990 on Sheffield's Outer Rhythm records used a more typical sound. &#91;   citation needed   &#93; 
  A new generation of clubs such as  Liverpool 's  Cream  and the  Ministry of Sound  were opened to provide a venue for more commercial house sounds. Major record companies began to open " superclubs " promoting their own groups and acts. These superclubs entered into sponsorship deals initially with fast food, soft drink, and clothing companies. Flyers in clubs in  Ibiza  often sported many corporate logos from sponsors. A new subgenre, Chicago hard house, was developed by DJs such as  Bad Boy Bill ,  DJ Lynnwood , and  DJ Irene ,  Richard "Humpty" Vission , mixing elements of Chicago house,  funky house  and  hard house . Additionally, producers such as George Centeno, Darren Ramirez, and Martin O. Cairo developed the Los Angeles Hard House sound. Similar to  gabber  or  hardcore techno  from the Netherlands, this was associated with the "rebel", underground club subculture of the time. These three producers introduced new production approaches and sounds in late 20th century became more prominent and widely used during first decade of the 21st century. &#91;   citation needed   &#93; 
  Towards the end of the 1990s and into the 2000s, French DJ/producers such as  Daft Punk ,  Bob Sinclar ,  Stardust ,  Cassius ,  St. Germain  and  DJ Falcon  began producing a new sound in Paris' club scene. Together, they laid the groundwork for what would be known as the  French house  movement. They combined the harder-edged-yet-soulful philosophy of Chicago house with the melodies of obscure funk records. As well, by using state-of-the-art digital production techniques blended with the retro sound of old-school analog synthesizers, they created a new sound and style which influenced house music around the world. &#91;   citation needed   &#93; 
 
  21st century   [  edit  ]   
  2000s   [  edit  ]   
 See also:  Electroclash  and  Electro house  
 Chicago Mayor  Richard M. Daley  proclaimed August 10, 2005 to be "House Unity Day" in Chicago, in celebration of the "21st anniversary of house music" (actually the 21st anniversary of the founding of  Trax Records , an independent Chicago-based house label). The proclamation recognized Chicago as the original home of house music and that the music's original creators "were inspired by the love of their city, with the dream that someday their music would spread a message of peace and unity throughout the world". DJs such as  Frankie Knuckles ,  Marshall Jefferson ,  Paul Johnson  and  Mickey Oliver  celebrated the proclamation at the Summer Dance Series, an event organized by Chicago's Department of Cultural Affairs.  &#91;84&#93;  
  It was during this decade that vocal house became firmly established, both in the underground and as part of the pop market, and labels such as  Defected Records ,  Roulé  and Om were at the forefront of championing the emerging sound. In the mid-2000s, fusion genres such as  electro house  and  fidget house  emerged. &#91;   citation needed   &#93;  This fusion is apparent in the crossover of musical styles by artists such as  Dennis Ferrer  and  Booka Shade , with the former's production style having evolved from the New York soulful house scene and the latter's roots in  techno . Numerous live performance events dedicated to house music were founded during the course of the decade, including  Shambhala Music Festival  and major industry sponsored events like Miami's  Winter Music Conference . The genre even gained popularity through events like  Creamfields . In the late 2000s, house style witnessed renewed chart success thanks to acts such as  Daft Punk ,  Deadmau5 ,  Fedde Le Grand ,  David Guetta , and  Calvin Harris . &#91;   citation needed   &#93; 
 
  2010s   [  edit  ]   
            This section  needs additional citations for  verification  .  Please help  improve this article  by  adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.     ( May 2019 )     ( Learn how and when to remove this template message )        See also:  Electro house  and  Progressive house  
             Swedish House Mafia  and Italian DJ  Benny Benassi  performing in 2011.   
 During the 2010s multiple new sounds in house music were developed by DJs, producers and artists. Sweden had "Swedish  progressive house " with the emergence of  Sebastian Ingrosso ,  Axwell , and  Steve Angello . While all three artists had solo careers, when they formed a trio called  Swedish House Mafia , it showed that house could still produce chart-topping hits, such as their 2013 single " Don't You Worry Child ", which cracked the Billboard top 10.  Avicii  was a Swedish DJ/artist known for his hits such as " Hey Brother ", " Addicted to You ", " The Days ", " The Nights ", " Levels ", " Waiting for Love ", and  "Without You" . Fellow Swedish DJ/artist  Alesso  collaborated with  Calvin Harris ,  Usher , and  David Guetta .  &#91;85&#93;   In France,  Justice  blended garage and alternative rock influences into their pop-infused house tracks, creating a big and funky sound.  Skrillex , a former alternative rock singer, mixed  dubstep  and pop into his UK house music. &#91;   citation needed   &#93; 
  During the 2010s, in the UK and in the US, many records labels stayed true to the original house music sound from the 1980s. It includes labels like Dynamic Music,  Defected Records , Dirtybird, Fuse London,  Exploited , Pampa, Cajual Records,  Hot Creations , Get Physical, and Pets Recordings.  &#91;86&#93;  
  Netherlands brought together a concept of "Dirty Dutch", an  electro house  subgenre characterized by abrasive lead synths and darker arpeggios, with prominent DJs being  Chuckie ,  Hardwell ,  Laidback Luke ,  Afrojack ,  R3hab ,  Bingo Players ,  Quintino  and  Alvaro . Elsewhere, fusion genres derivative of 2000s progressive house returned, especially with the help of DJs/artists  Calvin Harris ,  Eric Prydz ,  Mat Zo ,  Above &amp; Beyond  and  Fonzerelli  in Europe. &#91;   citation needed   &#93; 
   Diplo , a DJ/producer from Tupelo, Mississippi, was able to blend underground sounds with mainstream styles. As he came from the Southern US, Diplo fused house music with rap and dance/pop, while also integrating more obscure Southern US genres. Other North Americans playing house music include the Canadian  Deadmau5  (known for his unusual mask and unique musical style),  Kaskade ,  Steve Aoki ,  Porter Robinson  and  Wolfgang Gartner . The growing popularity of such artists led to the emergence of electro house and progressive house sounds in popular music, such as singles like  David Guetta " feat.  Avicii  " Sunshine "   &#91;87&#93;   and  Axwell 's remix of " In The Air ."  &#91;88&#93;    &#91;89&#93;  
 
             Avicii  in 2011 in Paris.   
  Big room house  was increasingly popular since 2010, through international dance music festivals such as  Tomorrowland ,  Ultra Music Festival , and  Electric Daisy Carnival . In addition to these popular examples of house, there has also been a reunification of contemporary house and its roots. Many hip hop and R&amp;B artists also turned to house music to add a mass appeal and dance floor energy to the music they produce.  Tropical house  went onto the top 40 on the  UK Singles Chart  in 2015 with artists such as  Kygo  and  Jonas Blue . In the mid-2010s, the influences of house began to also be seen in Korean  K-pop  music, examples of this being  f(x) 's single " 4 Walls " and  SHINee 's title track " View ."
  Later in the 2010s, a more traditional house sound came to the forefront of the mainstream in the UK, with  Calvin Harris 's singles " One Kiss " and " Promises ", with the latter also incorporating elements of nu-disco and  Italo house . These singles both went to No.1 in the UK,  &#91;90&#93;    &#91;91&#93;   showing that a classic house sound could still have great success in the modern day. &#91;   citation needed   &#93; 
 
  See also   [  edit  ]   
   List of electronic music genres  
  List of house music artists  
  Styles of house music  
  Music of the United States   
  References   [  edit  ]   
 
  
  ^     a         b         c         d         e        .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}   "House Music Genre Overview - AllMusic" .  Archived  from the original on 6 October 2012 . Retrieved  5 September  2016 .    
 
    ^       Fritz, Jimi (2000).  Rave Culture: An Insider's Overview . SmallFry Press. p.&#160;94.  ISBN &#160;  9780968572108  .    
 
    ^        "Explore music ... Genre: Hi-NRG" .   AllMusic  .  Archived  from the original on 2012-06-17 . Retrieved  2009-07-20  .    
 
    ^       Gilbert, Jeremy; Pearson, Ewan (2002).  Discographies: Dance, Music, Culture and the Politics of Sound . Routledge. p.&#160;??.  ISBN &#160;  9781134698929  .    
 
    ^       Langford, Simon (2014).  The Remix Manual: The Art and Science of Dance Music Remixing with Logic . CRC Press. p.&#160;99.  ISBN &#160;  9781136114625  .    
 
    ^     Walters, Barry (1986):  Burning Down the House   Archived  2018-04-05 at the  Wayback Machine .  SPIN magazine . Retrieved 2014-04-25. 
 
    ^       Malnig, Julie (2009).   Ballroom, Boogie, Shimmy Sham, Shake: A Social and Popular Dance Reader  . University of Illinois Press. p.&#160; 213 .  ISBN &#160;  9780252075650  .    
 
  ^     a         b         c         Vincent, Rickey (4 November 2014).   Funk: The Music, The People, and The Rhythm of The One  . St. Martin's Griffin.  ISBN &#160;  9781466884526  .  Archived  from the original on 25 December 2016 . Retrieved  5 September  2016  &#8211; via Google Books.    
 
  ^     a         b         (C) (4 October 2007).  "Understanding House Music" .  laist.com . LAist. Archived from  the original  on 6 November 2017 . Retrieved  7 January  2020 .    
 
    ^       Fikentscher, Kai (July–August 2000).  "The Club DJ: A Brief History of a Cultural Icon"   (PDF) .  UNESCO Courier . UNESCO: 47. Archived from  the original   (PDF)  on 2016-03-03 . Retrieved  2012-03-27  .  Around 1986/7, after the initial explosion of house music in Chicago, it became clear that the major recording companies and media institutions were reluctant to market this genre of music, associated with gay African Americans, on a mainstream level. House artists turned to Europe, chiefly London but also cities such as Amsterdam, Berlin, Manchester, Milan, Zurich, and Tel Aviv.&#160;... A third axis leads to Japan where, since the late 1980s, New York club DJs have had the opportunity to play guest-spots.     
 
    ^     Rick Snoman,   Dance Music Manual: Tools, Toys, and Techniques , page 267   Archived  2017-04-26 at the  Wayback Machine ,  CRC Press  
 
  ^     a         b         c         Hydlide (12 October 2016).  "Basic Elements: House Music" .  www.reasonexperts.com . Reason.  Archived  from the original on 19 May 2020 . Retrieved  7 January  2020 .  Reasonexperts Propellerhead Reason tutorials made by Hydlide     
 
    ^     Acland, Charles R. (2007).  Residual Media  . Minnesota Press.   ISBN &#160; 9780816644728 . Quote: "The legacy of musical adventures with Latin dance music can still be heard in, for example, the dominance of salsa clave rhythms in the riffs of house music." 
 
  ^     a         b         c         d         e         f         g       Rietveld, Hillegonda C. (1998).  This is our House: House Music, Cultural Spaces and Technologies , Aldershot Ashgate. Reissue: London/New York: Routledge 2018/2020.   ISBN &#160; 036713411X . Cited from  online book preview   Archived  2020-10-08 at the  Wayback Machine , Jan. 20, 2020. 
 
  ^     a         b         Warwick, Oli (2 April 2019).  "House music changed clubbing forever. From disco to footwork, via Frankie Knuckles, Mr Fingers and techno, here are the basics you need to know before stepping onto the dancefloor" .  www.redbull.com . Red Bull.  Archived  from the original on 8 October 2020 . Retrieved  18 January  2020 .    
 
    ^     Kernodle, Tammy Lynn; Maxile, Horace Joseph.  Encyclopedia of African American Music, Volume 1 . ABC-CLIO, 2011. p. 406 
 
  ^     a         b         c         d         e         f         g         h       Kernodle, Tammy Lynn; Maxile, Horace Joseph.  Encyclopedia of African American Music, Volume 1 . ABC-CLIO, 2011. p. 405 
 
  ^     a         b         Gerstner, David A. (2012).   Routledge International Encyclopedia of Queer Culture  . Routledge. p.&#160;154.  ISBN &#160;  9781136761812  .    
 
  ^     a         b         Inglis, Sam (November 2004).  "Secrets Of House &amp; Trance Darren Tate's Production Tips" .  /soundonsound.com . Sound on Sound.  Archived  from the original on 11 May 2020 . Retrieved  7 January  2020 .    
 
    ^       Caswell, Estelle (2019-07-16).  "How Chicago built house music from the ashes of disco" .  Vox .  Archived  from the original on 2019-12-07 . Retrieved  2020-01-12  .    
 
    ^        "House" .  www.allmusic.com . AllMusic.  Archived  from the original on 6 October 2012 . Retrieved  7 January  2020 .    
 
    ^        "Cerrone Bio" .  Beatport . Archived from  the original  on 2012-06-04 . Retrieved  2012-08-27  .    
 
    ^      Yellow Magic Orchestra  at  AllMusic  
 
    ^      Solid State Survivor  at  AllMusic  
 
    ^     RBMA (2011): Frankie Knuckles: A journey to the roots of house music.   Red Bull Music Academy .  Retrieved 2014-06-01. 
 
    ^     Brewster, Bill (2014). "Ron Hardy, Chicago Legend—If Frankie Knuckles is the Godfather of House, Ron Hardy was its Baron Frankenstein",  Djhistory.com , 2014-06-01.    "Archived copy" . Archived from  the original  on 2014-02-23 . Retrieved  2014-05-17  .    CS1 maint: archived copy as title ( link )  
 
    ^        "History of House Music" . Housegroove.net. Archived from  the original  on 7 October 2011 . Retrieved  8 October  2011 .    
 
    ^       Burgess, Richard James (17 August 2014).   The History of Music Production  . Oxford University Press.  ISBN &#160;  9780199357178  .  Archived  from the original on 8 October 2020 . Retrieved  14 September  2020  &#8211; via Google Books.    
 
    ^       Pattison, Louis (2010-04-10).  "Charanjit Singh, acid house pioneer" .   The Guardian  .  Archived  from the original on 2016-12-02 . Retrieved  2016-12-14  .    
 
    ^       Aitken, Stuart (2011-05-10).  "Charanjit Singh on how he invented acid house&#160;... by mistake" .   The Guardian  .  Archived  from the original on 2016-12-02 . Retrieved  2016-12-14  .    
 
    ^       William Rauscher (2010-05-12).  "Charanjit Singh – Synthesizing: Ten Ragas to a Disco Beat" .   Resident Advisor  .  Archived  from the original on 2012-01-12 . Retrieved  2011-06-03  .    
 
    ^     Manzo,V.J.; Kuhn, Will.  Interactive Composition: Strategies Using Ableton Live and Max for Live .
Oxford University Press, Jan. 23, 2014. p. 134. 
 
    ^       Roy, Ron; Borthwick, Stuart (2004).  Popular Music Genres: An Introduction . Edinburgh University Press. p.&#160;255.  ISBN &#160;  9780748617456  .    
 
    ^       Church, Terry (2010-02-09).  "Black History Month: Jesse Saunders and house music" .  BeatPortal . Archived from  the original  on 2015-04-24 . Retrieved  2010-04-10  .    
 
    ^     Mitchell, Euan.  Interviews: Marshall Jefferson  www.4clubbers.net  &#91;   dead link   &#93;   
 
    ^        "Finding Jesse – The Discovery of Jesse Saunders As the Founder of House" .  Fly Global Music Culture . 2004-10-25. Archived from  the original  on 2012-03-22 . Retrieved  2012-08-14  .    
 
    ^       Paoletta, Michael (1989-12-16). "Back To Basics".  Dance Music Report : 12.    
 
    ^       Graves, Richard (2015-04-23).  "History of House: What Was The First HOUSE MUSIC SONG Released in Chicago?" .  The History of House .  Archived  from the original on 2016-08-04 . Retrieved  2016-05-25  .    
 
    ^        "house" .  Encyclopædia Britannica . Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.  Archived  from the original on 2012-03-19 . Retrieved  2012-06-05  .    
 
    ^       Fikentscher, Kai (July–August 2000).  "Youth's sonic forces: The club DJ: a brief history of a cultural icon"   (PDF) .   UNESCO Courier  .  UNESCO : 28. Archived from  the original   (PDF)  on 2016-03-03 . Retrieved  2012-03-27  .  House music, in particular, is often held up as a kind of banner of cultural diversity owing to its origins in black and Latino discos, where it first found its audience. One could point to the 1980s, when African American producers / DJs, like Frankie Knuckles, Marshall Jefferson or DJ Pierre, began refining the all night dance floor workouts at underground gay and mixed clubs like the legendary Warehouse club in Chicago from which house music derives its name. Or there is DJ  Larry Levan , whose residence at New York's  Paradise Garage  not only defined a distinct subgenre of its own (" garage " is slower and more  gospel  oriented than "house") but set the tone for today's  raves —no alcohol, heavy drug use, a mixed, "up for it crowd" and loud, pulsating music for 15-hour stretches without a break.     
 
    ^       Melville, Caspar (July–August 2000).  "Mapping the meanings of dance music"   (PDF) .  UNESCO Courier . UNESCO: 40. Archived from  the original   (PDF)  on 2016-03-03 . Retrieved  2012-03-27  .  house music was born in the black-latino urban gay clubs of the U.S.     
 
    ^       Fikentscher, Kai (July–August 2000).  "The club DJ: a brief history of a cultural icon"   (PDF) .  UNESCO Courier . UNESCO: 46. Archived from  the original   (PDF)  on 2016-03-03 . Retrieved  2012-03-27  .  Another New York DJ, Frankie Knuckles, moved to Chicago, following an invitation to become the resident DJ at the  Warehouse , a gay black club.     
 
    ^       George, Nelson (1986-06-21).  "House Music: Will It Join Rap And Go-Go?" .  Billboard .  99  (25): 27.  Archived  from the original on 2011-12-28 . Retrieved  2011-04-14  .  The initial audience started out black and gay in Chicago, but the genre has since attracted Hispanics and whites as well.     
 
    ^       Creekmur, Corey; Doty, Alexander (1995).  Out in Culture . Duke University Press. pp.&#160;440–442.  ISBN &#160;  978-0-8223-1541-4  .    
 
    ^      Review by Alain_Patrick  on  Discogs ;  Interview with DJ Pierre   Archived  2019-10-08 at the  Wayback Machine  in Fader magazine, August 04, 2014. 
 
    ^       Iqbal, Mohson (2008-01-31).  "Larry Heard: Soul survivor" .   Resident Advisor  .  Archived  from the original on 2012-11-12 . Retrieved  2012-07-23  .    
 
    ^       Unterberger, Richie (1999).   Music USA: The Rough Guide  . London: Rough Guides. p.&#160;265.  ISBN &#160;  978-1-85828-421-7  .  Archived  from the original on 2016-01-01 . Retrieved  2012-07-23  .    
 
    ^       Shapiro, Peter (2000).    Modulations: A History of Electronic Music   . Caipirinha Productions Inc. p.&#160; 32 .  ISBN &#160;  978-0-8195-6498-6  .    
 
    ^      Interview with Phuture's DJ Pierre   Archived  2019-08-29 at the  Wayback Machine  in DJ mag, 2014. 
 
    ^      Review by Alain_Patrick   Archived  2020-10-08 at the  Wayback Machine  on  Discogs ;  Interview with DJ Pierre   Archived  2019-10-08 at the  Wayback Machine  in Fader Magazine, August 04, 2014. 
 
    ^     Cheeseman, Phil. " The History Of House   Archived  2013-09-06 at the  Wayback Machine ". 
 
  ^     a         b       Snoman, Rick (2009).  The Dance Music Manual: Tools, Toys, and Techniques — Second Edition . Oxford, UK: Elsevier Press. p.233 
 
    ^        "House" .  Encyclopædia Britannica .  Archived  from the original on 2007-09-29 . Retrieved  2007-05-01  .    
 
    ^       Rule, Greg (August 1997). "The Father of Chicago House".  Keyboard .  23  (8): 65.    
 
    ^       Frankie Knuckles (featured subject); Hindmarch, Carl (director) (2001).  Pump Up The Volume  (Television production).  Channel Four .    
 
    ^       Arnold, Jacob (2010-01-07).  "Leonard "Remix" Rroy, Chicago's Unsung House DJ" . gridface.  Archived  from the original on 2011-07-18 . Retrieved  2011-01-12  .    
 
    ^       Fleming, Jonathan (1995).  What Kind Of House Party Is This . London: MIY Publishing Ltd.  ISBN &#160;  978-0-9523932-1-4  .    
 
    ^       Bidder, Sean (2001).  Pump Up the Volume: A History of House . London: Channel 4.  ISBN &#160;  978-0-7522-1986-8  .    
 
    ^       Chip E. (interviewee); Hindmarch, Carl (director) (2001).  Pump Up The Volume  (Television production).  Channel Four .  If you were a DJ in Chicago, if you wanted to have 'the' records, there was only one place to go and that was Importes. This is where Importes was. People come in, they're looking for 'Warehouse music', and we would put, you know, 'As heard at the Warehouse' or 'As played at the Warehouse', and then eventually we just shortened that down to – because people also just in the vernacular, they started saying 'yeah, what's up with that 'House music' – now at this time they were talkin' about the old, old classics, the Salsoul, the Philly classics and such – so we put on the labels for the bins, we'd say 'House music'. And people would start comin' in eventually and just start askin', 'yeah, where's the  new  House music?'     
 
    ^       George, Nelson (1986-06-21).  "House Music: Will It Join Rap And Go-Go?" .  Billboard .  99  (25): 27.  Archived  from the original on 2011-12-28 . Retrieved  2011-04-14  .  The term 'house music' has become a generic phrase for modern dance-oriented music," says Jones. "At one time the phrase 'old house music' was used to refer to old disco music. Now 'house' is used to describe the new music.     
 
    ^       Bainbridge, Luke (2014-02-22).  "Acid house and the dawn of a rave new world" .  The Guardian .  ISSN &#160; 0261-3077 .  Archived  from the original on 2017-02-16 . Retrieved  2017-01-24  .    
 
    ^        "larry heard equipment from 1992" .  www.oldschooldaw.com . Archived from  the original  on 2016-10-10 . Retrieved  2016-10-08  .    
 
    ^       Cowen, Andrew (1999-10-30).  "Sounds Amazing!; Music Live Andrew Cowen previews the giant show at the NEC which offers great new ideas for musicians of all styles and all levels" .  The Birmingham Post (UK) .  Archived  from the original on 2020-10-08 . Retrieved  2007-08-11  .    
 
    ^       Trask, Simon (December 1988).  "Future Shock (Juan Atkins Interview)" . Music Technology Magazine. Archived from  the original  on 2008-03-15 . Retrieved  2008-04-05  .  The word 'house' comes from a record that you only hear in a certain club. The DJs would search out an import that was as obscure as possible, and that would be a house record. You'd hear a certain record only at the Powerplant, and that was Frankie Knuckles' house record. But you couldn't really be guaranteed an exclusive on an import, 'cos even if there were only 10 or 15 copies in the country, another DJ would track one down. So the DJs came up with the concept of making their own house records. It was like 'hey, I know I've got an exclusive because I made the record.      Cite journal requires  &#124;journal=  ( help )  
 
    ^        "A Brief History of House Music" .  complex.com .  Archived  from the original on 2020-10-06 . Retrieved  2020-01-12  .    
 
  ^     a         b         c         Reynolds, Simon (1999) [1998].  Generation Ecstasy: Into the World of House Music and Rave Culture . Routledge. pp.&#160;27–31.    
 
    ^       Jacob Arnold (2017).  "When Techno Was House: Jacob Arnold looks at Chicago's impact on the birth of techno" . Red Bull Music Academy Daily.  Archived  from the original on 2019-01-14 . Retrieved  2019-01-14  .    
 
    ^      Juan Atkins on Kraftwerk   Archived  2017-06-30 at the  Wayback Machine , on Electronic Beats, 2012 (retrieved on 26 July 2020). 
 
    ^       Bishop, Marlon; Glasspiegel, Wills (14 June 2011).  "Juan Atkins &#91;interview for Afropop Worldwide&#93;" . World Music Productions. Archived from  the original  on 23 June 2011 . Retrieved  17 June  2011 .    "Neil Rushton came up with the idea to do a compilation for Virgin and call it  The House Sound of Detroit . And my track that I put on this record was called 'Techno Music.' And they were like 'wait a minute, if he's deeming this record 'Techno Music' and all the rest of this stuff is similar sounding, let's call it  Techno: The New Dance Sound of Detroit .' And hence, that album was released and the name stuck." 
 
    ^     On the influence of Chicago house on Derrick May, who says to have been musically "baptised by  Ron Hardy ", see    "Interview: Derrick May – The Secret of Techno (archived)" .   Mixmag  . 1997. Archived from the original on 30 April 2013 . Retrieved  25 July  2012 .    CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown ( link )  The connection was two-sided, as Chicago's house DJ  Frankie Knuckles  played the song in his club and even suggested its title (see also there). 
 
    ^      Derrick May - Strings of Life   Archived  2020-07-26 at the  Wayback Machine  on Attack Magazine, 2018 (retrieved on 26 July 2020). 
 
    ^        "Best selling singles of the 80s" . Pure80spop.co.uk.  Archived  from the original on 2008-12-20 . Retrieved  2012-08-14  .    
 
    ^        "Chart Archive – 1980s Singles" . EveryHit.com.  Archived  from the original on 2012-09-12 . Retrieved  2012-08-04  .    
 
    ^       Duthel, C.   Pitbull - Mr. Worldwide  .  ISBN &#160;  9781471090356  .  Archived  from the original on 2020-10-08 . Retrieved  2020-09-14   &#8211; via Google Books.    
 
    ^      Farley Jackmaster Funk: Artist page   Archived  2020-08-19 at the  Wayback Machine  on  Discogs . 
 
    ^      Armando Gallop: Live at the Warehouse DJ Mix   Archived  2020-07-26 at the  Wayback Machine  on 5mag.com. 
 
    ^      Biography of Armando   Archived  2020-07-26 at the  Wayback Machine  on  AllMusic , retrieved on 27 Juli 2020. 
 
    ^      Paul Johnson: Scene #001, release page   Archived  2020-08-13 at the  Wayback Machine  on  Discogs . 
 
    ^       Arnold, Jacob (May 15, 2013).  "Dance Mania: Ghetto House's Motown" .  Resident Advisor .  Archived  from the original on September 9, 2018 . Retrieved  September 8,  2018 .    
 
  ^     a         b          "Garage" .  AllMusic .  Archived  from the original on 2015-04-04 . Retrieved  2011-08-27  .    
 
    ^       Saunders, Jesse (2007).  House Music: The Real Story . Publish America Baltimore. p.&#160;118.  ISBN &#160;  9781604740011  .  New York did not truly develop a recognized House music scene of its own until 1988 with the success of DJ Todd Terry—not until then did they understand what House music truly was all about. They did, though, have Garage.     
 
  ^     a         b         Verderosa, Tony (2002).  The techno primer: the essential reference for loop-based music styles . U.S.: Hal Leonard Corporation, 2002. p.&#160;36.  ISBN &#160;  0634017888  .    
 
    ^       Sylvan, Robin (2002).  Traces of the spirit: the religious dimensions of popular music . U.S.: NYU Press. p.&#160;120.  ISBN &#160;  0814798098  .    
 
    ^        "Chicago Mayor Declares 'House Unity Day ' " .  Remix . Penton Media, Inc. 2005-08-03. Archived from  the original  on 2009-09-17.    
 
    ^        " " My album is coming in the first quarter of 2015..." – hmv.com talks to Alesso" .  HMV . November 18, 2014. Archived from  the original  on November 24, 2014 . Retrieved  December 2,  2014 .    
 
    ^        "13 OF THE MOST INFLUENTIAL HOUSE LABELS OF THE LAST DECADE" . mixmag. 19 April 2017.  Archived  from the original on 16 January 2019 . Retrieved  11 January  2019 .    
 
    ^        "David Guetta, Deadmau5 Get EDM Some Grammy Shine" . MTV. 2 October 2012.  Archived  from the original on 21 October 2017 . Retrieved  21 October  2017 .    
 
    ^        "Dirty South Teams Up With Axwell, Rudy For 'Dreams ' " . MTV. 22 March 2017.  Archived  from the original on 20 December 2017 . Retrieved  21 October  2017 .    
 
    ^        "Axwell's Iconic Remix Of "In The Air" Turns 8 Years Old" . We Rave You. 29 June 2017.  Archived  from the original on 21 October 2017 . Retrieved  21 October  2017 .    
 
    ^       McIntyre, Hugh.  "Calvin Harris And Dua Lipa Rocket To No. 1 In The U.K. With 'One Kiss ' " .  Forbes .  Archived  from the original on July 24, 2019 . Retrieved  November 22,  2019 .    
 
    ^       McIntyre, Hugh.  "Sam Smith And Calvin Harris Grab Yet Another No. 1 Hit In The U.K. With 'Promises ' " .  Forbes .  Archived  from the original on July 24, 2019 . Retrieved  November 22,  2019 .    
 
   
  Further reading   [  edit  ]   
  Bidder, Sean (2002).  Pump Up the Volume: A History of House Music , London: MacMillan.   ISBN &#160; 0-7522-1986-3  
 Bidder, Sean (1999).  The Rough Guide to House Music , Rough Guides.   ISBN &#160; 1-85828-432-5  
 Brewster, Bill/Frank Broughton (2000).  Last Night a DJ Saved My Life: The History of the Disc Jockey , Grove Press.   ISBN &#160; 0-8021-3688-5 . UK edition: Headline 1999/2006. 
 Fikentscher, Kai (2000). ' You Better Work!' Underground Dance Music in New York City.  Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press.   ISBN &#160; 0-8195-6404-4  
 Hewitt, Michael (2008).  Music Theory for Computer Musicians . 1st Ed. U.S. Cengage Learning.   ISBN &#160; 978-1-59863-503-4  
 Kempster, Chris (Ed) (1996).  History of House , Castle Communications.   ISBN &#160; 1-86074-134-7  (A reprinting of magazine articles from the 1980s and 90s) 
 Mireille, Silcott (1999).  Rave America: New School Dancescapes , ECW Press.   ISBN &#160; 1-55022-383-6  
  Reynolds, Simon  (1998).  Energy Flash: a Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture , (UK title, Pan Macmillan.   ISBN &#160; 0-330-35056-0 ), also released in U.S. as  Generation Ecstasy&#160;: Into the World of Techno and Rave Culture , London/New York: Routledge 1999.   ISBN &#160; 0-415-92373-5  
 Rietveld, Hillegonda C. (1998).  This is our House: House Music, Cultural Spaces and Technologies , Aldershot Ashgate. Reissue: London/New York: Routledge 2018/2020.   ISBN &#160; 036713411X  
  Shapiro, Peter  (2000).  Modulations: A History of Electronic Music: Throbbing Words on Sound .   ISBN &#160; 1-891024-06-X . 
 Snoman, Rick (2009).  The Dance Music Manual: Tools, Toys, and Techniques — Second Edition : Chapter 11: House. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Press. p.&#160;231–249.  
  External links   [  edit  ]   
   Barry Walters: Burning Down the House . SPIN magazine, November 1986. 
  Phil Cheeseman: The History of House . DJ Magazine (December 28, 2003) 
  Tim Lawrence: Acid ⎯ Can You Jack?  – Liner notes on the early history of house (2005)  
      .mw-parser-output .navbar{display:inline;font-size:88%;font-weight:normal}.mw-parser-output .navbar-collapse{float:left;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .navbar-boxtext{word-spacing:0}.mw-parser-output .navbar ul{display:inline-block;white-space:nowrap;line-height:inherit}.mw-parser-output .navbar-brackets::before{margin-right:-0.125em;content:"[ "}.mw-parser-output .navbar-brackets::after{margin-left:-0.125em;content:" ]"}.mw-parser-output .navbar li{word-spacing:-0.125em}.mw-parser-output .navbar-mini abbr{font-variant:small-caps;border-bottom:none;text-decoration:none;cursor:inherit}.mw-parser-output .navbar-ct-full{font-size:114%;margin:0 7em}.mw-parser-output .navbar-ct-mini{font-size:114%;margin:0 4em}.mw-parser-output .infobox .navbar{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .navbox .navbar{display:block;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .navbox-title .navbar{float:left;text-align:left;margin-right:0.5em}      v      t      e       House music       Subgenres         Specific   
   Acid house  
  Ambient house  
  Bass house  
  Deep house  
  Diva house  ( Hardbag ) 
  Electro house  ( Big room house  •  Complextro  •  Fidget house  •  Jungle terror  •  Melbourne bounce ) 
  Funky house  
  Future house  
  Garage house  
  Ghetto house  ( Ghettotech  •  Juke house  •  Footwork ) 
  Hip house  
  Microhouse  
  Moombahton  ( Moombahcore ) 
  Nu-disco  
  Outsider house  
  Progressive house  
  Tech house  
  Tribal house  
  Tropical house  
  UK hard house  ( Hard dance  •  Hard NRG  •  Scouse house  ( Hardbass ))  
     Regional   
   Afro house  ( Amapiano  •  Gqom  •  Kidandali  •  Kwaito ) 
  Balearic beat  
  Baltimore club  
  Brazilian bass  
  Chicago hard house  
  Chicago house  
  Dutch house  
  Euro house  
  French house  
  Italo house  
  Jersey club  
  Latin house  
  New Jersey sound   
           Related topics        Genres   
   Bassline  
  Big beat  
  Chill-out  
  Disco  
  Dream trance  
  Eurodance  ( Hard dance ) 
  Madchester  ( Baggy ) 
  New beat  
  Nu jazz  ( Electro swing ) 
  Techno  
  Witch house   
     Dance moves   
   Jacking  
  Footwork   
     Other   
   Deejay (Jamaican)  
  DJ  
  Nightclub  
  Rave   
            
           v      t      e       Post-disco       Boogie  connection   
   Boogie  ( city pop ) 
  Electro  ( Latin freestyle ) 
  Dance-pop  
  House  ( Chicago ) 
  Nu-disco   
      Post-punk  connection   
   Dance-rock  
  Alternative dance   
     Other topics        Lists       Post-disco artists    dance-rock artists    dance-pop artists         Articles       Larry Levan    P-Funk     Disco Not Disco     Disco Demolition Night         See also    Electronic , and  R&amp;B  music genres             Categories:   Dance-rock  and  Boogie       
           v      t      e       Electronica  and  electronic -based  music styles      Genres by decade of origin        1960s   
   Ambient  
  Drone  
  Dub  
  Electronic rock  
  Krautrock  
  Sampledelia   
     1970s   
   Boogie  
  Chiptune  
  Electropunk  
  Euro disco  
  Hi-NRG  
  Industrial music 
   Industrial rock    
  Minimal wave  
  New wave  
  Space music  
  Synth-pop 
   Electropop     
     1980s   
   Acid jazz  
  Alternative dance  
  Breakbeat  
  Breakbeat hardcore  
  Dark ambient  
  Dubtronica  
  Electronic dance music  
  Electro 
   Latin freestyle    
  Electronic body music  
  Electro-industrial  
  Eurobeat  
  Eurodance  
  Funky house  
  Hardcore  
  House 
   Latin house    
  Industrial hip hop  
  Industrial metal  
  Italo disco  
  New beat  
  Synth-metal  
  Techno   
     1990s   
   Ambient techno  
  Breakcore  
  Digital hardcore  
  Downtempo  
  Drum and bass 
   Drill 'n' bass    
  Dubstep  
  Electroclash  
  Electro hop  
  Electro house  
  Ethnic electronica  
  Folktronica  
  Funktronica  
  Glitch  
  Goa  
  Hardstyle  
  Illbient  
  Industrial techno  
  Intelligent dance music  
  Jungle music  
  Livetronica  
  Mákina  
  Mangue bit  
  Nu jazz 
   Electro swing    
  Nu skool breaks  
  Power noise  
  Progressive electronica  
  Trance  
  Trip hop  
  UK garage 
   2-step garage  
  Breakstep  
  Future garage  
  Speed garage     
     2000s   
   Bassline  
  Budots  
  Christian electronic dance music  
  Crunk  
  Chillwave  
  Electro house  
  Grime  
  Hauntology  
  Jumpstyle  
  Lowercase  
  Synthwave 
   Sovietwave    
  UK bass  
  UK funky  
  Witch house   
     2010s   
   Big room house  
  Deconstructed club  
  Future bass  
  Powwow-step  
  Slime punk  
  Trap  
  Vaporwave 
   Hardvapour  
  Fashwave  
  Future funk  
  Mallsoft     
           Other topics   
   Chill-out music  
  Contemporary R&amp;B  
  Disco 
   Post-disco  
  Garage house    
  Electronics in rock music  
  List of hip hop genres  
  Plunderphonics  
  Recording studio as an instrument  
  Turntablism 
   Hip-hop music    
  Industrial  
  Video game music   
      
      Authority control        
    BNF :   cb12486957p   (data)    
   GND :   4419692-1    
   LCCN :   sh97008974    
   LNB :   000300471     
      
 
 

 
    
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 {"@context":"https:\/\/schema.org","@type":"Article","name":"House music","url":"https:\/\/en.wikipedia.org\/wiki\/House_music","sameAs":"http:\/\/www.wikidata.org\/entity\/Q20502","mainEntity":"http:\/\/www.wikidata.org\/entity\/Q20502","author":{"@type":"Organization","name":"Contributors to Wikimedia projects"},"publisher":{"@type":"Organization","name":"Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.","logo":{"@type":"ImageObject","url":"https:\/\/www.wikimedia.org\/static\/images\/wmf-hor-googpub.png"}},"datePublished":"2001-10-11T18:42:04Z","dateModified":"2021-01-13T02:40:22Z","headline":"electronic music genre; genre of dance music that originated in the American city of Chicago in the early 1980s"} 
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no more html tags, just raw text!

Extracting urls

If we just remove all the html tags we also remove all the links which are in the form <a href="some url> ... </a>".

So we may also want to extract the urls from a web page. For instance if you want to list the sources cited on social networks or build a bot that follows the links from a web page.

To extract the urls we will use the following pattern

r'http.+?(?="|<)'

This pattern finds all strings that start with http and end with either " or <

Let's extract the urls from the wikipedia House Music page.

In [21]:
url = 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_music'
html = requests.get(url).content.decode('UTF-8').split('</head>')[1]
In [28]:
pattern = r'http.+?(?=\?|"|<)'
urls = re.findall(pattern, html)
print(f"We find {len(urls)} urls")
We find 282 urls
In [30]:
for i in range(10):
    print(f"- {urls[i]}")
- https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/proto-#Prefix
- https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php
- http://www.allmusic.com/subgenre/house-ma0000002651
- https://web.archive.org/web/20121006233620/http://www.allmusic.com/subgenre/house-ma0000002651
- http%3A%2F%2Fwww.allmusic.com%2Fsubgenre%2Fhouse-ma0000002651&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music
- http://www.allmusic.com/style/hi-nrg-ma0000012074
- https://web.archive.org/web/20120617152422/http://www.allmusic.com/style/hi-nrg-ma0000012074
- http%3A%2F%2Fwww.allmusic.com%2Fstyle%2Fhi-nrg-ma0000012074&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3AHouse+music
- https://www.spin.com/2014/04/burning-down-the-house-chicago-club-80s/
- https://web.archive.org/web/20180405214757/https://www.spin.com/2014/04/burning-down-the-house-chicago-club-80s/

Punctuation signs

We can also use a regex to remove all the punctuation signs from a text.

In [36]:
text = "Hello, is your name bob? "

print(text)

print(re.sub(r'[^\w\s]', '', text) )
Hello, is your name bob? 
Hello is your name bob 

Tokenization

The following pattern makes a decent tokenizer when used with the split function

r"\b\w+\b"

In [52]:
text = "Hello, is your name bob? "
re.findall(r"\b\w+\b", text)
Out[52]:
['Hello', 'is', 'your', 'name', 'bob']
In [ ]: