In this first chapter of the Intro to NLP course, you learn how to load a page from wikipedia and create a wordcloud.

Let's start by installing the wordcloud library

In [49]:
!pip install wordcloud

Requirement already satisfied: wordcloud in /Users/alexis/anaconda3/envs/amcp/lib/python3.8/site-packages (1.8.0)
Requirement already satisfied: matplotlib in /Users/alexis/anaconda3/envs/amcp/lib/python3.8/site-packages (from wordcloud) (3.3.2)
Requirement already satisfied: numpy>=1.6.1 in /Users/alexis/anaconda3/envs/amcp/lib/python3.8/site-packages (from wordcloud) (1.18.5)
Requirement already satisfied: pillow in /Users/alexis/anaconda3/envs/amcp/lib/python3.8/site-packages (from wordcloud) (8.0.1)
Requirement already satisfied: certifi>=2020.06.20 in /Users/alexis/anaconda3/envs/amcp/lib/python3.8/site-packages (from matplotlib->wordcloud) (2020.12.5)
Requirement already satisfied: cycler>=0.10 in /Users/alexis/anaconda3/envs/amcp/lib/python3.8/site-packages (from matplotlib->wordcloud) (0.10.0)
Requirement already satisfied: pyparsing!=2.0.4,!=2.1.2,!=2.1.6,>=2.0.3 in /Users/alexis/anaconda3/envs/amcp/lib/python3.8/site-packages (from matplotlib->wordcloud) (2.4.7)
Requirement already satisfied: kiwisolver>=1.0.1 in /Users/alexis/anaconda3/envs/amcp/lib/python3.8/site-packages (from matplotlib->wordcloud) (1.3.0)
Requirement already satisfied: python-dateutil>=2.1 in /Users/alexis/anaconda3/envs/amcp/lib/python3.8/site-packages (from matplotlib->wordcloud) (2.8.1)
Requirement already satisfied: six in /Users/alexis/anaconda3/envs/amcp/lib/python3.8/site-packages (from cycler>=0.10->matplotlib->wordcloud) (1.15.0)


# Content from wikipedia¶

Wikipedia is a great source of quality text. We use the Wikipedia API to get the text of a page given its title

In [50]:
# 1) import the necessary library
import requests

# 2) set the title of the page (uncomment to change the page)
title = 'Earth'

# 3) send a request to the wikipedia api
# asking to return content of the page formatted as json

response = requests.get(
'https://en.wikipedia.org/w/api.php',
params={
'action': 'query',
'format': 'json',
'titles': title,
'prop': 'extracts',
'explaintext': True,
}).json()

# 4) Parse the result and extract the text
page = next(iter(response['query']['pages'].values()))
text = page['extract']

In [51]:
# print the 1st 300 characters from the text
print(text[:300])

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 71% is covered with water, mostly by oceans but also by lakes, rivers and other fresh water, which together constitut


Let's wrap the code to get text from wikipedia into a convenient function

In [52]:
import requests

def wikipedia_page(title):
'''
'''
params = {
'action': 'query',
'format': 'json', # request json formatted content
'prop': 'extracts',
'explaintext': True
}
# send a request to the wikipedia api
response = requests.get(
'https://en.wikipedia.org/w/api.php',
params= params
).json()

# Parse the result
page = next(iter(response['query']['pages'].values()))
# return the page content
if 'extract' in page.keys():
return page['extract']
else:

In [53]:
# We lowercase the text to avoid having to deal with uppercase and capitalized words
text = wikipedia_page('Earth').lower()
print(text)

earth is the third planet from the sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. about 29% of earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. the remaining 71% is covered with water, mostly by oceans but also by lakes, rivers and other fresh water, which together constitute the hydrosphere. much of earth's polar regions are covered in ice. earth's outer layer is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over many millions of years. earth's interior remains active with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates earth's magnetic field, and a convecting mantle that drives plate tectonics.
according to radiometric dating estimation and other evidence, earth formed over 4.5 billion years ago. within the first billion years of earth's history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect earth's atmosphere and surface, leading to the proliferation of anaerobic and, later, aerobic organisms. some geological evidence indicates that life may have arisen as early as 4.1 billion years ago. since then, the combination of earth's distance from the sun, physical properties and geological history have allowed life to evolve and thrive. in the history of life on earth, biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion, occasionally punctuated by mass extinctions. over 99% of all species that ever lived on earth are extinct. almost 8 billion humans live on earth and depend on its biosphere and natural resources for their survival. humans increasingly impact earth's hydrology, atmospheric processes and other life.
earth's atmosphere consists mostly of nitrogen and oxygen. tropical regions receive more energy from the sun than polar regions, which is redistributed by atmospheric and ocean circulation. greenhouse gases also play an important role in regulating the surface temperature. a region's climate is not only determined by latitude, but also by its proximity to moderating oceans and height among other factors. extreme weather, such as tropical cyclones and heat waves, occurs in most areas and has a large impact on life.
earth's gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the sun and the moon, which is earth's only natural satellite. earth orbits around the sun in about 365.25 days. earth's axis of rotation is tilted with respect to its orbital plane, producing seasons on earth. the gravitational interaction between earth and the moon causes tides, stabilizes earth's orientation on its axis, and gradually slows its rotation. earth is the densest planet in the solar system and the largest and most massive of the four rocky planets.

== etymology ==
the modern english word  earth developed, via middle english, from an old english noun most often spelled eorðe. it has cognates in every germanic language, and their ancestral root has been reconstructed as *erþō. in its earliest attestation, the word eorðe was already being used to translate the many senses of latin terra and greek γῆ gē: the ground, its soil, dry land, the human world, the surface of the world (including the sea), and the globe itself. as with roman terra/tellūs and greek gaia, earth may have been a personified goddess in germanic paganism: late norse mythology included jörð ('earth'), a giantess often given as the mother of thor.historically, earth has been written in lowercase. from early middle english, its definite sense as "the globe" was expressed as the earth. by early modern english, many nouns were capitalized, and the earth was also written the earth, particularly when referenced along with other heavenly bodies. more recently, the name is sometimes simply given as earth, by analogy with the names of the other planets, though earth and forms with the remain common. house styles now vary: oxford spelling recognizes the lowercase form as the most common, with the capitalized form an acceptable variant. another convention capitalizes "earth" when appearing as a name (for example, "earth's atmosphere") but writes it in lowercase when preceded by the (for example, "the atmosphere of the earth"). it almost always appears in lowercase in colloquial expressions such as "what on earth are you doing?"occasionally, the name terra  is used in scientific writing and especially in science fiction to distinguish humanity's inhabited planet from others, while in poetry tellus  has been used to denote personification of the earth. the greek poetic name gaea (gæa)  is rare, though the alternative spelling gaia has become common due to the gaia hypothesis, in which case its pronunciation is  rather than the more classical .there are a number of adjectives for the planet earth. from earth itself comes earthly. from the latin terra comes terran , terrestrial , and (via french) terrene , and from the latin tellus comes tellurian  and telluric.

== chronology ==

=== formation ===

the oldest material found in the solar system is dated to 4.5682+0.0002−0.0004 ga (billion years) ago. by 4.54±0.04 ga the primordial earth had formed. the bodies in the solar system formed and evolved with the sun. in theory, a solar nebula partitions a volume out of a molecular cloud by gravitational collapse, which begins to spin and flatten into a circumstellar disk, and then the planets grow out of that disk with the sun. a nebula contains gas, ice grains, and dust (including primordial nuclides). according to nebular theory, planetesimals formed by accretion, with the primordial earth being estimated as likely taking anywhere from 70–100 million years to form.estimates of the age of the moon range from 4.5 ga to significantly younger. a leading hypothesis is that it was formed by accretion from material loosed from earth after a mars-sized object with about 10% of earth's mass, named theia, collided with earth. it hit earth with a glancing blow and some of its mass merged with earth. between approximately 4.1 and 3.8 ga, numerous asteroid impacts during the late heavy bombardment caused significant changes to the greater surface environment of the moon and, by inference, to that of earth.

=== geological history ===

earth's atmosphere and oceans were formed by volcanic activity and outgassing. water vapor from these sources condensed into the oceans, augmented by water and ice from asteroids, protoplanets, and comets. sufficient water to fill the oceans may have always been on earth since the beginning of the planet's formation. in this model, atmospheric greenhouse gases kept the oceans from freezing when the newly forming sun had only 70% of its current luminosity. by 3.5 ga, earth's magnetic field was established, which helped prevent the atmosphere from being stripped away by the solar wind.as the molten outer layer of earth cooled it formed the first solid crust, which is thought to have been mafic in composition. the first continental crust, which was more felsic in composition, formed by the partial melting of this mafic crust. the presence of grains of the mineral zircon of hadean age in eoarchean sedimentary rocks suggests that at least some felsic crust existed as early as 4.4 ga, only 140 ma after earth's formation. there are two main models of how this initial small volume of continental crust evolved to reach its current abundance: (1) a relatively steady growth up to the present day, which is supported by the radiometric dating of continental crust globally and (2) an initial rapid growth in the volume of continental crust during the archean, forming the bulk of the continental crust that now exists, which is supported by isotopic evidence from hafnium in zircons and neodymium in sedimentary rocks. the two models and the data that support them can be reconciled by large-scale recycling of the continental crust, particularly during the early stages of earth's history.new continental crust forms as a result of plate tectonics, a process ultimately driven by the continuous loss of heat from earth's interior. over the period of hundreds of millions of years, tectonic forces have caused areas of continental crust to group together to form supercontinents that have subsequently broken apart. at approximately 750 ma, one of the earliest known supercontinents, rodinia, began to break apart. the continents later recombined to form pannotia at 600–540 ma, then finally pangaea, which also began to break apart at 180 ma.the most recent pattern of ice ages began about 40 ma, and then intensified during the pleistocene about 3 ma. high- and middle-latitude regions have since undergone repeated cycles of glaciation and thaw, repeating about every 21,000, 41,000 and 100,000 years. the last glacial period, colloquially called the "last ice age", covered large parts of the continents, up to the middle latitudes, in ice and ended about 11,700 years ago.

=== origin of life and evolution ===

chemical reactions led to the first self-replicating molecules about four billion years ago. a half billion years later, the last common ancestor of all current life arose. the evolution of photosynthesis allowed the sun's energy to be harvested directly by life forms. the resultant molecular oxygen (o2) accumulated in the atmosphere and due to interaction with ultraviolet solar radiation, formed a protective ozone layer (o3) in the upper atmosphere. the incorporation of smaller cells within larger ones resulted in the development of complex cells called eukaryotes. true multicellular organisms formed as cells within colonies became increasingly specialized. aided by the absorption of harmful ultraviolet radiation by the ozone layer, life colonized earth's surface. among the earliest fossil evidence for life is microbial mat fossils found in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone in western australia, biogenic graphite found in 3.7 billion-year-old metasedimentary rocks in western greenland, and remains of biotic material found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in western australia. the earliest direct evidence of life on earth is contained in 3.45 billion-year-old australian rocks showing fossils of microorganisms.during the neoproterozoic, 1000 to 541 ma, much of earth might have been covered in ice. this hypothesis has been termed "snowball earth", and it is of particular interest because it preceded the cambrian explosion, when multicellular life forms significantly increased in complexity. following the cambrian explosion, 535 ma, there have been at least five major mass extinctions and many minor ones. apart from the proposed current holocene extinction event, the most recent was 66 ma, when an asteroid impact triggered the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs and other large reptiles, but largely spared small animals such as insects, mammals, lizards and birds. mammalian life has diversified over the past 66 mys, and several million years ago an african ape gained the ability to stand upright. this facilitated tool use and encouraged communication that provided the nutrition and stimulation needed for a larger brain, which led to the evolution of humans. the development of agriculture, and then civilization, led to humans having an influence on earth and the nature and quantity of other life forms that continues to this day. over 99% of all species that ever lived on earth are extinct.

=== future ===

because carbon dioxide (co2) has a long life time in the atmosphere, moderate human co2 emissions may postpone the next glacial inception by 100,000 years. earth's expected long-term future is tied to that of the sun. over the next 1.1 billion years, solar luminosity will increase by 10%, and over the next 3.5 billion years by 40%. earth's increasing surface temperature will accelerate the inorganic carbon cycle, reducing co2 concentration to levels lethally low for plants (10 ppm for c4 photosynthesis) in approximately 100–900 million years. the lack of vegetation will result in the loss of oxygen in the atmosphere, making animal life impossible. due to the increased luminosity, earth's mean tempearture may reach 100 °c (212 °f) in 1.5 billion years, and all ocean water will evaporate and be lost to space within an estimated 1.6 to 3 billion years. even if the sun were stable, a fraction of the water in the modern oceans will descend to the mantle, due to reduced steam venting from mid-ocean ridges.the sun will evolve to become a red giant in about 5 billion years. models predict that the sun will expand to roughly 1 au (150 million km; 93 million mi), about 250 times its present radius. earth's fate is less clear. as a red giant, the sun will lose roughly 30% of its mass, so, without tidal effects, earth will move to an orbit 1.7 au (250 million km; 160 million mi) from the sun when the star reaches its maximum radius.

== physical characteristics ==

=== shape ===

the shape of earth is nearly spherical. there is a small flattening at the poles and bulging around the equator due to earth's rotation. so that a better approximation of earth's shape is an oblate spheroid, whose equatorial diameter is 43 kilometres (27 mi) larger than the pole-to-pole diameter.the point on the surface farthest from earth's center of mass is the summit of the equatorial chimborazo volcano in ecuador (6,384.4 km or 3,967.1 mi). the average diameter of the reference spheroid is 12,742 kilometres (7,918 mi). local topography deviates from this idealized spheroid, although on a global scale these deviations are small compared to earth's radius: the maximum deviation of only 0.17% is at the mariana trench (10,925 metres or 35,843 feet below local sea level), whereas mount everest (8,848 metres or 29,029 feet above local sea level) represents a deviation of 0.14%.
in geodesy, the exact shape that earth's oceans would adopt in the absence of land and perturbations such as tides and winds is called the geoid. more precisely, the geoid is the surface of gravitational equipotential at mean sea level.

=== chemical composition ===

earth's mass is approximately 5.97×1024 kg (5,970 yg). it is composed mostly of iron (32.1%), oxygen (30.1%), silicon (15.1%), magnesium (13.9%), sulfur (2.9%), nickel (1.8%), calcium (1.5%), and aluminum (1.4%), with the remaining 1.2% consisting of trace amounts of other elements. due to mass segregation, the core region is estimated to be primarily composed of iron (88.8%), with smaller amounts of nickel (5.8%), sulfur (4.5%), and less than 1% trace elements.the most common rock constituents of the crust are nearly all oxides: chlorine, sulfur, and fluorine are the important exceptions to this and their total amount in any rock is usually much less than 1%. over 99% of the crust is composed of 11 oxides, principally silica, alumina, iron oxides, lime, magnesia, potash and soda.

=== internal structure ===

earth's interior, like that of the other terrestrial planets, is divided into layers by their chemical or physical (rheological) properties. the outer layer is a chemically distinct silicate solid crust, which is underlain by a highly viscous solid mantle. the crust is separated from the mantle by the mohorovičić discontinuity. the thickness of the crust varies from about 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) under the oceans to 30–50 km (19–31 mi) for the continents. the crust and the cold, rigid, top of the upper mantle are collectively known as the lithosphere, which is divided into independently moving tectonic plates.beneath the lithosphere is the asthenosphere, a relatively low-viscosity layer on which the lithosphere rides. important changes in crystal structure within the mantle occur at 410 and 660 km (250 and 410 mi) below the surface, spanning a transition zone that separates the upper and lower mantle. beneath the mantle, an extremely low viscosity liquid outer core lies above a solid inner core. earth's inner core may be rotating at a slightly higher angular velocity than the remainder of the planet, advancing by 0.1–0.5° per year, although both somewhat higher and much lower rates have also been proposed. the radius of the inner core is about one fifth of that of earth.
density increases with depth, as described in the table on the right.

=== heat ===

the major heat-producing isotopes within earth are potassium-40, uranium-238, and thorium-232. at the center, the temperature may be up to 6,000 °c (10,830 °f), and the pressure could reach 360 gpa (52 million psi). because much of the heat is provided by radioactive decay, scientists postulate that early in earth's history, before isotopes with short half-lives were depleted, earth's heat production was much higher. at approximately 3 gyr, twice the present-day heat would have been produced, increasing the rates of mantle convection and plate tectonics, and allowing the production of uncommon igneous rocks such as komatiites that are rarely formed today.

the mean heat loss from earth is 87 mw m−2, for a global heat loss of 4.42×1013 w. a portion of the core's thermal energy is transported toward the crust by mantle plumes, a form of convection consisting of upwellings of higher-temperature rock. these plumes can produce hotspots and flood basalts. more of the heat in earth is lost through plate tectonics, by mantle upwelling associated with mid-ocean ridges. the final major mode of heat loss is through conduction through the lithosphere, the majority of which occurs under the oceans because the crust there is much thinner than that of the continents.

=== tectonic plates ===

earth's mechanically rigid outer layer, the lithosphere, is divided into tectonic plates. these plates are rigid segments that move relative to each other at one of three boundaries types: at convergent boundaries, two plates come together; at divergent boundaries, two plates are pulled apart; and at transform boundaries, two plates slide past one another laterally. along these plate boundaries, earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain-building, and oceanic trench formation can occur. the tectonic plates ride on top of the asthenosphere, the solid but less-viscous part of the upper mantle that can flow and move along with the plates.as the tectonic plates migrate, oceanic crust is subducted under the leading edges of the plates at convergent boundaries. at the same time, the upwelling of mantle material at divergent boundaries creates mid-ocean ridges. the combination of these processes recycles the oceanic crust back into the mantle. due to this recycling, most of the ocean floor is less than 100 ma old. the oldest oceanic crust is located in the western pacific and is estimated to be 200 ma old. by comparison, the oldest dated continental crust is 4,030 ma, although zircons have been found preserved as clasts within eoarchean sedimentary rocks that give ages up to 4,400 ma, indicating that at least some continental crust existed at that time.the seven major plates are the pacific, north american, eurasian, african, antarctic, indo-australian, and south american. other notable plates include the arabian plate, the caribbean plate, the nazca plate off the west coast of south america and the scotia plate in the southern atlantic ocean. the australian plate fused with the indian plate between 50 and 55 ma. the fastest-moving plates are the oceanic plates, with the cocos plate advancing at a rate of 75 mm/a (3.0 in/year) and the pacific plate moving 52–69 mm/a (2.0–2.7 in/year). at the other extreme, the slowest-moving plate is the south american plate, progressing at a typical rate of 10.6 mm/a (0.42 in/year).

=== surface ===

the total surface area of earth is about 510 million km2 (197 million sq mi). of this, 70.8%, or 361.13 million km2 (139.43 million sq mi), is below sea level and covered by ocean water. below the ocean's surface are much of the continental shelf, mountains, volcanoes, oceanic trenches, submarine canyons, oceanic plateaus, abyssal plains, and a globe-spanning mid-ocean ridge system. the remaining 29.2%, or 148.94 million km2 (57.51 million sq mi), not covered by water has terrain that varies greatly from place to place and consists of mountains, deserts, plains, plateaus, and other landforms. the elevation of the land surface varies from the low point of −418 m (−1,371 ft) at the dead sea, to a maximum altitude of 8,848 m (29,029 ft) at the top of mount everest. the mean height of land above sea level is about 797 m (2,615 ft).the continental crust consists of lower density material such as the igneous rocks granite and andesite. less common is basalt, a denser volcanic rock that is the primary constituent of the ocean floors. sedimentary rock is formed from the accumulation of sediment that becomes buried and compacted together. nearly 75% of the continental surfaces are covered by sedimentary rocks, although they form about 5% of the crust. the third form of rock material found on earth is metamorphic rock, which is created from the transformation of pre-existing rock types through high pressures, high temperatures, or both. the most abundant silicate minerals on earth's surface include quartz, feldspars, amphibole, mica, pyroxene and olivine. common carbonate minerals include calcite (found in limestone) and dolomite.erosion and tectonics, volcanic eruptions, flooding, weathering, glaciation, the growth of coral reefs, and meteorite impacts are among the processes that constantly reshape earth's surface over geological time.the pedosphere is the outermost layer of earth's continental surface and is composed of soil and subject to soil formation processes. the total arable land is 10.9% of the land surface, with 1.3% being permanent cropland. close to 40% of earth's land surface is used for agriculture, or an estimated 16.7 million km2 (6.4 million sq mi) of cropland and 33.5 million km2 (12.9 million sq mi) of pastureland.

=== gravitational field ===

the gravity of earth is the acceleration that is imparted to objects due to the distribution of mass within earth. near earth's surface, gravitational acceleration is approximately 9.8 m/s2 (32 ft/s2). local differences in topography, geology, and deeper tectonic structure cause local and broad, regional differences in earth's gravitational field, known as gravity anomalies.

=== magnetic field ===

the main part of earth's magnetic field is generated in the core, the site of a dynamo process that converts the kinetic energy of thermally and compositionally driven convection into electrical and magnetic field energy. the field extends outwards from the core, through the mantle, and up to earth's surface, where it is, approximately, a dipole. the poles of the dipole are located close to earth's geographic poles. at the equator of the magnetic field, the magnetic-field strength at the surface is 3.05×10−5 t, with a magnetic dipole moment of 7.79×1022 am2 at epoch 2000, decreasing nearly 6% per century. the convection movements in the core are chaotic; the magnetic poles drift and periodically change alignment. this causes secular variation of the main field and field reversals at irregular intervals averaging a few times every million years. the most recent reversal occurred approximately 700,000 years ago.

==== magnetosphere ====

the extent of earth's magnetic field in space defines the magnetosphere. ions and electrons of the solar wind are deflected by the magnetosphere; solar wind pressure compresses the dayside of the magnetosphere, to about 10 earth radii, and extends the nightside magnetosphere into a long tail. because the velocity of the solar wind is greater than the speed at which waves propagate through the solar wind, a supersonic bow shock precedes the dayside magnetosphere within the solar wind. charged particles are contained within the magnetosphere; the plasmasphere is defined by low-energy particles that essentially follow magnetic field lines as earth rotates. the ring current is defined by medium-energy particles that drift relative to the geomagnetic field, but with paths that are still dominated by the magnetic field, and the van allen radiation belts are formed by high-energy particles whose motion is essentially random, but contained in the magnetosphere.during magnetic storms and substorms, charged particles can be deflected from the outer magnetosphere and especially the magnetotail, directed along field lines into earth's ionosphere, where atmospheric atoms can be excited and ionized, causing the aurora.

== orbit and rotation ==

=== rotation ===

earth's rotation period relative to the sun—its mean solar day—is 86,400 seconds of mean solar time (86,400.0025 si seconds). because earth's solar day is now slightly longer than it was during the 19th century due to tidal deceleration, each day varies between 0 and 2 ms longer than the mean solar day.earth's rotation period relative to the fixed stars, called its stellar day by the international earth rotation and reference systems service (iers), is 86,164.0989 seconds of mean solar time (ut1), or 23h 56m 4.0989s. earth's rotation period relative to the precessing or moving mean march equinox (when the sun is at 90° on the equator), is 86,164.0905 seconds of mean solar time (ut1) (23h 56m 4.0905s). thus the sidereal day is shorter than the stellar day by about 8.4 ms.apart from meteors within the atmosphere and low-orbiting satellites, the main apparent motion of celestial bodies in earth's sky is to the west at a rate of 15°/h = 15'/min. for bodies near the celestial equator, this is equivalent to an apparent diameter of the sun or the moon every two minutes; from earth's surface, the apparent sizes of the sun and the moon are approximately the same.

=== orbit ===

=== axial tilt and seasons ===

the axial tilt of earth is approximately 23.439281° with the axis of its orbit plane, always pointing towards the celestial poles. due to earth's axial tilt, the amount of sunlight reaching any given point on the surface varies over the course of the year. this causes the seasonal change in climate, with summer in the northern hemisphere occurring when the tropic of cancer is facing the sun, and winter taking place when the tropic of capricorn in the southern hemisphere faces the sun. during the summer, the day lasts longer, and the sun climbs higher in the sky. in winter, the climate becomes cooler and the days shorter. above the arctic circle and below the antarctic circle there is no daylight at all for part of the year, causing a polar night, and this night extends for several months at the poles themselves. these same latitudes also experience a midnight sun, where the sun remains visible all day.by astronomical convention, the four seasons can be determined by the solstices—the points in the orbit of maximum axial tilt toward or away from the sun—and the equinoxes, when earth's rotational axis is aligned with its orbital axis. in the northern hemisphere, winter solstice currently occurs around 21 december; summer solstice is near 21 june, spring equinox is around 20 march and autumnal equinox is about 22 or 23 september. in the southern hemisphere, the situation is reversed, with the summer and winter solstices exchanged and the spring and autumnal equinox dates swapped.the angle of earth's axial tilt is relatively stable over long periods of time. its axial tilt does undergo nutation; a slight, irregular motion with a main period of 18.6 years. the orientation (rather than the angle) of earth's axis also changes over time, precessing around in a complete circle over each 25,800 year cycle; this precession is the reason for the difference between a sidereal year and a tropical year. both of these motions are caused by the varying attraction of the sun and the moon on earth's equatorial bulge. the poles also migrate a few meters across earth's surface. this polar motion has multiple, cyclical components, which collectively are termed quasiperiodic motion. in addition to an annual component to this motion, there is a 14-month cycle called the chandler wobble. earth's rotational velocity also varies in a phenomenon known as length-of-day variation.in modern times, earth's perihelion occurs around 3 january, and its aphelion around 4 july. these dates change over time due to precession and other orbital factors, which follow cyclical patterns known as milankovitch cycles. the changing earth–sun distance causes an increase of about 6.8% in solar energy reaching earth at perihelion relative to aphelion. because the southern hemisphere is tilted toward the sun at about the same time that earth reaches the closest approach to the sun, the southern hemisphere receives slightly more energy from the sun than does the northern over the course of a year. this effect is much less significant than the total energy change due to the axial tilt, and most of the excess energy is absorbed by the higher proportion of water in the southern hemisphere.

== earth-moon system ==

=== moon ===

the moon is a relatively large, terrestrial, planet-like natural satellite, with a diameter about one-quarter of earth's. it is the largest moon in the solar system relative to the size of its planet, although charon is larger relative to the dwarf planet pluto. the natural satellites of other planets are also referred to as "moons", after earth's. the most widely accepted theory of the moon's origin, the giant-impact hypothesis, states that it formed from the collision of a mars-size protoplanet called theia with the early earth. this hypothesis explains (among other things) the moon's relative lack of iron and volatile elements and the fact that its composition is nearly identical to that of earth's crust.the gravitational attraction between earth and the moon causes tides on earth. the same effect on the moon has led to its tidal locking: its rotation period is the same as the time it takes to orbit earth. as a result, it always presents the same face to the planet. as the moon orbits earth, different parts of its face are illuminated by the sun, leading to the lunar phases. due to their tidal interaction, the moon recedes from earth at the rate of approximately 38 mm/a (1.5 in/year). over millions of years, these tiny modifications—and the lengthening of earth's day by about 23 µs/yr—add up to significant changes. during the ediacaran period, for example, (approximately 620 ma) there were 400±7 days in a year, with each day lasting 21.9±0.4 hours.the moon may have dramatically affected the development of life by moderating the planet's climate. paleontological evidence and computer simulations show that earth's axial tilt is stabilized by tidal interactions with the moon. some theorists think that without this stabilization against the torques applied by the sun and planets to earth's equatorial bulge, the rotational axis might be chaotically unstable, exhibiting large changes over millions of years, as is the case for mars, though this is disputed.viewed from earth, the moon is just far enough away to have almost the same apparent-sized disk as the sun. the angular size (or solid angle) of these two bodies match because, although the sun's diameter is about 400 times as large as the moon's, it is also 400 times more distant. this allows total and annular solar eclipses to occur on earth.

=== asteroids and artificial satellites ===

earth's co-orbital asteroids population consists of quasi-satellites, objects with a horseshoe orbit and trojans. there are at least five quasi-satellites, including 469219 kamoʻoalewa. a trojan asteroid companion, 2010 tk7, is librating around the leading lagrange triangular point, l4, in earth's orbit around the sun. the tiny near-earth asteroid 2006 rh120 makes close approaches to the earth–moon system roughly every twenty years. during these approaches, it can orbit earth for brief periods of time.as of april 2020, there are 2,666 operational, human-made satellites orbiting earth. there are also inoperative satellites, including vanguard 1, the oldest satellite currently in orbit, and over 16,000 pieces of tracked space debris. earth's largest artificial satellite is the international space station.

== hydrosphere ==

the abundance of water on earth's surface is a unique feature that distinguishes the "blue planet" from other planets in the solar system. earth's hydrosphere consists chiefly of the oceans, but technically includes all water surfaces in the world, including inland seas, lakes, rivers, and underground waters down to a depth of 2,000 m (6,600 ft). the mass of the oceans is approximately 1.35×1018 metric tons or about 1/4400 of earth's total mass. the oceans cover an area of 361.8 million km2 (139.7 million sq mi) with a mean depth of 3,682 m (12,080 ft), resulting in an estimated volume of 1.332 billion km3 (320 million cu mi). if all of earth's crustal surface were at the same elevation as a smooth sphere, the depth of the resulting world ocean would be 2.7 to 2.8 km (1.68 to 1.74 mi). about 97.5% of the water is saline; the remaining 2.5% is fresh water. most fresh water, about 68.7%, is present as ice in ice caps and glaciers.in earth's coldest regions, snow survives over the summer and changes into ice. this accumulated snow and ice eventually forms into glaciers, bodies of ice that flow under the influence of their own gravity. alpine glaciers form in mountainous areas, whereas vast ice sheets form over land in polar regions. the flow of glaciers erodes the surface changing it dramatically, with the formation of u-shaped valleys and other landforms. sea ice in the arctic covers an area about as big as the united states, although it is quickly retreating as a consequence of climate change.the average salinity of earth's oceans is about 35 grams of salt per kilogram of sea water (3.5% salt). most of this salt was released from volcanic activity or extracted from cool igneous rocks. the oceans are also a reservoir of dissolved atmospheric gases, which are essential for the survival of many aquatic life forms. sea water has an important influence on the world's climate, with the oceans acting as a large heat reservoir. shifts in the oceanic temperature distribution can cause significant weather shifts, such as the el niño–southern oscillation.

== atmosphere ==

the atmospheric pressure at earth's sea level averages 101.325 kpa (14.696 psi), with a scale height of about 8.5 km (5.3 mi). a dry atmosphere is composed of 78.084% nitrogen, 20.946% oxygen, 0.934% argon, and trace amounts of carbon dioxide and other gaseous molecules. water vapor content varies between 0.01% and 4% but averages about 1%. the height of the troposphere varies with latitude, ranging between 8 km (5 mi) at the poles to 17 km (11 mi) at the equator, with some variation resulting from weather and seasonal factors.earth's biosphere has significantly altered its atmosphere. oxygenic photosynthesis evolved 2.7 gya, forming the primarily nitrogen–oxygen atmosphere of today. this change enabled the proliferation of aerobic organisms and, indirectly, the formation of the ozone layer due to the subsequent conversion of atmospheric o2 into o3. the ozone layer blocks ultraviolet solar radiation, permitting life on land. other atmospheric functions important to life include transporting water vapor, providing useful gases, causing small meteors to burn up before they strike the surface, and moderating temperature. this last phenomenon is known as the greenhouse effect: trace molecules within the atmosphere serve to capture thermal energy emitted from the ground, thereby raising the average temperature. water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone are the primary greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. without this heat-retention effect, the average surface temperature would be −18 °c (0 °f), in contrast to the current +15 °c (59 °f), and life on earth probably would not exist in its current form.

=== weather and climate ===

earth's atmosphere has no definite boundary, slowly becoming thinner and fading into outer space. three-quarters of the atmosphere's mass is contained within the first 11 km (6.8 mi) of the surface. this lowest layer is called the troposphere. energy from the sun heats this layer, and the surface below, causing expansion of the air. this lower-density air then rises and is replaced by cooler, higher-density air. the result is atmospheric circulation that drives the weather and climate through redistribution of thermal energy.

the primary atmospheric circulation bands consist of the trade winds in the equatorial region below 30° latitude and the westerlies in the mid-latitudes between 30° and 60°. ocean currents are also important factors in determining climate, particularly the thermohaline circulation that distributes thermal energy from the equatorial oceans to the polar regions.the amount of solar energy reaching earth's surface decreases with increasing latitude. at higher latitudes, the sunlight reaches the surface at lower angles, and it must pass through thicker columns of the atmosphere. as a result, the mean annual air temperature at sea level decreases by about 0.4 °c (0.7 °f) per degree of latitude from the equator. earth's surface can be subdivided into specific latitudinal belts of approximately homogeneous climate. ranging from the equator to the polar regions, these are the tropical (or equatorial), subtropical, temperate and polar climates.further factors that affect a location's climates are its proximity to oceans, the oceanic and atmospheric circulation, and topology. places close to oceans typically have colder summers and warmer winters, due to the fact that oceans can the store large amounts of heat. the wind transports the cold or the heat of the ocean to the land. atmospheric circulation also plays an important role: san francisco and washington dc are both coastal cities at about the same latitude. san francisco's climate is significantly more moderate as the prevailing wind direction is from sea to land. finally, temperatures decrease with height causing mountainous areas to be colder than low-lying areas.water vapor generated through surface evaporation is transported by circulatory patterns in the atmosphere. when atmospheric conditions permit an uplift of warm, humid air, this water condenses and falls to the surface as precipitation. most of the water is then transported to lower elevations by river systems and usually returned to the oceans or deposited into lakes. this water cycle is a vital mechanism for supporting life on land and is a primary factor in the erosion of surface features over geological periods. precipitation patterns vary widely, ranging from several meters of water per year to less than a millimeter. atmospheric circulation, topographic features, and temperature differences determine the average precipitation that falls in each region.the commonly used köppen climate classification system has five broad groups (humid tropics, arid, humid middle latitudes, continental and cold polar), which are further divided into more specific subtypes. the köppen system rates regions based on observed temperature and precipitation. surface air temperature can rise to around 55 °c (131 °f) in hot deserts, such as death valley, and can fall as low as −89 °c (−128 °f) in antarctica.

=== upper atmosphere ===

above the troposphere, the atmosphere is usually divided into the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. each layer has a different lapse rate, defining the rate of change in temperature with height. beyond these, the exosphere thins out into the magnetosphere, where the geomagnetic fields interact with the solar wind. within the stratosphere is the ozone layer, a component that partially shields the surface from ultraviolet light and thus is important for life on earth. the kármán line, defined as 100 km above earth's surface, is a working definition for the boundary between the atmosphere and outer space.thermal energy causes some of the molecules at the outer edge of the atmosphere to increase their velocity to the point where they can escape from earth's gravity. this causes a slow but steady loss of the atmosphere into space. because unfixed hydrogen has a low molecular mass, it can achieve escape velocity more readily, and it leaks into outer space at a greater rate than other gases. the leakage of hydrogen into space contributes to the shifting of earth's atmosphere and surface from an initially reducing state to its current oxidizing one. photosynthesis provided a source of free oxygen, but the loss of reducing agents such as hydrogen is thought to have been a necessary precondition for the widespread accumulation of oxygen in the atmosphere. hence the ability of hydrogen to escape from the atmosphere may have influenced the nature of life that developed on earth. in the current, oxygen-rich atmosphere most hydrogen is converted into water before it has an opportunity to escape. instead, most of the hydrogen loss comes from the destruction of methane in the upper atmosphere.

== life on earth ==

a planet's life forms inhabit ecosystems, whose total forms the biosphere. the biosphere is divided into a number of biomes, inhabited by broadly similar plants and animals. on land, biomes are separated primarily by differences in latitude, height above sea level and humidity. terrestrial biomes lying within the arctic or antarctic circles, at high altitudes or in extremely arid areas are relatively barren of plant and animal life; species diversity reaches a peak in humid lowlands at equatorial latitudes. estimates of the number of species on earth today vary; most species have not been described.a planet that can sustain life is termed habitable, even if life did not originate there. earth provides liquid water—an environment where complex organic molecules can assemble and interact, and sufficient energy to sustain metabolism. plants can take up nutrients from the atmosphere, soils and water. these nutrients are constantly recycled between different species. the distance of earth from the sun, as well as its orbital eccentricity, rate of rotation, axial tilt, geological history, sustaining atmosphere, and magnetic field all contribute to the current climatic conditions at the surface.extreme weather, such as tropical cyclones (including hurricanes and typhoons), occurs over most of earth's surface and has a large impact on life in those areas. from 1980 to 2000, these events caused an average of 11,800 human deaths per year. many places are subject to earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, tornadoes, blizzards, floods, droughts, wildfires, and other calamities and disasters. human impact is felt in many areas due to pollution of the air and water, acid rain, loss of vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation, desertification), loss of wildlife, species extinction, soil degradation, soil depletion and erosion. there is a scientific consensus that humans are causing global warming by releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. this is driving changes such as the melting of glaciers and ice sheets, a global rise in average sea levels, and significant shifts in weather.

== human geography ==

earth's human population passed seven billion in the early 2010s, and is projected to peak at around ten billion in the second half of the 21st century. most of the growth is expected to take place in sub-saharan africa. human population density varies widely around the world, but a majority live in asia. by 2050, 68% of the world's population is expected to be living in urban, rather than rural, areas. 68% of the land mass of the world is in the northern hemisphere. partly due to the predominance of land mass, 90% of humans live in the northern hemisphere.it is estimated that one-eighth of earth's surface is suitable for humans to live on – three-quarters of earth's surface is covered by oceans, leaving one-quarter as land. half of that land area is desert (14%), high mountains (27%), or other unsuitable terrains. states claim the planet's entire land surface, except for parts of antarctica and a few other unclaimed areas. earth has never had a planetwide government, but the united nations is the leading worldwide intergovernmental organization.the first human to orbit earth was yuri gagarin on 12 april 1961. in total, about 550 people have visited outer space and reached orbit as of november 2018, and, of these, twelve have walked on the moon. normally, the only humans in space are those on the international space station. the station's crew, made up of six people, is usually replaced every six months. the farthest that humans have traveled from earth is 400,171 km (248,655 mi), achieved during the apollo 13 mission in 1970.

=== natural resources and land use ===

earth has resources that have been exploited by humans. those termed non-renewable resources, such as fossil fuels, only renew over geological timescales. large deposits of fossil fuels are obtained from earth's crust, consisting of coal, petroleum, and natural gas. these deposits are used by humans both for energy production and as feedstock for chemical production. mineral ore bodies have also been formed within the crust through a process of ore genesis, resulting from actions of magmatism, erosion, and plate tectonics. these metals and other elements are extracted by mining, a process which often brings environmental and health damage.earth's biosphere produces many useful biological products for humans, including food, wood, pharmaceuticals, oxygen, and the recycling of organic waste. the land-based ecosystem depends upon topsoil and fresh water, and the oceanic ecosystem depends on dissolved nutrients washed down from the land. in 2019, 39 million km2 (15 million sq mi) of earth's land surface consisted of forest and woodlands, 12 million km2 (4.6 million sq mi) was shrub and grassland, 40 million km2 (15 million sq mi) were used for animal feed production and grazing, and 11 million km2 (4.2 million sq mi) were cultivated as croplands. of the 12–14% of ice-free land that is used for croplands, 2 percent point was irrigated in 2015. humans use building materials to construct shelters.

== cultural and historical viewpoint ==

human cultures have developed many views of the planet. the standard astronomical symbol of earth consists of a cross circumscribed by a circle, , representing the four corners of the world. earth is sometimes personified as a deity. in many cultures it is a mother goddess that is also the primary fertility deity. creation myths in many religions involve the creation of earth by a supernatural deity or deities. the gaia principle, developed mid-20th century, compared earth's environments and life as a single self-regulating organism leading to broad stabilization of the conditions of habitability. images of earth taken from space, particularly during the apollo program, have been credited with altering the way that people viewed the planet that they lived on, emphasising its beauty, uniqueness and apparent fragility.scientific investigation has resulted in several culturally transformative shifts in people's view of the planet. initial belief in a flat earth was gradually displaced in ancient greece by the idea of a spherical earth, which was attributed to both the philosophers pythagoras and parmenides. earth was generally believed to be the center of the universe until the 16th century, when scientists first conclusively demonstrated that it was a moving object, comparable to the other planets in the solar system.it was only during the 19th century that geologists realized earth's age was at least many millions of years. lord kelvin used thermodynamics to estimate the age of earth to be between 20 million and 400 million years in 1864, sparking a vigorous debate on the subject; it was only when radioactivity and radioactive dating were discovered in the late 19th and early 20th centuries that a reliable mechanism for determining earth's age was established, proving the planet to be billions of years old.

== notes ==

== references ==

earth – profile – solar system exploration – nasa
earth observatory – nasa
earth – videos – international space station:
video (01:02) – earth (time-lapse)
video (00:27) – earth and auroras (time-lapse)
interactive 3d visualisation of the sun, earth and moon system
gplates portal (university of sydney)


# Create a wordcloud¶

We use the wordcloud library.

Modify the parameters to get different results (size, max_words, ...)

The Wordcloud library comes with its own list of stopwords. To disable it we set the list of stopwords to be empty.

        stopwords = []
In [54]:
# import the wordcloud library
from wordcloud import WordCloud
# Instantiate a new wordcloud.
wordcloud = WordCloud(
random_state = 8,
normalize_plurals = False,
width = 600,
height= 300,
max_words = 300,
stopwords = [])

# Apply the wordcloud to the text.
wordcloud.generate(text)

Out[54]:
<wordcloud.wordcloud.WordCloud at 0x11d606700>

We use matplotlib to display the word cloud as an image:

In [55]:
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
# create a figure
fig, ax = plt.subplots(1,1, figsize = (9,6))
# add interpolation = bilinear to smooth things out
plt.imshow(wordcloud, interpolation='bilinear')
# and remove the axis
plt.axis("off")

Out[55]:
(-0.5, 599.5, 299.5, -0.5)

We mostly see stopwords: the of by in etc ...

To get rid of these stopwords, we build a new wordcloud, this time without setting the stopword parameter to an empty list.

In [56]:
wordcloud = WordCloud(
random_state = 8,
normalize_plurals = False,
width = 800,
height= 400,
max_words = 300)
wordcloud.generate(text)
# plot
fig, ax = plt.subplots(1,1, figsize = (9,6))
plt.imshow(wordcloud, interpolation='bilinear')
plt.axis("off")

Out[56]:
(-0.5, 799.5, 399.5, -0.5)

A wordcloud which is much more representative of the Earth wikipedia page.

Let's see what we get for another page, ... for instance New York

In [57]:
# Text
text = wikipedia_page('New_York').lower()
# Wordcloud
wordcloud = WordCloud(
random_state = 8,
normalize_plurals = False,
width = 800,
height= 400,
max_words = 400)
wordcloud.generate(text)
# plot
fig, ax = plt.subplots(1,1, figsize = (9,6))
plt.imshow(wordcloud, interpolation='bilinear')
plt.axis("off")

Out[57]:
(-0.5, 799.5, 399.5, -0.5)

You get the gist :)

# Gutenberg project¶

The Gutenberg project is another great source of text.

In [58]:
import requests
# this is the url for Frankenstein, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley
frankenstein_url = 'https://www.gutenberg.org/files/84/84-0.txt'

# this is the url for Alice in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll
alice_url = 'http://www.gutenberg.org/files/11/11-0.txt'
result = requests.get(alice_url)

print(result.text)

ï»¿The Project Gutenberg EBook of Aliceâs Adventures in Wonderland, by Lewis Carroll

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and most
other parts of the world at no cost and with almost no restrictions
whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of
the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at
www.gutenberg.org.  If you are not located in the United States, you'll have
to check the laws of the country where you are located before using this ebook.

Author: Lewis Carroll

Release Date: June 25, 2008 [EBook #11]
[Most recently updated: October 12, 2020]

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8

*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK ALICEâS ADVENTURES IN WONDERLAND ***

Produced by Arthur DiBianca and David Widger

[Illustration]

by Lewis Carroll

THE MILLENNIUM FULCRUM EDITION 3.0

Contents

CHAPTER I.     Down the Rabbit-Hole
CHAPTER II.    The Pool of Tears
CHAPTER III.   A Caucus-Race and a Long Tale
CHAPTER IV.    The Rabbit Sends in a Little Bill
CHAPTER V.     Advice from a Caterpillar
CHAPTER VI.    Pig and Pepper
CHAPTER VIII.  The Queenâs Croquet-Ground
CHAPTER IX.    The Mock Turtleâs Story
CHAPTER XI.    Who Stole the Tarts?
CHAPTER XII.   Aliceâs Evidence

CHAPTER I.
Down the Rabbit-Hole

Alice was beginning to get very tired of sitting by her sister on the
bank, and of having nothing to do: once or twice she had peeped into
the book her sister was reading, but it had no pictures or
conversations in it, âand what is the use of a book,â thought Alice
âwithout pictures or conversations?â

So she was considering in her own mind (as well as she could, for the
hot day made her feel very sleepy and stupid), whether the pleasure of
making a daisy-chain would be worth the trouble of getting up and
picking the daisies, when suddenly a White Rabbit with pink eyes ran
close by her.

There was nothing so _very_ remarkable in that; nor did Alice think it
so _very_ much out of the way to hear the Rabbit say to itself, âOh
dear! Oh dear! I shall be late!â (when she thought it over afterwards,
it occurred to her that she ought to have wondered at this, but at the
time it all seemed quite natural); but when the Rabbit actually _took a
watch out of its waistcoat-pocket_, and looked at it, and then hurried
on, Alice started to her feet, for it flashed across her mind that she
had never before seen a rabbit with either a waistcoat-pocket, or a
watch to take out of it, and burning with curiosity, she ran across the
field after it, and fortunately was just in time to see it pop down a
large rabbit-hole under the hedge.

In another moment down went Alice after it, never once considering how
in the world she was to get out again.

The rabbit-hole went straight on like a tunnel for some way, and then
dipped suddenly down, so suddenly that Alice had not a moment to think
about stopping herself before she found herself falling down a very
deep well.

Either the well was very deep, or she fell very slowly, for she had
plenty of time as she went down to look about her and to wonder what
was going to happen next. First, she tried to look down and make out
what she was coming to, but it was too dark to see anything; then she
looked at the sides of the well, and noticed that they were filled with
cupboards and book-shelves; here and there she saw maps and pictures
hung upon pegs. She took down a jar from one of the shelves as she
passed; it was labelled âORANGE MARMALADEâ, but to her great
disappointment it was empty: she did not like to drop the jar for fear
of killing somebody underneath, so managed to put it into one of the
cupboards as she fell past it.

âWell!â thought Alice to herself, âafter such a fall as this, I shall
think nothing of tumbling down stairs! How brave theyâll all think me
at home! Why, I wouldnât say anything about it, even if I fell off the
top of the house!â (Which was very likely true.)

Down, down, down. Would the fall _never_ come to an end? âI wonder how
many miles Iâve fallen by this time?â she said aloud. âI must be
getting somewhere near the centre of the earth. Let me see: that would
be four thousand miles down, I thinkââ (for, you see, Alice had learnt
several things of this sort in her lessons in the schoolroom, and
though this was not a _very_ good opportunity for showing off her
knowledge, as there was no one to listen to her, still it was good
practice to say it over) ââyes, thatâs about the right distanceâbut
then I wonder what Latitude or Longitude Iâve got to?â (Alice had no
idea what Latitude was, or Longitude either, but thought they were nice
grand words to say.)

Presently she began again. âI wonder if I shall fall right _through_
the earth! How funny itâll seem to come out among the people that walk
with their heads downward! The Antipathies, I thinkââ (she was rather
glad there _was_ no one listening, this time, as it didnât sound at all
the right word) ââbut I shall have to ask them what the name of the
country is, you know. Please, Maâam, is this New Zealand or Australia?â
(and she tried to curtsey as she spokeâfancy _curtseying_ as youâre
falling through the air! Do you think you could manage it?) âAnd what
an ignorant little girl sheâll think me for asking! No, itâll never do
to ask: perhaps I shall see it written up somewhere.â

Down, down, down. There was nothing else to do, so Alice soon began
talking again. âDinahâll miss me very much to-night, I should think!â
(Dinah was the cat.) âI hope theyâll remember her saucer of milk at
tea-time. Dinah my dear! I wish you were down here with me! There are
no mice in the air, Iâm afraid, but you might catch a bat, and thatâs
very like a mouse, you know. But do cats eat bats, I wonder?â And here
Alice began to get rather sleepy, and went on saying to herself, in a
dreamy sort of way, âDo cats eat bats? Do cats eat bats?â and
sometimes, âDo bats eat cats?â for, you see, as she couldnât answer
either question, it didnât much matter which way she put it. She felt
that she was dozing off, and had just begun to dream that she was
walking hand in hand with Dinah, and saying to her very earnestly,
âNow, Dinah, tell me the truth: did you ever eat a bat?â when suddenly,
thump! thump! down she came upon a heap of sticks and dry leaves, and
the fall was over.

Alice was not a bit hurt, and she jumped up on to her feet in a moment:
she looked up, but it was all dark overhead; before her was another
long passage, and the White Rabbit was still in sight, hurrying down
it. There was not a moment to be lost: away went Alice like the wind,
and was just in time to hear it say, as it turned a corner, âOh my ears
and whiskers, how late itâs getting!â She was close behind it when she
turned the corner, but the Rabbit was no longer to be seen: she found
herself in a long, low hall, which was lit up by a row of lamps hanging
from the roof.

There were doors all round the hall, but they were all locked; and when
Alice had been all the way down one side and up the other, trying every
door, she walked sadly down the middle, wondering how she was ever to
get out again.

Suddenly she came upon a little three-legged table, all made of solid
glass; there was nothing on it except a tiny golden key, and Aliceâs
first thought was that it might belong to one of the doors of the hall;
but, alas! either the locks were too large, or the key was too small,
but at any rate it would not open any of them. However, on the second
time round, she came upon a low curtain she had not noticed before, and
behind it was a little door about fifteen inches high: she tried the
little golden key in the lock, and to her great delight it fitted!

Alice opened the door and found that it led into a small passage, not
much larger than a rat-hole: she knelt down and looked along the
passage into the loveliest garden you ever saw. How she longed to get
out of that dark hall, and wander about among those beds of bright
flowers and those cool fountains, but she could not even get her head
through the doorway; âand even if my head would go through,â thought
poor Alice, âit would be of very little use without my shoulders. Oh,
how I wish I could shut up like a telescope! I think I could, if I only
knew how to begin.â For, you see, so many out-of-the-way things had
happened lately, that Alice had begun to think that very few things
indeed were really impossible.

There seemed to be no use in waiting by the little door, so she went
back to the table, half hoping she might find another key on it, or at
any rate a book of rules for shutting people up like telescopes: this
time she found a little bottle on it, (âwhich certainly was not here
before,â said Alice,) and round the neck of the bottle was a paper
label, with the words âDRINK ME,â beautifully printed on it in large
letters.

It was all very well to say âDrink me,â but the wise little Alice was
not going to do _that_ in a hurry. âNo, Iâll look first,â she said,
âand see whether itâs marked â_poison_â or notâ; for she had read
eaten up by wild beasts and other unpleasant things, all because they
_would_ not remember the simple rules their friends had taught them:
such as, that a red-hot poker will burn you if you hold it too long;
and that if you cut your finger _very_ deeply with a knife, it usually
bleeds; and she had never forgotten that, if you drink much from a
bottle marked âpoison,â it is almost certain to disagree with you,
sooner or later.

However, this bottle was _not_ marked âpoison,â so Alice ventured to
taste it, and finding it very nice, (it had, in fact, a sort of mixed
flavour of cherry-tart, custard, pine-apple, roast turkey, toffee, and
hot buttered toast,) she very soon finished it off.

*      *      *      *      *      *      *

*      *      *      *      *      *

*      *      *      *      *      *      *

âWhat a curious feeling!â said Alice; âI must be shutting up like a
telescope.â

And so it was indeed: she was now only ten inches high, and her face
brightened up at the thought that she was now the right size for going
through the little door into that lovely garden. First, however, she
waited for a few minutes to see if she was going to shrink any further:
said Alice to herself, âin my going out altogether, like a candle. I
wonder what I should be like then?â And she tried to fancy what the
flame of a candle is like after the candle is blown out, for she could
not remember ever having seen such a thing.

After a while, finding that nothing more happened, she decided on going
into the garden at once; but, alas for poor Alice! when she got to the
door, she found she had forgotten the little golden key, and when she
went back to the table for it, she found she could not possibly reach
it: she could see it quite plainly through the glass, and she tried her
best to climb up one of the legs of the table, but it was too slippery;
and when she had tired herself out with trying, the poor little thing
sat down and cried.

âCome, thereâs no use in crying like that!â said Alice to herself,
rather sharply; âI advise you to leave off this minute!â She generally
gave herself very good advice, (though she very seldom followed it),
and sometimes she scolded herself so severely as to bring tears into
her eyes; and once she remembered trying to box her own ears for having
cheated herself in a game of croquet she was playing against herself,
for this curious child was very fond of pretending to be two people.
âBut itâs no use now,â thought poor Alice, âto pretend to be two
people! Why, thereâs hardly enough of me left to make _one_ respectable
person!â

Soon her eye fell on a little glass box that was lying under the table:
she opened it, and found in it a very small cake, on which the words
âEAT MEâ were beautifully marked in currants. âWell, Iâll eat it,â said
Alice, âand if it makes me grow larger, I can reach the key; and if it
makes me grow smaller, I can creep under the door; so either way Iâll
get into the garden, and I donât care which happens!â

She ate a little bit, and said anxiously to herself, âWhich way? Which
way?â, holding her hand on the top of her head to feel which way it was
growing, and she was quite surprised to find that she remained the same
size: to be sure, this generally happens when one eats cake, but Alice
had got so much into the way of expecting nothing but out-of-the-way
things to happen, that it seemed quite dull and stupid for life to go
on in the common way.

So she set to work, and very soon finished off the cake.

*      *      *      *      *      *      *

*      *      *      *      *      *

*      *      *      *      *      *      *

CHAPTER II.
The Pool of Tears

âCuriouser and curiouser!â cried Alice (she was so much surprised, that
for the moment she quite forgot how to speak good English); ânow Iâm
opening out like the largest telescope that ever was! Good-bye, feet!â
(for when she looked down at her feet, they seemed to be almost out of
sight, they were getting so far off). âOh, my poor little feet, I
wonder who will put on your shoes and stockings for you now, dears? Iâm
sure _I_ shanât be able! I shall be a great deal too far off to trouble
myself about you: you must manage the best way you can;âbut I must be
kind to them,â thought Alice, âor perhaps they wonât walk the way I
want to go! Let me see: Iâll give them a new pair of boots every
Christmas.â

And she went on planning to herself how she would manage it. âThey must
go by the carrier,â she thought; âand how funny itâll seem, sending
presents to oneâs own feet! And how odd the directions will look!

_Aliceâs Right Foot, Esq., Hearthrug, near the Fender,_ (_with
Aliceâs love_).

Oh dear, what nonsense Iâm talking!â

Just then her head struck against the roof of the hall: in fact she was
now more than nine feet high, and she at once took up the little golden
key and hurried off to the garden door.

Poor Alice! It was as much as she could do, lying down on one side, to
look through into the garden with one eye; but to get through was more
hopeless than ever: she sat down and began to cry again.

âYou ought to be ashamed of yourself,â said Alice, âa great girl like
you,â (she might well say this), âto go on crying in this way! Stop
this moment, I tell you!â But she went on all the same, shedding
gallons of tears, until there was a large pool all round her, about
four inches deep and reaching half down the hall.

After a time she heard a little pattering of feet in the distance, and
she hastily dried her eyes to see what was coming. It was the White
Rabbit returning, splendidly dressed, with a pair of white kid gloves
in one hand and a large fan in the other: he came trotting along in a
great hurry, muttering to himself as he came, âOh! the Duchess, the
Duchess! Oh! wonât she be savage if Iâve kept her waiting!â Alice felt
so desperate that she was ready to ask help of any one; so, when the
Rabbit came near her, she began, in a low, timid voice, âIf you please,
sirââ The Rabbit started violently, dropped the white kid gloves and
the fan, and skurried away into the darkness as hard as he could go.

Alice took up the fan and gloves, and, as the hall was very hot, she
kept fanning herself all the time she went on talking: âDear, dear! How
queer everything is to-day! And yesterday things went on just as usual.
I wonder if Iâve been changed in the night? Let me think: was I the
same when I got up this morning? I almost think I can remember feeling
a little different. But if Iâm not the same, the next question is, Who
in the world am I? Ah, _thatâs_ the great puzzle!â And she began
thinking over all the children she knew that were of the same age as
herself, to see if she could have been changed for any of them.

âIâm sure Iâm not Ada,â she said, âfor her hair goes in such long
ringlets, and mine doesnât go in ringlets at all; and Iâm sure I canât
be Mabel, for I know all sorts of things, and she, oh! she knows such a
very little! Besides, _sheâs_ she, and _Iâm_ I, andâoh dear, how
puzzling it all is! Iâll try if I know all the things I used to know.
Let me see: four times five is twelve, and four times six is thirteen,
and four times seven isâoh dear! I shall never get to twenty at that
rate! However, the Multiplication Table doesnât signify: letâs try
Geography. London is the capital of Paris, and Paris is the capital of
Rome, and Romeâno, _thatâs_ all wrong, Iâm certain! I must have been
changed for Mabel! Iâll try and say â_How doth the little_âââ and she
crossed her hands on her lap as if she were saying lessons, and began
to repeat it, but her voice sounded hoarse and strange, and the words
did not come the same as they used to do:â

âHow doth the little crocodile
Improve his shining tail,
And pour the waters of the Nile
On every golden scale!

âHow cheerfully he seems to grin,
And welcome little fishes in
With gently smiling jaws!â

âIâm sure those are not the right words,â said poor Alice, and her eyes
filled with tears again as she went on, âI must be Mabel after all, and
I shall have to go and live in that poky little house, and have next to
no toys to play with, and oh! ever so many lessons to learn! No, Iâve
made up my mind about it; if Iâm Mabel, Iâll stay down here! Itâll be
no use their putting their heads down and saying âCome up again, dear!â
I shall only look up and say âWho am I then? Tell me that first, and
then, if I like being that person, Iâll come up: if not, Iâll stay down
here till Iâm somebody elseââbut, oh dear!â cried Alice, with a sudden
burst of tears, âI do wish they _would_ put their heads down! I am so
_very_ tired of being all alone here!â

As she said this she looked down at her hands, and was surprised to see
that she had put on one of the Rabbitâs little white kid gloves while
she was talking. âHow _can_ I have done that?â she thought. âI must be
growing small again.â She got up and went to the table to measure
herself by it, and found that, as nearly as she could guess, she was
now about two feet high, and was going on shrinking rapidly: she soon
found out that the cause of this was the fan she was holding, and she
dropped it hastily, just in time to avoid shrinking away altogether.

âThat _was_ a narrow escape!â said Alice, a good deal frightened at the
sudden change, but very glad to find herself still in existence; âand
now for the garden!â and she ran with all speed back to the little
door: but, alas! the little door was shut again, and the little golden
key was lying on the glass table as before, âand things are worse than
ever,â thought the poor child, âfor I never was so small as this
before, never! And I declare itâs too bad, that it is!â

As she said these words her foot slipped, and in another moment,
splash! she was up to her chin in salt water. Her first idea was that
she had somehow fallen into the sea, âand in that case I can go back by
railway,â she said to herself. (Alice had been to the seaside once in
her life, and had come to the general conclusion, that wherever you go
to on the English coast you find a number of bathing machines in the
sea, some children digging in the sand with wooden spades, then a row
of lodging houses, and behind them a railway station.) However, she
soon made out that she was in the pool of tears which she had wept when
she was nine feet high.

âI wish I hadnât cried so much!â said Alice, as she swam about, trying
to find her way out. âI shall be punished for it now, I suppose, by
being drowned in my own tears! That _will_ be a queer thing, to be
sure! However, everything is queer to-day.â

Just then she heard something splashing about in the pool a little way
off, and she swam nearer to make out what it was: at first she thought
it must be a walrus or hippopotamus, but then she remembered how small
she was now, and she soon made out that it was only a mouse that had
slipped in like herself.

âWould it be of any use, now,â thought Alice, âto speak to this mouse?
Everything is so out-of-the-way down here, that I should think very
likely it can talk: at any rate, thereâs no harm in trying.â So she
began: âO Mouse, do you know the way out of this pool? I am very tired
of swimming about here, O Mouse!â (Alice thought this must be the right
way of speaking to a mouse: she had never done such a thing before, but
she remembered having seen in her brotherâs Latin Grammar, âA mouseâof
a mouseâto a mouseâa mouseâO mouse!â) The Mouse looked at her rather
inquisitively, and seemed to her to wink with one of its little eyes,
but it said nothing.

âPerhaps it doesnât understand English,â thought Alice; âI daresay itâs
a French mouse, come over with William the Conqueror.â (For, with all
her knowledge of history, Alice had no very clear notion how long ago
anything had happened.) So she began again: âOÃ¹ est ma chatte?â which
was the first sentence in her French lesson-book. The Mouse gave a
sudden leap out of the water, and seemed to quiver all over with
fright. âOh, I beg your pardon!â cried Alice hastily, afraid that she
had hurt the poor animalâs feelings. âI quite forgot you didnât like
cats.â

âNot like cats!â cried the Mouse, in a shrill, passionate voice. âWould
_you_ like cats if you were me?â

âWell, perhaps not,â said Alice in a soothing tone: âdonât be angry
about it. And yet I wish I could show you our cat Dinah: I think youâd
take a fancy to cats if you could only see her. She is such a dear
quiet thing,â Alice went on, half to herself, as she swam lazily about
in the pool, âand she sits purring so nicely by the fire, licking her
paws and washing her faceâand she is such a nice soft thing to
nurseâand sheâs such a capital one for catching miceâoh, I beg your
pardon!â cried Alice again, for this time the Mouse was bristling all
over, and she felt certain it must be really offended. âWe wonât talk
about her any more if youâd rather not.â

âWe indeed!â cried the Mouse, who was trembling down to the end of his
tail. âAs if _I_ would talk on such a subject! Our family always
_hated_ cats: nasty, low, vulgar things! Donât let me hear the name
again!â

âI wonât indeed!â said Alice, in a great hurry to change the subject of
conversation. âAre youâare you fondâofâof dogs?â The Mouse did not
answer, so Alice went on eagerly: âThere is such a nice little dog near
our house I should like to show you! A little bright-eyed terrier, you
know, with oh, such long curly brown hair! And itâll fetch things when
you throw them, and itâll sit up and beg for its dinner, and all sorts
of thingsâI canât remember half of themâand it belongs to a farmer, you
know, and he says itâs so useful, itâs worth a hundred pounds! He says
it kills all the rats andâoh dear!â cried Alice in a sorrowful tone,
âIâm afraid Iâve offended it again!â For the Mouse was swimming away
from her as hard as it could go, and making quite a commotion in the
pool as it went.

So she called softly after it, âMouse dear! Do come back again, and we
wonât talk about cats or dogs either, if you donât like them!â When the
Mouse heard this, it turned round and swam slowly back to her: its face
was quite pale (with passion, Alice thought), and it said in a low
trembling voice, âLet us get to the shore, and then Iâll tell you my
history, and youâll understand why it is I hate cats and dogs.â

It was high time to go, for the pool was getting quite crowded with the
birds and animals that had fallen into it: there were a Duck and a
Dodo, a Lory and an Eaglet, and several other curious creatures. Alice
led the way, and the whole party swam to the shore.

CHAPTER III.
A Caucus-Race and a Long Tale

They were indeed a queer-looking party that assembled on the bankâthe
birds with draggled feathers, the animals with their fur clinging close
to them, and all dripping wet, cross, and uncomfortable.

The first question of course was, how to get dry again: they had a
natural to Alice to find herself talking familiarly with them, as if
she had known them all her life. Indeed, she had quite a long argument
with the Lory, who at last turned sulky, and would only say, âI am
older than you, and must know better;â and this Alice would not allow
without knowing how old it was, and, as the Lory positively refused to
tell its age, there was no more to be said.

At last the Mouse, who seemed to be a person of authority among them,
called out, âSit down, all of you, and listen to me! _Iâll_ soon make
you dry enough!â They all sat down at once, in a large ring, with the
Mouse in the middle. Alice kept her eyes anxiously fixed on it, for she
felt sure she would catch a bad cold if she did not get dry very soon.

âAhem!â said the Mouse with an important air, âare you all ready? This
is the driest thing I know. Silence all round, if you please! âWilliam
the Conqueror, whose cause was favoured by the pope, was soon submitted
to by the English, who wanted leaders, and had been of late much
accustomed to usurpation and conquest. Edwin and Morcar, the earls of
Mercia and Northumbriaâââ

âUgh!â said the Lory, with a shiver.

âI beg your pardon!â said the Mouse, frowning, but very politely: âDid
you speak?â

âNot I!â said the Lory hastily.

âI thought you did,â said the Mouse. ââI proceed. âEdwin and Morcar,
the earls of Mercia and Northumbria, declared for him: and even
Stigand, the patriotic archbishop of Canterbury, found it advisableâââ

âFound _what_?â said the Duck.

âFound _it_,â the Mouse replied rather crossly: âof course you know
what âitâ means.â

âI know what âitâ means well enough, when _I_ find a thing,â said the
Duck: âitâs generally a frog or a worm. The question is, what did the
archbishop find?â

The Mouse did not notice this question, but hurriedly went on, âââfound
it advisable to go with Edgar Atheling to meet William and offer him
the crown. Williamâs conduct at first was moderate. But the insolence
of his Normansââ How are you getting on now, my dear?â it continued,
turning to Alice as it spoke.

âAs wet as ever,â said Alice in a melancholy tone: âit doesnât seem to
dry me at all.â

âIn that case,â said the Dodo solemnly, rising to its feet, âI move
remediesââ

âSpeak English!â said the Eaglet. âI donât know the meaning of half
those long words, and, whatâs more, I donât believe you do either!â And
the Eaglet bent down its head to hide a smile: some of the other birds
tittered audibly.

âWhat I was going to say,â said the Dodo in an offended tone, âwas,
that the best thing to get us dry would be a Caucus-race.â

âWhat _is_ a Caucus-race?â said Alice; not that she wanted much to
know, but the Dodo had paused as if it thought that _somebody_ ought to
speak, and no one else seemed inclined to say anything.

âWhy,â said the Dodo, âthe best way to explain it is to do it.â (And,
as you might like to try the thing yourself, some winter day, I will
tell you how the Dodo managed it.)

First it marked out a race-course, in a sort of circle, (âthe exact
shape doesnât matter,â it said,) and then all the party were placed
along the course, here and there. There was no âOne, two, three, and
away,â but they began running when they liked, and left off when they
liked, so that it was not easy to know when the race was over. However,
when they had been running half an hour or so, and were quite dry
again, the Dodo suddenly called out âThe race is over!â and they all
crowded round it, panting, and asking, âBut who has won?â

This question the Dodo could not answer without a great deal of
thought, and it sat for a long time with one finger pressed upon its
forehead (the position in which you usually see Shakespeare, in the
pictures of him), while the rest waited in silence. At last the Dodo
said, â_Everybody_ has won, and all must have prizes.â

âBut who is to give the prizes?â quite a chorus of voices asked.

âWhy, _she_, of course,â said the Dodo, pointing to Alice with one
finger; and the whole party at once crowded round her, calling out in a
confused way, âPrizes! Prizes!â

Alice had no idea what to do, and in despair she put her hand in her
pocket, and pulled out a box of comfits, (luckily the salt water had
not got into it), and handed them round as prizes. There was exactly
one a-piece, all round.

âBut she must have a prize herself, you know,â said the Mouse.

âOf course,â the Dodo replied very gravely. âWhat else have you got in
your pocket?â he went on, turning to Alice.

âOnly a thimble,â said Alice sadly.

âHand it over here,â said the Dodo.

Then they all crowded round her once more, while the Dodo solemnly
presented the thimble, saying âWe beg your acceptance of this elegant
thimble;â and, when it had finished this short speech, they all
cheered.

Alice thought the whole thing very absurd, but they all looked so grave
that she did not dare to laugh; and, as she could not think of anything
to say, she simply bowed, and took the thimble, looking as solemn as
she could.

The next thing was to eat the comfits: this caused some noise and
confusion, as the large birds complained that they could not taste
theirs, and the small ones choked and had to be patted on the back.
However, it was over at last, and they sat down again in a ring, and
begged the Mouse to tell them something more.

âYou promised to tell me your history, you know,â said Alice, âand why
it is you hateâC and D,â she added in a whisper, half afraid that it
would be offended again.

âMine is a long and a sad tale!â said the Mouse, turning to Alice, and
sighing.

âIt _is_ a long tail, certainly,â said Alice, looking down with wonder
at the Mouseâs tail; âbut why do you call it sad?â And she kept on
puzzling about it while the Mouse was speaking, so that her idea of the
tale was something like this:â

âFury said to a mouse, That he met in the house, âLet us both
go to law: _I_ will prosecute _you_.âCome, Iâll take no
denial; We must have a trial: For really this morning Iâve
nothing to do.â Said the mouse to the cur, âSuch a trial, dear
sir, With no jury or judge, would be wasting our breath.â
âIâll be judge, Iâll be jury,â Said cunning old Fury: âIâll
try the whole cause, and condemn you to death.ââ

âYou are not attending!â said the Mouse to Alice severely. âWhat are
you thinking of?â

âI beg your pardon,â said Alice very humbly: âyou had got to the fifth
bend, I think?â

âI had _not!_â cried the Mouse, sharply and very angrily.

âA knot!â said Alice, always ready to make herself useful, and looking
anxiously about her. âOh, do let me help to undo it!â

âI shall do nothing of the sort,â said the Mouse, getting up and
walking away. âYou insult me by talking such nonsense!â

âI didnât mean it!â pleaded poor Alice. âBut youâre so easily offended,
you know!â

The Mouse only growled in reply.

âPlease come back and finish your story!â Alice called after it; and
the others all joined in chorus, âYes, please do!â but the Mouse only
shook its head impatiently, and walked a little quicker.

âWhat a pity it wouldnât stay!â sighed the Lory, as soon as it was
quite out of sight; and an old Crab took the opportunity of saying to
her daughter âAh, my dear! Let this be a lesson to you never to lose
_your_ temper!â âHold your tongue, Ma!â said the young Crab, a little
snappishly. âYouâre enough to try the patience of an oyster!â

âI wish I had our Dinah here, I know I do!â said Alice aloud,
addressing nobody in particular. âSheâd soon fetch it back!â

âAnd who is Dinah, if I might venture to ask the question?â said the
Lory.

Alice replied eagerly, for she was always ready to talk about her pet:
âDinahâs our cat. And sheâs such a capital one for catching mice you
canât think! And oh, I wish you could see her after the birds! Why,
sheâll eat a little bird as soon as look at it!â

This speech caused a remarkable sensation among the party. Some of the
birds hurried off at once: one old Magpie began wrapping itself up very
carefully, remarking, âI really must be getting home; the night-air
doesnât suit my throat!â and a Canary called out in a trembling voice
to its children, âCome away, my dears! Itâs high time you were all in
bed!â On various pretexts they all moved off, and Alice was soon left
alone.

âI wish I hadnât mentioned Dinah!â she said to herself in a melancholy
tone. âNobody seems to like her, down here, and Iâm sure sheâs the best
cat in the world! Oh, my dear Dinah! I wonder if I shall ever see you
any more!â And here poor Alice began to cry again, for she felt very
lonely and low-spirited. In a little while, however, she again heard a
little pattering of footsteps in the distance, and she looked up
eagerly, half hoping that the Mouse had changed his mind, and was
coming back to finish his story.

CHAPTER IV.
The Rabbit Sends in a Little Bill

It was the White Rabbit, trotting slowly back again, and looking
anxiously about as it went, as if it had lost something; and she heard
it muttering to itself âThe Duchess! The Duchess! Oh my dear paws! Oh
my fur and whiskers! Sheâll get me executed, as sure as ferrets are
ferrets! Where _can_ I have dropped them, I wonder?â Alice guessed in a
moment that it was looking for the fan and the pair of white kid
gloves, and she very good-naturedly began hunting about for them, but
they were nowhere to be seenâeverything seemed to have changed since
her swim in the pool, and the great hall, with the glass table and the

Very soon the Rabbit noticed Alice, as she went hunting about, and
called out to her in an angry tone, âWhy, Mary Ann, what _are_ you
doing out here? Run home this moment, and fetch me a pair of gloves and
a fan! Quick, now!â And Alice was so much frightened that she ran off
at once in the direction it pointed to, without trying to explain the

âHe took me for his housemaid,â she said to herself as she ran. âHow
surprised heâll be when he finds out who I am! But Iâd better take him
his fan and glovesâthat is, if I can find them.â As she said this, she
came upon a neat little house, on the door of which was a bright brass
plate with the name âW. RABBIT,â engraved upon it. She went in without
knocking, and hurried upstairs, in great fear lest she should meet the
real Mary Ann, and be turned out of the house before she had found the
fan and gloves.

âHow queer it seems,â Alice said to herself, âto be going messages for
a rabbit! I suppose Dinahâll be sending me on messages next!â And she
began fancying the sort of thing that would happen: ââMiss Alice! Come
here directly, and get ready for your walk!â âComing in a minute,
nurse! But Iâve got to see that the mouse doesnât get out.â Only I
donât think,â Alice went on, âthat theyâd let Dinah stop in the house
if it began ordering people about like that!â

By this time she had found her way into a tidy little room with a table
in the window, and on it (as she had hoped) a fan and two or three
pairs of tiny white kid gloves: she took up the fan and a pair of the
gloves, and was just going to leave the room, when her eye fell upon a
little bottle that stood near the looking-glass. There was no label
this time with the words âDRINK ME,â but nevertheless she uncorked it
and put it to her lips. âI know _something_ interesting is sure to
happen,â she said to herself, âwhenever I eat or drink anything; so
Iâll just see what this bottle does. I do hope itâll make me grow large
again, for really Iâm quite tired of being such a tiny little thing!â

It did so indeed, and much sooner than she had expected: before she had
drunk half the bottle, she found her head pressing against the ceiling,
and had to stoop to save her neck from being broken. She hastily put
down the bottle, saying to herself âThatâs quite enoughâI hope I shanât
grow any moreâAs it is, I canât get out at the doorâI do wish I hadnât
drunk quite so much!â

Alas! it was too late to wish that! She went on growing, and growing,
and very soon had to kneel down on the floor: in another minute there
was not even room for this, and she tried the effect of lying down with
one elbow against the door, and the other arm curled round her head.
Still she went on growing, and, as a last resource, she put one arm out
of the window, and one foot up the chimney, and said to herself âNow I
can do no more, whatever happens. What _will_ become of me?â

Luckily for Alice, the little magic bottle had now had its full effect,
and she grew no larger: still it was very uncomfortable, and, as there
seemed to be no sort of chance of her ever getting out of the room
again, no wonder she felt unhappy.

âIt was much pleasanter at home,â thought poor Alice, âwhen one wasnât
always growing larger and smaller, and being ordered about by mice and
rabbits. I almost wish I hadnât gone down that rabbit-holeâand yetâand
yetâitâs rather curious, you know, this sort of life! I do wonder what
_can_ have happened to me! When I used to read fairy-tales, I fancied
that kind of thing never happened, and now here I am in the middle of
one! There ought to be a book written about me, that there ought! And
when I grow up, Iâll write oneâbut Iâm grown up now,â she added in a
sorrowful tone; âat least thereâs no room to grow up any more _here_.â

âBut then,â thought Alice, âshall I _never_ get any older than I am
now? Thatâll be a comfort, one wayânever to be an old womanâbut
thenâalways to have lessons to learn! Oh, I shouldnât like _that!_â

âOh, you foolish Alice!â she answered herself. âHow can you learn
lessons in here? Why, thereâs hardly room for _you_, and no room at all
for any lesson-books!â

And so she went on, taking first one side and then the other, and
making quite a conversation of it altogether; but after a few minutes
she heard a voice outside, and stopped to listen.

âMary Ann! Mary Ann!â said the voice. âFetch me my gloves this moment!â
Then came a little pattering of feet on the stairs. Alice knew it was
the Rabbit coming to look for her, and she trembled till she shook the
house, quite forgetting that she was now about a thousand times as
large as the Rabbit, and had no reason to be afraid of it.

Presently the Rabbit came up to the door, and tried to open it; but, as
the door opened inwards, and Aliceâs elbow was pressed hard against it,
that attempt proved a failure. Alice heard it say to itself âThen Iâll
go round and get in at the window.â

â_That_ you wonât!â thought Alice, and, after waiting till she fancied
she heard the Rabbit just under the window, she suddenly spread out her
hand, and made a snatch in the air. She did not get hold of anything,
but she heard a little shriek and a fall, and a crash of broken glass,
from which she concluded that it was just possible it had fallen into a
cucumber-frame, or something of the sort.

Next came an angry voiceâthe RabbitâsââPat! Pat! Where are you?â And
then a voice she had never heard before, âSure then Iâm here! Digging
for apples, yer honour!â

âDigging for apples, indeed!â said the Rabbit angrily. âHere! Come and
help me out of _this!_â (Sounds of more broken glass.)

âNow tell me, Pat, whatâs that in the window?â

âSure, itâs an arm, yer honour!â (He pronounced it âarrum.â)

âAn arm, you goose! Who ever saw one that size? Why, it fills the whole
window!â

âSure, it does, yer honour: but itâs an arm for all that.â

âWell, itâs got no business there, at any rate: go and take it away!â

There was a long silence after this, and Alice could only hear whispers
now and then; such as, âSure, I donât like it, yer honour, at all, at
all!â âDo as I tell you, you coward!â and at last she spread out her
hand again, and made another snatch in the air. This time there were
_two_ little shrieks, and more sounds of broken glass. âWhat a number
of cucumber-frames there must be!â thought Alice. âI wonder what
theyâll do next! As for pulling me out of the window, I only wish they
_could!_ Iâm sure _I_ donât want to stay in here any longer!â

She waited for some time without hearing anything more: at last came a
rumbling of little cartwheels, and the sound of a good many voices all
talking together: she made out the words: âWhereâs the other
fetch it here, lad!âHere, put âem up at this cornerâNo, tie âem
together firstâthey donât reach half high enough yetâOh! theyâll do
well enough; donât be particularâHere, Bill! catch hold of this
ropeâWill the roof bear?âMind that loose slateâOh, itâs coming down!
Heads below!â (a loud crash)ââNow, who did that?âIt was Bill, I
fancyâWhoâs to go down the chimney?âNay, _I_ shanât! _You_ do
it!â_That_ I wonât, then!âBillâs to go downâHere, Bill! the master says
youâre to go down the chimney!â

âOh! So Billâs got to come down the chimney, has he?â said Alice to
herself. âShy, they seem to put everything upon Bill! I wouldnât be in
Billâs place for a good deal: this fireplace is narrow, to be sure; but
I _think_ I can kick a little!â

She drew her foot as far down the chimney as she could, and waited till
she heard a little animal (she couldnât guess of what sort it was)
scratching and scrambling about in the chimney close above her: then,
saying to herself âThis is Bill,â she gave one sharp kick, and waited
to see what would happen next.

The first thing she heard was a general chorus of âThere goes Bill!â
then the Rabbitâs voice alongââCatch him, you by the hedge!â then
silence, and then another confusion of voicesââHold up his headâBrandy
nowâDonât choke himâHow was it, old fellow? What happened to you? Tell

Last came a little feeble, squeaking voice, (âThatâs Bill,â thought
Alice,) âWell, I hardly knowâNo more, thank ye; Iâm better nowâbut Iâm
a deal too flustered to tell youâall I know is, something comes at me
like a Jack-in-the-box, and up I goes like a sky-rocket!â

âSo you did, old fellow!â said the others.

âWe must burn the house down!â said the Rabbitâs voice; and Alice
called out as loud as she could, âIf you do, Iâll set Dinah at you!â

There was a dead silence instantly, and Alice thought to herself, âI
wonder what they _will_ do next! If they had any sense, theyâd take the
roof off.â After a minute or two, they began moving about again, and
Alice heard the Rabbit say, âA barrowful will do, to begin with.â

âA barrowful of _what?_â thought Alice; but she had not long to doubt,
for the next moment a shower of little pebbles came rattling in at the
window, and some of them hit her in the face. âIâll put a stop to
this,â she said to herself, and shouted out, âYouâd better not do that
again!â which produced another dead silence.

Alice noticed with some surprise that the pebbles were all turning into
little cakes as they lay on the floor, and a bright idea came into her
head. âIf I eat one of these cakes,â she thought, âitâs sure to make
_some_ change in my size; and as it canât possibly make me larger, it
must make me smaller, I suppose.â

So she swallowed one of the cakes, and was delighted to find that she
began shrinking directly. As soon as she was small enough to get
through the door, she ran out of the house, and found quite a crowd of
little animals and birds waiting outside. The poor little Lizard, Bill,
was in the middle, being held up by two guinea-pigs, who were giving it
something out of a bottle. They all made a rush at Alice the moment she
appeared; but she ran off as hard as she could, and soon found herself
safe in a thick wood.

âThe first thing Iâve got to do,â said Alice to herself, as she
wandered about in the wood, âis to grow to my right size again; and the
second thing is to find my way into that lovely garden. I think that
will be the best plan.â

It sounded an excellent plan, no doubt, and very neatly and simply
arranged; the only difficulty was, that she had not the smallest idea
how to set about it; and while she was peering about anxiously among
the trees, a little sharp bark just over her head made her look up in a
great hurry.

An enormous puppy was looking down at her with large round eyes, and
feebly stretching out one paw, trying to touch her. âPoor little
thing!â said Alice, in a coaxing tone, and she tried hard to whistle to
it; but she was terribly frightened all the time at the thought that it
might be hungry, in which case it would be very likely to eat her up in
spite of all her coaxing.

Hardly knowing what she did, she picked up a little bit of stick, and
held it out to the puppy; whereupon the puppy jumped into the air off
all its feet at once, with a yelp of delight, and rushed at the stick,
and made believe to worry it; then Alice dodged behind a great thistle,
to keep herself from being run over; and the moment she appeared on the
other side, the puppy made another rush at the stick, and tumbled head
over heels in its hurry to get hold of it; then Alice, thinking it was
very like having a game of play with a cart-horse, and expecting every
moment to be trampled under its feet, ran round the thistle again; then
the puppy began a series of short charges at the stick, running a very
little way forwards each time and a long way back, and barking hoarsely
all the while, till at last it sat down a good way off, panting, with
its tongue hanging out of its mouth, and its great eyes half shut.

This seemed to Alice a good opportunity for making her escape; so she
set off at once, and ran till she was quite tired and out of breath,
and till the puppyâs bark sounded quite faint in the distance.

âAnd yet what a dear little puppy it was!â said Alice, as she leant
against a buttercup to rest herself, and fanned herself with one of the
leaves: âI should have liked teaching it tricks very much, ifâif Iâd
only been the right size to do it! Oh dear! Iâd nearly forgotten that
Iâve got to grow up again! Let me seeâhow _is_ it to be managed? I
suppose I ought to eat or drink something or other; but the great
question is, what?â

The great question certainly was, what? Alice looked all round her at
the flowers and the blades of grass, but she did not see anything that
looked like the right thing to eat or drink under the circumstances.
There was a large mushroom growing near her, about the same height as
herself; and when she had looked under it, and on both sides of it, and
behind it, it occurred to her that she might as well look and see what
was on the top of it.

She stretched herself up on tiptoe, and peeped over the edge of the
mushroom, and her eyes immediately met those of a large blue
caterpillar, that was sitting on the top with its arms folded, quietly
smoking a long hookah, and taking not the smallest notice of her or of
anything else.

CHAPTER V.

The Caterpillar and Alice looked at each other for some time in
silence: at last the Caterpillar took the hookah out of its mouth, and
addressed her in a languid, sleepy voice.

âWho are _you?_â said the Caterpillar.

This was not an encouraging opening for a conversation. Alice replied,
rather shyly, âIâI hardly know, sir, just at presentâat least I know
who I _was_ when I got up this morning, but I think I must have been
changed several times since then.â

âWhat do you mean by that?â said the Caterpillar sternly. âExplain
yourself!â

âI canât explain _myself_, Iâm afraid, sir,â said Alice, âbecause Iâm
not myself, you see.â

âI donât see,â said the Caterpillar.

âIâm afraid I canât put it more clearly,â Alice replied very politely,
âfor I canât understand it myself to begin with; and being so many
different sizes in a day is very confusing.â

âIt isnât,â said the Caterpillar.

âWell, perhaps you havenât found it so yet,â said Alice; âbut when you
have to turn into a chrysalisâyou will some day, you knowâand then
after that into a butterfly, I should think youâll feel it a little
queer, wonât you?â

âNot a bit,â said the Caterpillar.

âWell, perhaps your feelings may be different,â said Alice; âall I know
is, it would feel very queer to _me_.â

âYou!â said the Caterpillar contemptuously. âWho are _you?_â

Which brought them back again to the beginning of the conversation.
Alice felt a little irritated at the Caterpillarâs making such _very_
short remarks, and she drew herself up and said, very gravely, âI
think, you ought to tell me who _you_ are, first.â

âWhy?â said the Caterpillar.

Here was another puzzling question; and as Alice could not think of any
good reason, and as the Caterpillar seemed to be in a _very_ unpleasant
state of mind, she turned away.

âCome back!â the Caterpillar called after her. âIâve something
important to say!â

This sounded promising, certainly: Alice turned and came back again.

âKeep your temper,â said the Caterpillar.

âIs that all?â said Alice, swallowing down her anger as well as she
could.

âNo,â said the Caterpillar.

Alice thought she might as well wait, as she had nothing else to do,
and perhaps after all it might tell her something worth hearing. For
some minutes it puffed away without speaking, but at last it unfolded
its arms, took the hookah out of its mouth again, and said, âSo you
think youâre changed, do you?â

âIâm afraid I am, sir,â said Alice; âI canât remember things as I
usedâand I donât keep the same size for ten minutes together!â

âCanât remember _what_ things?â said the Caterpillar.

âWell, Iâve tried to say âHow doth the little busy bee,â but it all
came different!â Alice replied in a very melancholy voice.

âRepeat, â_You are old, Father William_,ââ said the Caterpillar.

Alice folded her hands, and began:â

âYou are old, Father William,â the young man said,
âAnd your hair has become very white;
Do you think, at your age, it is right?â

âIn my youth,â Father William replied to his son,
âI feared it might injure the brain;
But, now that Iâm perfectly sure I have none,
Why, I do it again and again.â

âYou are old,â said the youth, âas I mentioned before,
And have grown most uncommonly fat;
Yet you turned a back-somersault in at the doorâ
Pray, what is the reason of that?â

âIn my youth,â said the sage, as he shook his grey locks,
âI kept all my limbs very supple
By the use of this ointmentâone shilling the boxâ
Allow me to sell you a couple?â

âYou are old,â said the youth, âand your jaws are too weak
For anything tougher than suet;
Yet you finished the goose, with the bones and the beakâ
Pray, how did you manage to do it?â

âIn my youth,â said his father, âI took to the law,
And argued each case with my wife;
And the muscular strength, which it gave to my jaw,
Has lasted the rest of my life.â

âYou are old,â said the youth, âone would hardly suppose
Yet you balanced an eel on the end of your noseâ
What made you so awfully clever?â

âI have answered three questions, and that is enough,â
Said his father; âdonât give yourself airs!
Do you think I can listen all day to such stuff?
Be off, or Iâll kick you down stairs!â

âThat is not said right,â said the Caterpillar.

âNot _quite_ right, Iâm afraid,â said Alice, timidly; âsome of the
words have got altered.â

âIt is wrong from beginning to end,â said the Caterpillar decidedly,
and there was silence for some minutes.

The Caterpillar was the first to speak.

âWhat size do you want to be?â it asked.

âOh, Iâm not particular as to size,â Alice hastily replied; âonly one
doesnât like changing so often, you know.â

âI _donât_ know,â said the Caterpillar.

Alice said nothing: she had never been so much contradicted in her life
before, and she felt that she was losing her temper.

âAre you content now?â said the Caterpillar.

âWell, I should like to be a _little_ larger, sir, if you wouldnât
mind,â said Alice: âthree inches is such a wretched height to be.â

âIt is a very good height indeed!â said the Caterpillar angrily,
rearing itself upright as it spoke (it was exactly three inches high).

âBut Iâm not used to it!â pleaded poor Alice in a piteous tone. And she
thought of herself, âI wish the creatures wouldnât be so easily
offended!â

âYouâll get used to it in time,â said the Caterpillar; and it put the
hookah into its mouth and began smoking again.

This time Alice waited patiently until it chose to speak again. In a
minute or two the Caterpillar took the hookah out of its mouth and
yawned once or twice, and shook itself. Then it got down off the
mushroom, and crawled away in the grass, merely remarking as it went,
âOne side will make you grow taller, and the other side will make you
grow shorter.â

âOne side of _what?_ The other side of _what?_â thought Alice to
herself.

âOf the mushroom,â said the Caterpillar, just as if she had asked it
aloud; and in another moment it was out of sight.

Alice remained looking thoughtfully at the mushroom for a minute,
trying to make out which were the two sides of it; and as it was
perfectly round, she found this a very difficult question. However, at
last she stretched her arms round it as far as they would go, and broke
off a bit of the edge with each hand.

âAnd now which is which?â she said to herself, and nibbled a little of
the right-hand bit to try the effect: the next moment she felt a
violent blow underneath her chin: it had struck her foot!

She was a good deal frightened by this very sudden change, but she felt
that there was no time to be lost, as she was shrinking rapidly; so she
set to work at once to eat some of the other bit. Her chin was pressed
so closely against her foot, that there was hardly room to open her
mouth; but she did it at last, and managed to swallow a morsel of the
lefthand bit.

*      *      *      *      *      *      *

*      *      *      *      *      *

*      *      *      *      *      *      *

âCome, my headâs free at last!â said Alice in a tone of delight, which
changed into alarm in another moment, when she found that her shoulders
were nowhere to be found: all she could see, when she looked down, was
an immense length of neck, which seemed to rise like a stalk out of a
sea of green leaves that lay far below her.

âWhat _can_ all that green stuff be?â said Alice. âAnd where _have_ my
shoulders got to? And oh, my poor hands, how is it I canât see you?â
She was moving them about as she spoke, but no result seemed to follow,
except a little shaking among the distant green leaves.

As there seemed to be no chance of getting her hands up to her head,
she tried to get her head down to them, and was delighted to find that
her neck would bend about easily in any direction, like a serpent. She
had just succeeded in curving it down into a graceful zigzag, and was
going to dive in among the leaves, which she found to be nothing but
the tops of the trees under which she had been wandering, when a sharp
hiss made her draw back in a hurry: a large pigeon had flown into her
face, and was beating her violently with its wings.

âSerpent!â screamed the Pigeon.

âIâm _not_ a serpent!â said Alice indignantly. âLet me alone!â

âSerpent, I say again!â repeated the Pigeon, but in a more subdued
tone, and added with a kind of sob, âIâve tried every way, and nothing
seems to suit them!â

âI havenât the least idea what youâre talking about,â said Alice.

âIâve tried the roots of trees, and Iâve tried banks, and Iâve tried
hedges,â the Pigeon went on, without attending to her; âbut those
serpents! Thereâs no pleasing them!â

Alice was more and more puzzled, but she thought there was no use in
saying anything more till the Pigeon had finished.

âAs if it wasnât trouble enough hatching the eggs,â said the Pigeon;
âbut I must be on the look-out for serpents night and day! Why, I
havenât had a wink of sleep these three weeks!â

âIâm very sorry youâve been annoyed,â said Alice, who was beginning to
see its meaning.

âAnd just as Iâd taken the highest tree in the wood,â continued the
Pigeon, raising its voice to a shriek, âand just as I was thinking I
should be free of them at last, they must needs come wriggling down
from the sky! Ugh, Serpent!â

âBut Iâm _not_ a serpent, I tell you!â said Alice. âIâm aâIâm aââ

âWell! _What_ are you?â said the Pigeon. âI can see youâre trying to
invent something!â

âIâIâm a little girl,â said Alice, rather doubtfully, as she remembered
the number of changes she had gone through that day.

âA likely story indeed!â said the Pigeon in a tone of the deepest
contempt. âIâve seen a good many little girls in my time, but never
_one_ with such a neck as that! No, no! Youâre a serpent; and thereâs
no use denying it. I suppose youâll be telling me next that you never
tasted an egg!â

âI _have_ tasted eggs, certainly,â said Alice, who was a very truthful
child; âbut little girls eat eggs quite as much as serpents do, you
know.â

âI donât believe it,â said the Pigeon; âbut if they do, why then
theyâre a kind of serpent, thatâs all I can say.â

This was such a new idea to Alice, that she was quite silent for a
minute or two, which gave the Pigeon the opportunity of adding, âYouâre
looking for eggs, I know _that_ well enough; and what does it matter to
me whether youâre a little girl or a serpent?â

âIt matters a good deal to _me_,â said Alice hastily; âbut Iâm not
looking for eggs, as it happens; and if I was, I shouldnât want
_yours_: I donât like them raw.â

âWell, be off, then!â said the Pigeon in a sulky tone, as it settled
down again into its nest. Alice crouched down among the trees as well
as she could, for her neck kept getting entangled among the branches,
and every now and then she had to stop and untwist it. After a while
she remembered that she still held the pieces of mushroom in her hands,
and she set to work very carefully, nibbling first at one and then at
the other, and growing sometimes taller and sometimes shorter, until
she had succeeded in bringing herself down to her usual height.

It was so long since she had been anything near the right size, that it
felt quite strange at first; but she got used to it in a few minutes,
and began talking to herself, as usual. âCome, thereâs half my plan
done now! How puzzling all these changes are! Iâm never sure what Iâm
going to be, from one minute to another! However, Iâve got back to my
right size: the next thing is, to get into that beautiful gardenâhow
_is_ that to be done, I wonder?â As she said this, she came suddenly
upon an open place, with a little house in it about four feet high.
âWhoever lives there,â thought Alice, âitâll never do to come upon them
_this_ size: why, I should frighten them out of their wits!â So she
began nibbling at the righthand bit again, and did not venture to go
near the house till she had brought herself down to nine inches high.

CHAPTER VI.
Pig and Pepper

For a minute or two she stood looking at the house, and wondering what
to do next, when suddenly a footman in livery came running out of the
woodâ(she considered him to be a footman because he was in livery:
otherwise, judging by his face only, she would have called him a
fish)âand rapped loudly at the door with his knuckles. It was opened by
another footman in livery, with a round face, and large eyes like a
frog; and both footmen, Alice noticed, had powdered hair that curled
all over their heads. She felt very curious to know what it was all
about, and crept a little way out of the wood to listen.

The Fish-Footman began by producing from under his arm a great letter,
nearly as large as himself, and this he handed over to the other,
saying, in a solemn tone, âFor the Duchess. An invitation from the
Queen to play croquet.â The Frog-Footman repeated, in the same solemn
tone, only changing the order of the words a little, âFrom the Queen.
An invitation for the Duchess to play croquet.â

Then they both bowed low, and their curls got entangled together.

Alice laughed so much at this, that she had to run back into the wood
for fear of their hearing her; and when she next peeped out the
Fish-Footman was gone, and the other was sitting on the ground near the
door, staring stupidly up into the sky.

Alice went timidly up to the door, and knocked.

âThereâs no sort of use in knocking,â said the Footman, âand that for
two reasons. First, because Iâm on the same side of the door as you
are; secondly, because theyâre making such a noise inside, no one could
possibly hear you.â And certainly there _was_ a most extraordinary
noise going on withinâa constant howling and sneezing, and every now
and then a great crash, as if a dish or kettle had been broken to
pieces.

âPlease, then,â said Alice, âhow am I to get in?â

âThere might be some sense in your knocking,â the Footman went on
without attending to her, âif we had the door between us. For instance,
if you were _inside_, you might knock, and I could let you out, you
know.â He was looking up into the sky all the time he was speaking, and
this Alice thought decidedly uncivil. âBut perhaps he canât help it,â
she said to herself; âhis eyes are so _very_ nearly at the top of his
head. But at any rate he might answer questions.âHow am I to get in?â
she repeated, aloud.

âI shall sit here,â the Footman remarked, âtill tomorrowââ

At this moment the door of the house opened, and a large plate came
skimming out, straight at the Footmanâs head: it just grazed his nose,
and broke to pieces against one of the trees behind him.

ââor next day, maybe,â the Footman continued in the same tone, exactly

âHow am I to get in?â asked Alice again, in a louder tone.

â_Are_ you to get in at all?â said the Footman. âThatâs the first
question, you know.â

It was, no doubt: only Alice did not like to be told so. âItâs really
dreadful,â she muttered to herself, âthe way all the creatures argue.
Itâs enough to drive one crazy!â

The Footman seemed to think this a good opportunity for repeating his
remark, with variations. âI shall sit here,â he said, âon and off, for
days and days.â

âBut what am _I_ to do?â said Alice.

âAnything you like,â said the Footman, and began whistling.

âOh, thereâs no use in talking to him,â said Alice desperately: âheâs
perfectly idiotic!â And she opened the door and went in.

The door led right into a large kitchen, which was full of smoke from
one end to the other: the Duchess was sitting on a three-legged stool
in the middle, nursing a baby; the cook was leaning over the fire,
stirring a large cauldron which seemed to be full of soup.

âThereâs certainly too much pepper in that soup!â Alice said to
herself, as well as she could for sneezing.

There was certainly too much of it in the air. Even the Duchess sneezed
occasionally; and as for the baby, it was sneezing and howling
alternately without a momentâs pause. The only things in the kitchen
that did not sneeze, were the cook, and a large cat which was sitting
on the hearth and grinning from ear to ear.

âPlease would you tell me,â said Alice, a little timidly, for she was
not quite sure whether it was good manners for her to speak first, âwhy

âItâs a Cheshire cat,â said the Duchess, âand thatâs why. Pig!â

She said the last word with such sudden violence that Alice quite
jumped; but she saw in another moment that it was addressed to the
baby, and not to her, so she took courage, and went on again:â

âI didnât know that Cheshire cats always grinned; in fact, I didnât
know that cats _could_ grin.â

âThey all can,â said the Duchess; âand most of âem do.â

âI donât know of any that do,â Alice said very politely, feeling quite
pleased to have got into a conversation.

âYou donât know much,â said the Duchess; âand thatâs a fact.â

Alice did not at all like the tone of this remark, and thought it would
be as well to introduce some other subject of conversation. While she
was trying to fix on one, the cook took the cauldron of soup off the
fire, and at once set to work throwing everything within her reach at
the Duchess and the babyâthe fire-irons came first; then followed a
shower of saucepans, plates, and dishes. The Duchess took no notice of
them even when they hit her; and the baby was howling so much already,
that it was quite impossible to say whether the blows hurt it or not.

âOh, _please_ mind what youâre doing!â cried Alice, jumping up and down
in an agony of terror. âOh, there goes his _precious_ nose!â as an
unusually large saucepan flew close by it, and very nearly carried it
off.

âIf everybody minded their own business,â the Duchess said in a hoarse
growl, âthe world would go round a deal faster than it does.â

âWhich would _not_ be an advantage,â said Alice, who felt very glad to
get an opportunity of showing off a little of her knowledge. âJust
think of what work it would make with the day and night! You see the
earth takes twenty-four hours to turn round on its axisââ

âTalking of axes,â said the Duchess, âchop off her head!â

Alice glanced rather anxiously at the cook, to see if she meant to take
the hint; but the cook was busily stirring the soup, and seemed not to
be listening, so she went on again: âTwenty-four hours, I _think_; or
is it twelve? Iââ

âOh, donât bother _me_,â said the Duchess; âI never could abide
figures!â And with that she began nursing her child again, singing a
sort of lullaby to it as she did so, and giving it a violent shake at
the end of every line:

âSpeak roughly to your little boy,
And beat him when he sneezes:
He only does it to annoy,
Because he knows it teases.â

CHORUS.
(In which the cook and the baby joined):

âWow! wow! wow!â

While the Duchess sang the second verse of the song, she kept tossing
the baby violently up and down, and the poor little thing howled so,
that Alice could hardly hear the words:â

âI speak severely to my boy,
I beat him when he sneezes;
For he can thoroughly enjoy

CHORUS.

âWow! wow! wow!â

âHere! you may nurse it a bit, if you like!â the Duchess said to Alice,
flinging the baby at her as she spoke. âI must go and get ready to play
croquet with the Queen,â and she hurried out of the room. The cook
threw a frying-pan after her as she went out, but it just missed her.

Alice caught the baby with some difficulty, as it was a queer-shaped
little creature, and held out its arms and legs in all directions,
âjust like a star-fish,â thought Alice. The poor little thing was
snorting like a steam-engine when she caught it, and kept doubling
itself up and straightening itself out again, so that altogether, for
the first minute or two, it was as much as she could do to hold it.

As soon as she had made out the proper way of nursing it, (which was to
twist it up into a sort of knot, and then keep tight hold of its right
ear and left foot, so as to prevent its undoing itself,) she carried it
out into the open air. âIf I donât take this child away with me,â
thought Alice, âtheyâre sure to kill it in a day or two: wouldnât it be
murder to leave it behind?â She said the last words out loud, and the
little thing grunted in reply (it had left off sneezing by this time).
âDonât grunt,â said Alice; âthatâs not at all a proper way of
expressing yourself.â

The baby grunted again, and Alice looked very anxiously into its face
to see what was the matter with it. There could be no doubt that it had
a _very_ turn-up nose, much more like a snout than a real nose; also
its eyes were getting extremely small for a baby: altogether Alice did
not like the look of the thing at all. âBut perhaps it was only
sobbing,â she thought, and looked into its eyes again, to see if there
were any tears.

No, there were no tears. âIf youâre going to turn into a pig, my dear,â
said Alice, seriously, âIâll have nothing more to do with you. Mind
now!â The poor little thing sobbed again (or grunted, it was impossible
to say which), and they went on for some while in silence.

Alice was just beginning to think to herself, âNow, what am I to do
with this creature when I get it home?â when it grunted again, so
violently, that she looked down into its face in some alarm. This time
there could be _no_ mistake about it: it was neither more nor less than
a pig, and she felt that it would be quite absurd for her to carry it
further.

So she set the little creature down, and felt quite relieved to see it
trot away quietly into the wood. âIf it had grown up,â she said to
herself, âit would have made a dreadfully ugly child: but it makes
rather a handsome pig, I think.â And she began thinking over other
children she knew, who might do very well as pigs, and was just saying
to herself, âif one only knew the right way to change themââ when she
was a little startled by seeing the Cheshire Cat sitting on a bough of
a tree a few yards off.

The Cat only grinned when it saw Alice. It looked good-natured, she
thought: still it had _very_ long claws and a great many teeth, so she
felt that it ought to be treated with respect.

âCheshire Puss,â she began, rather timidly, as she did not at all know
whether it would like the name: however, it only grinned a little
wider. âCome, itâs pleased so far,â thought Alice, and she went on.
âWould you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?â

âThat depends a good deal on where you want to get to,â said the Cat.

âI donât much care whereââ said Alice.

âThen it doesnât matter which way you go,â said the Cat.

ââso long as I get _somewhere_,â Alice added as an explanation.

âOh, youâre sure to do that,â said the Cat, âif you only walk long
enough.â

Alice felt that this could not be denied, so she tried another
question. âWhat sort of people live about here?â

âIn _that_ direction,â the Cat said, waving its right paw round, âlives
a Hatter: and in _that_ direction,â waving the other paw, âlives a
March Hare. Visit either you like: theyâre both mad.â

âBut I donât want to go among mad people,â Alice remarked.

âOh, you canât help that,â said the Cat: âweâre all mad here. Iâm mad.

âHow do you know Iâm mad?â said Alice.

âYou must be,â said the Cat, âor you wouldnât have come here.â

Alice didnât think that proved it at all; however, she went on âAnd how
do you know that youâre mad?â

âTo begin with,â said the Cat, âa dogâs not mad. You grant that?â

âI suppose so,â said Alice.

âWell, then,â the Cat went on, âyou see, a dog growls when itâs angry,
and wags its tail when itâs pleased. Now _I_ growl when Iâm pleased,
and wag my tail when Iâm angry. Therefore Iâm mad.â

â_I_ call it purring, not growling,â said Alice.

âCall it what you like,â said the Cat. âDo you play croquet with the
Queen to-day?â

âI should like it very much,â said Alice, âbut I havenât been invited
yet.â

âYouâll see me there,â said the Cat, and vanished.

Alice was not much surprised at this, she was getting so used to queer
things happening. While she was looking at the place where it had been,
it suddenly appeared again.

âBy-the-bye, what became of the baby?â said the Cat. âIâd nearly

âIt turned into a pig,â Alice quietly said, just as if it had come back
in a natural way.

âI thought it would,â said the Cat, and vanished again.

Alice waited a little, half expecting to see it again, but it did not
appear, and after a minute or two she walked on in the direction in
which the March Hare was said to live. âIâve seen hatters before,â she
said to herself; âthe March Hare will be much the most interesting, and
perhaps as this is May it wonât be raving madâat least not so mad as it
was in March.â As she said this, she looked up, and there was the Cat
again, sitting on a branch of a tree.

âDid you say pig, or fig?â said the Cat.

âI said pig,â replied Alice; âand I wish you wouldnât keep appearing
and vanishing so suddenly: you make one quite giddy.â

âAll right,â said the Cat; and this time it vanished quite slowly,
beginning with the end of the tail, and ending with the grin, which
remained some time after the rest of it had gone.

âWell! Iâve often seen a cat without a grin,â thought Alice; âbut a
grin without a cat! Itâs the most curious thing I ever saw in my life!â

She had not gone much farther before she came in sight of the house of
the March Hare: she thought it must be the right house, because the
chimneys were shaped like ears and the roof was thatched with fur. It
was so large a house, that she did not like to go nearer till she had
nibbled some more of the lefthand bit of mushroom, and raised herself
to about two feet high: even then she walked up towards it rather
timidly, saying to herself âSuppose it should be raving mad after all!
I almost wish Iâd gone to see the Hatter instead!â

CHAPTER VII.

There was a table set out under a tree in front of the house, and the
March Hare and the Hatter were having tea at it: a Dormouse was sitting
between them, fast asleep, and the other two were using it as a
cushion, resting their elbows on it, and talking over its head. âVery
uncomfortable for the Dormouse,â thought Alice; âonly, as itâs asleep,
I suppose it doesnât mind.â

The table was a large one, but the three were all crowded together at
one corner of it: âNo room! No room!â they cried out when they saw
Alice coming. âThereâs _plenty_ of room!â said Alice indignantly, and
she sat down in a large arm-chair at one end of the table.

âHave some wine,â the March Hare said in an encouraging tone.

Alice looked all round the table, but there was nothing on it but tea.
âI donât see any wine,â she remarked.

âThere isnât any,â said the March Hare.

âThen it wasnât very civil of you to offer it,â said Alice angrily.

âIt wasnât very civil of you to sit down without being invited,â said
the March Hare.

âI didnât know it was _your_ table,â said Alice; âitâs laid for a great
many more than three.â

âYour hair wants cutting,â said the Hatter. He had been looking at
Alice for some time with great curiosity, and this was his first
speech.

âYou should learn not to make personal remarks,â Alice said with some
severity; âitâs very rude.â

The Hatter opened his eyes very wide on hearing this; but all he _said_
was, âWhy is a raven like a writing-desk?â

âCome, we shall have some fun now!â thought Alice. âIâm glad theyâve

âDo you mean that you think you can find out the answer to it?â said
the March Hare.

âExactly so,â said Alice.

âThen you should say what you mean,â the March Hare went on.

âI do,â Alice hastily replied; âat leastâat least I mean what I
sayâthatâs the same thing, you know.â

âNot the same thing a bit!â said the Hatter. âYou might just as well
say that âI see what I eatâ is the same thing as âI eat what I seeâ!â

âYou might just as well say,â added the March Hare, âthat âI like what
I getâ is the same thing as âI get what I likeâ!â

âYou might just as well say,â added the Dormouse, who seemed to be
talking in his sleep, âthat âI breathe when I sleepâ is the same thing
as âI sleep when I breatheâ!â

âIt _is_ the same thing with you,â said the Hatter, and here the
conversation dropped, and the party sat silent for a minute, while
Alice thought over all she could remember about ravens and
writing-desks, which wasnât much.

The Hatter was the first to break the silence. âWhat day of the month
is it?â he said, turning to Alice: he had taken his watch out of his
pocket, and was looking at it uneasily, shaking it every now and then,
and holding it to his ear.

Alice considered a little, and then said âThe fourth.â

âTwo days wrong!â sighed the Hatter. âI told you butter wouldnât suit
the works!â he added looking angrily at the March Hare.

âIt was the _best_ butter,â the March Hare meekly replied.

âYes, but some crumbs must have got in as well,â the Hatter grumbled:
âyou shouldnât have put it in with the bread-knife.â

The March Hare took the watch and looked at it gloomily: then he dipped
it into his cup of tea, and looked at it again: but he could think of
nothing better to say than his first remark, âIt was the _best_ butter,
you know.â

Alice had been looking over his shoulder with some curiosity. âWhat a
funny watch!â she remarked. âIt tells the day of the month, and doesnât
tell what oâclock it is!â

âWhy should it?â muttered the Hatter. âDoes _your_ watch tell you what
year it is?â

âOf course not,â Alice replied very readily: âbut thatâs because it
stays the same year for such a long time together.â

âWhich is just the case with _mine_,â said the Hatter.

Alice felt dreadfully puzzled. The Hatterâs remark seemed to have no
sort of meaning in it, and yet it was certainly English. âI donât quite
understand you,â she said, as politely as she could.

âThe Dormouse is asleep again,â said the Hatter, and he poured a little
hot tea upon its nose.

The Dormouse shook its head impatiently, and said, without opening its
eyes, âOf course, of course; just what I was going to remark myself.â

âHave you guessed the riddle yet?â the Hatter said, turning to Alice
again.

âNo, I give it up,â Alice replied: âwhatâs the answer?â

âI havenât the slightest idea,â said the Hatter.

âNor I,â said the March Hare.

Alice sighed wearily. âI think you might do something better with the
time,â she said, âthan waste it in asking riddles that have no

âIf you knew Time as well as I do,â said the Hatter, âyou wouldnât talk

âI donât know what you mean,â said Alice.

âOf course you donât!â the Hatter said, tossing his head
contemptuously. âI dare say you never even spoke to Time!â

âPerhaps not,â Alice cautiously replied: âbut I know I have to beat
time when I learn music.â

âAh! that accounts for it,â said the Hatter. âHe wonât stand beating.
Now, if you only kept on good terms with him, heâd do almost anything
you liked with the clock. For instance, suppose it were nine oâclock in
the morning, just time to begin lessons: youâd only have to whisper a
hint to Time, and round goes the clock in a twinkling! Half-past one,
time for dinner!â

(âI only wish it was,â the March Hare said to itself in a whisper.)

âThat would be grand, certainly,â said Alice thoughtfully: âbut thenâI
shouldnât be hungry for it, you know.â

âNot at first, perhaps,â said the Hatter: âbut you could keep it to
half-past one as long as you liked.â

âIs that the way _you_ manage?â Alice asked.

The Hatter shook his head mournfully. âNot I!â he replied. âWe
quarrelled last Marchâjust before _he_ went mad, you knowââ (pointing
with his tea spoon at the March Hare,) ââit was at the great concert
given by the Queen of Hearts, and I had to sing

âTwinkle, twinkle, little bat!
How I wonder what youâre at!â

You know the song, perhaps?â

âIâve heard something like it,â said Alice.

âIt goes on, you know,â the Hatter continued, âin this way:â

âUp above the world you fly,
Like a tea-tray in the sky.
Twinkle, twinkleâââ

Here the Dormouse shook itself, and began singing in its sleep
â_Twinkle, twinkle, twinkle, twinkle_ââ and went on so long that they
had to pinch it to make it stop.

âWell, Iâd hardly finished the first verse,â said the Hatter, âwhen the
Queen jumped up and bawled out, âHeâs murdering the time! Off with his

âAnd ever since that,â the Hatter went on in a mournful tone, âhe wonât
do a thing I ask! Itâs always six oâclock now.â

A bright idea came into Aliceâs head. âIs that the reason so many
tea-things are put out here?â she asked.

âYes, thatâs it,â said the Hatter with a sigh: âitâs always tea-time,
and weâve no time to wash the things between whiles.â

âThen you keep moving round, I suppose?â said Alice.

âExactly so,â said the Hatter: âas the things get used up.â

âBut what happens when you come to the beginning again?â Alice ventured

âSuppose we change the subject,â the March Hare interrupted, yawning.
âIâm getting tired of this. I vote the young lady tells us a story.â

âIâm afraid I donât know one,â said Alice, rather alarmed at the
proposal.

âThen the Dormouse shall!â they both cried. âWake up, Dormouse!â And
they pinched it on both sides at once.

The Dormouse slowly opened his eyes. âI wasnât asleep,â he said in a
hoarse, feeble voice: âI heard every word you fellows were saying.â

âTell us a story!â said the March Hare.

âAnd be quick about it,â added the Hatter, âor youâll be asleep again
before itâs done.â

âOnce upon a time there were three little sisters,â the Dormouse began
in a great hurry; âand their names were Elsie, Lacie, and Tillie; and
they lived at the bottom of a wellââ

âWhat did they live on?â said Alice, who always took a great interest
in questions of eating and drinking.

âThey lived on treacle,â said the Dormouse, after thinking a minute or
two.

âThey couldnât have done that, you know,â Alice gently remarked;
âtheyâd have been ill.â

âSo they were,â said the Dormouse; â_very_ ill.â

Alice tried to fancy to herself what such an extraordinary ways of
living would be like, but it puzzled her too much, so she went on: âBut
why did they live at the bottom of a well?â

âTake some more tea,â the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly.

âIâve had nothing yet,â Alice replied in an offended tone, âso I canât
take more.â

âYou mean you canât take _less_,â said the Hatter: âitâs very easy to
take _more_ than nothing.â

âNobody asked _your_ opinion,â said Alice.

âWhoâs making personal remarks now?â the Hatter asked triumphantly.

Alice did not quite know what to say to this: so she helped herself to
some tea and bread-and-butter, and then turned to the Dormouse, and
repeated her question. âWhy did they live at the bottom of a well?â

The Dormouse again took a minute or two to think about it, and then
said, âIt was a treacle-well.â

âThereâs no such thing!â Alice was beginning very angrily, but the
Hatter and the March Hare went âSh! sh!â and the Dormouse sulkily
remarked, âIf you canât be civil, youâd better finish the story for
yourself.â

âNo, please go on!â Alice said very humbly; âI wonât interrupt again. I
dare say there may be _one_.â

âOne, indeed!â said the Dormouse indignantly. However, he consented to
go on. âAnd so these three little sistersâthey were learning to draw,
you knowââ

âWhat did they draw?â said Alice, quite forgetting her promise.

âTreacle,â said the Dormouse, without considering at all this time.

âI want a clean cup,â interrupted the Hatter: âletâs all move one place
on.â

He moved on as he spoke, and the Dormouse followed him: the March Hare
moved into the Dormouseâs place, and Alice rather unwillingly took the
place of the March Hare. The Hatter was the only one who got any
advantage from the change: and Alice was a good deal worse off than
before, as the March Hare had just upset the milk-jug into his plate.

Alice did not wish to offend the Dormouse again, so she began very
cautiously: âBut I donât understand. Where did they draw the treacle
from?â

âYou can draw water out of a water-well,â said the Hatter; âso I should
think you could draw treacle out of a treacle-wellâeh, stupid?â

âBut they were _in_ the well,â Alice said to the Dormouse, not choosing
to notice this last remark.

âOf course they were,â said the Dormouse; ââwell in.â

This answer so confused poor Alice, that she let the Dormouse go on for
some time without interrupting it.

âThey were learning to draw,â the Dormouse went on, yawning and rubbing
its eyes, for it was getting very sleepy; âand they drew all manner of
thingsâeverything that begins with an Mââ

âWhy with an M?â said Alice.

âWhy not?â said the March Hare.

Alice was silent.

The Dormouse had closed its eyes by this time, and was going off into a
doze; but, on being pinched by the Hatter, it woke up again with a
little shriek, and went on: ââthat begins with an M, such as
mouse-traps, and the moon, and memory, and muchnessâyou know you say
things are âmuch of a muchnessââdid you ever see such a thing as a
drawing of a muchness?â

âReally, now you ask me,â said Alice, very much confused, âI donât
thinkââ

âThen you shouldnât talk,â said the Hatter.

This piece of rudeness was more than Alice could bear: she got up in
great disgust, and walked off; the Dormouse fell asleep instantly, and
neither of the others took the least notice of her going, though she
looked back once or twice, half hoping that they would call after her:
the last time she saw them, they were trying to put the Dormouse into
the teapot.

âAt any rate Iâll never go _there_ again!â said Alice as she picked her
way through the wood. âItâs the stupidest tea-party I ever was at in
all my life!â

Just as she said this, she noticed that one of the trees had a door
leading right into it. âThatâs very curious!â she thought. âBut
everythingâs curious today. I think I may as well go in at once.â And
in she went.

Once more she found herself in the long hall, and close to the little
glass table. âNow, Iâll manage better this time,â she said to herself,
and began by taking the little golden key, and unlocking the door that
led into the garden. Then she went to work nibbling at the mushroom
(she had kept a piece of it in her pocket) till she was about a foot
high: then she walked down the little passage: and _then_âshe found
herself at last in the beautiful garden, among the bright flower-beds
and the cool fountains.

CHAPTER VIII.
The Queenâs Croquet-Ground

A large rose-tree stood near the entrance of the garden: the roses
growing on it were white, but there were three gardeners at it, busily
painting them red. Alice thought this a very curious thing, and she
went nearer to watch them, and just as she came up to them she heard
one of them say, âLook out now, Five! Donât go splashing paint over me
like that!â

âI couldnât help it,â said Five, in a sulky tone; âSeven jogged my
elbow.â

On which Seven looked up and said, âThatâs right, Five! Always lay the
blame on others!â

â_Youâd_ better not talk!â said Five. âI heard the Queen say only
yesterday you deserved to be beheaded!â

âWhat for?â said the one who had spoken first.

âThatâs none of _your_ business, Two!â said Seven.

âYes, it _is_ his business!â said Five, âand Iâll tell himâit was for
bringing the cook tulip-roots instead of onions.â

Seven flung down his brush, and had just begun âWell, of all the unjust
thingsââ when his eye chanced to fall upon Alice, as she stood watching
them, and he checked himself suddenly: the others looked round also,
and all of them bowed low.

âWould you tell me,â said Alice, a little timidly, âwhy you are
painting those roses?â

Five and Seven said nothing, but looked at Two. Two began in a low
voice, âWhy the fact is, you see, Miss, this here ought to have been a
_red_ rose-tree, and we put a white one in by mistake; and if the Queen
was to find it out, we should all have our heads cut off, you know. So
you see, Miss, weâre doing our best, afore she comes, toââ At this
moment Five, who had been anxiously looking across the garden, called
out âThe Queen! The Queen!â and the three gardeners instantly threw
themselves flat upon their faces. There was a sound of many footsteps,
and Alice looked round, eager to see the Queen.

First came ten soldiers carrying clubs; these were all shaped like the
three gardeners, oblong and flat, with their hands and feet at the
corners: next the ten courtiers; these were ornamented all over with
diamonds, and walked two and two, as the soldiers did. After these came
the royal children; there were ten of them, and the little dears came
jumping merrily along hand in hand, in couples: they were all
ornamented with hearts. Next came the guests, mostly Kings and Queens,
and among them Alice recognised the White Rabbit: it was talking in a
hurried nervous manner, smiling at everything that was said, and went
by without noticing her. Then followed the Knave of Hearts, carrying
the Kingâs crown on a crimson velvet cushion; and, last of all this
grand procession, came THE KING AND QUEEN OF HEARTS.

Alice was rather doubtful whether she ought not to lie down on her face
like the three gardeners, but she could not remember ever having heard
of such a rule at processions; âand besides, what would be the use of a
procession,â thought she, âif people had all to lie down upon their
faces, so that they couldnât see it?â So she stood still where she was,
and waited.

When the procession came opposite to Alice, they all stopped and looked
at her, and the Queen said severely âWho is this?â She said it to the
Knave of Hearts, who only bowed and smiled in reply.

âIdiot!â said the Queen, tossing her head impatiently; and, turning to
Alice, she went on, âWhatâs your name, child?â

âMy name is Alice, so please your Majesty,â said Alice very politely;
but she added, to herself, âWhy, theyâre only a pack of cards, after
all. I neednât be afraid of them!â

âAnd who are _these?_â said the Queen, pointing to the three gardeners
who were lying round the rose-tree; for, you see, as they were lying on
their faces, and the pattern on their backs was the same as the rest of
the pack, she could not tell whether they were gardeners, or soldiers,
or courtiers, or three of her own children.

âHow should _I_ know?â said Alice, surprised at her own courage. âItâs

The Queen turned crimson with fury, and, after glaring at her for a
moment like a wild beast, screamed âOff with her head! Offââ

âNonsense!â said Alice, very loudly and decidedly, and the Queen was
silent.

The King laid his hand upon her arm, and timidly said âConsider, my
dear: she is only a child!â

The Queen turned angrily away from him, and said to the Knave âTurn
them over!â

The Knave did so, very carefully, with one foot.

âGet up!â said the Queen, in a shrill, loud voice, and the three
gardeners instantly jumped up, and began bowing to the King, the Queen,
the royal children, and everybody else.

âLeave off that!â screamed the Queen. âYou make me giddy.â And then,
turning to the rose-tree, she went on, âWhat _have_ you been doing
here?â

âMay it please your Majesty,â said Two, in a very humble tone, going
down on one knee as he spoke, âwe were tryingââ

â_I_ see!â said the Queen, who had meanwhile been examining the roses.
âOff with their heads!â and the procession moved on, three of the
soldiers remaining behind to execute the unfortunate gardeners, who ran
to Alice for protection.

âYou shanât be beheaded!â said Alice, and she put them into a large
flower-pot that stood near. The three soldiers wandered about for a
minute or two, looking for them, and then quietly marched off after the
others.

âAre their heads off?â shouted the Queen.

âThatâs right!â shouted the Queen. âCan you play croquet?â

The soldiers were silent, and looked at Alice, as the question was
evidently meant for her.

âYes!â shouted Alice.

âCome on, then!â roared the Queen, and Alice joined the procession,
wondering very much what would happen next.

âItâsâitâs a very fine day!â said a timid voice at her side. She was
walking by the White Rabbit, who was peeping anxiously into her face.

âVery,â said Alice: ââwhereâs the Duchess?â

âHush! Hush!â said the Rabbit in a low, hurried tone. He looked
anxiously over his shoulder as he spoke, and then raised himself upon
tiptoe, put his mouth close to her ear, and whispered âSheâs under
sentence of execution.â

âWhat for?â said Alice.

âDid you say âWhat a pity!â?â the Rabbit asked.

âNo, I didnât,â said Alice: âI donât think itâs at all a pity. I said
âWhat for?ââ

âShe boxed the Queenâs earsââ the Rabbit began. Alice gave a little
scream of laughter. âOh, hush!â the Rabbit whispered in a frightened
tone. âThe Queen will hear you! You see, she came rather late, and the
Queen saidââ

âGet to your places!â shouted the Queen in a voice of thunder, and
people began running about in all directions, tumbling up against each
other; however, they got settled down in a minute or two, and the game
began. Alice thought she had never seen such a curious croquet-ground
in her life; it was all ridges and furrows; the balls were live
hedgehogs, the mallets live flamingoes, and the soldiers had to double
themselves up and to stand on their hands and feet, to make the arches.

The chief difficulty Alice found at first was in managing her flamingo:
she succeeded in getting its body tucked away, comfortably enough,
under her arm, with its legs hanging down, but generally, just as she
had got its neck nicely straightened out, and was going to give the
hedgehog a blow with its head, it _would_ twist itself round and look
up in her face, with such a puzzled expression that she could not help
bursting out laughing: and when she had got its head down, and was
going to begin again, it was very provoking to find that the hedgehog
had unrolled itself, and was in the act of crawling away: besides all
this, there was generally a ridge or furrow in the way wherever she
wanted to send the hedgehog to, and, as the doubled-up soldiers were
always getting up and walking off to other parts of the ground, Alice
soon came to the conclusion that it was a very difficult game indeed.

The players all played at once without waiting for turns, quarrelling
all the while, and fighting for the hedgehogs; and in a very short time
the Queen was in a furious passion, and went stamping about, and
minute.

Alice began to feel very uneasy: to be sure, she had not as yet had any
dispute with the Queen, but she knew that it might happen any minute,
âand then,â thought she, âwhat would become of me? Theyâre dreadfully
fond of beheading people here; the great wonder is, that thereâs any
one left alive!â

She was looking about for some way of escape, and wondering whether she
could get away without being seen, when she noticed a curious
appearance in the air: it puzzled her very much at first, but, after
watching it a minute or two, she made it out to be a grin, and she said
to herself âItâs the Cheshire Cat: now I shall have somebody to talk
to.â

âHow are you getting on?â said the Cat, as soon as there was mouth
enough for it to speak with.

Alice waited till the eyes appeared, and then nodded. âItâs no use
speaking to it,â she thought, âtill its ears have come, or at least one
of them.â In another minute the whole head appeared, and then Alice put
down her flamingo, and began an account of the game, feeling very glad
she had someone to listen to her. The Cat seemed to think that there
was enough of it now in sight, and no more of it appeared.

âI donât think they play at all fairly,â Alice began, in rather a
complaining tone, âand they all quarrel so dreadfully one canât hear
oneself speakâand they donât seem to have any rules in particular; at
least, if there are, nobody attends to themâand youâve no idea how
confusing it is all the things being alive; for instance, thereâs the
arch Iâve got to go through next walking about at the other end of the
groundâand I should have croqueted the Queenâs hedgehog just now, only
it ran away when it saw mine coming!â

âHow do you like the Queen?â said the Cat in a low voice.

âNot at all,â said Alice: âsheâs so extremelyââ Just then she noticed
that the Queen was close behind her, listening: so she went on,
ââlikely to win, that itâs hardly worth while finishing the game.â

The Queen smiled and passed on.

âWho _are_ you talking to?â said the King, going up to Alice, and
looking at the Catâs head with great curiosity.

âItâs a friend of mineâa Cheshire Cat,â said Alice: âallow me to
introduce it.â

âI donât like the look of it at all,â said the King: âhowever, it may
kiss my hand if it likes.â

âIâd rather not,â the Cat remarked.

âDonât be impertinent,â said the King, âand donât look at me like
that!â He got behind Alice as he spoke.

âA cat may look at a king,â said Alice. âIâve read that in some book,
but I donât remember where.â

âWell, it must be removed,â said the King very decidedly, and he called
the Queen, who was passing at the moment, âMy dear! I wish you would
have this cat removed!â

The Queen had only one way of settling all difficulties, great or
small. âOff with his head!â she said, without even looking round.

âIâll fetch the executioner myself,â said the King eagerly, and he
hurried off.

Alice thought she might as well go back, and see how the game was going
on, as she heard the Queenâs voice in the distance, screaming with
passion. She had already heard her sentence three of the players to be
executed for having missed their turns, and she did not like the look
of things at all, as the game was in such confusion that she never knew
whether it was her turn or not. So she went in search of her hedgehog.

The hedgehog was engaged in a fight with another hedgehog, which seemed
to Alice an excellent opportunity for croqueting one of them with the
other: the only difficulty was, that her flamingo was gone across to
the other side of the garden, where Alice could see it trying in a
helpless sort of way to fly up into a tree.

By the time she had caught the flamingo and brought it back, the fight
was over, and both the hedgehogs were out of sight: âbut it doesnât
matter much,â thought Alice, âas all the arches are gone from this side
of the ground.â So she tucked it away under her arm, that it might not
escape again, and went back for a little more conversation with her
friend.

When she got back to the Cheshire Cat, she was surprised to find quite
a large crowd collected round it: there was a dispute going on between
the executioner, the King, and the Queen, who were all talking at once,
while all the rest were quite silent, and looked very uncomfortable.

The moment Alice appeared, she was appealed to by all three to settle
the question, and they repeated their arguments to her, though, as they
all spoke at once, she found it very hard indeed to make out exactly
what they said.

The executionerâs argument was, that you couldnât cut off a head unless
there was a body to cut it off from: that he had never had to do such a
thing before, and he wasnât going to begin at _his_ time of life.

The Kingâs argument was, that anything that had a head could be
beheaded, and that you werenât to talk nonsense.

The Queenâs argument was, that if something wasnât done about it in
less than no time sheâd have everybody executed, all round. (It was
this last remark that had made the whole party look so grave and
anxious.)

Alice could think of nothing else to say but âIt belongs to the

âSheâs in prison,â the Queen said to the executioner: âfetch her here.â
And the executioner went off like an arrow.

The Catâs head began fading away the moment he was gone, and, by the
time he had come back with the Duchess, it had entirely disappeared; so
the King and the executioner ran wildly up and down looking for it,
while the rest of the party went back to the game.

CHAPTER IX.
The Mock Turtleâs Story

âYou canât think how glad I am to see you again, you dear old thing!â
said the Duchess, as she tucked her arm affectionately into Aliceâs,
and they walked off together.

Alice was very glad to find her in such a pleasant temper, and thought
to herself that perhaps it was only the pepper that had made her so
savage when they met in the kitchen.

âWhen _Iâm_ a Duchess,â she said to herself, (not in a very hopeful
tone though), âI wonât have any pepper in my kitchen _at all_. Soup
does very well withoutâMaybe itâs always pepper that makes people
hot-tempered,â she went on, very much pleased at having found out a new
kind of rule, âand vinegar that makes them sourâand camomile that makes
them bitterâandâand barley-sugar and such things that make children
sweet-tempered. I only wish people knew _that_: then they wouldnât be
so stingy about it, you knowââ

She had quite forgotten the Duchess by this time, and was a little
startled when she heard her voice close to her ear. âYouâre thinking
about something, my dear, and that makes you forget to talk. I canât
tell you just now what the moral of that is, but I shall remember it in
a bit.â

âPerhaps it hasnât one,â Alice ventured to remark.

âTut, tut, child!â said the Duchess. âEverythingâs got a moral, if only
you can find it.â And she squeezed herself up closer to Aliceâs side as
she spoke.

Alice did not much like keeping so close to her: first, because the
Duchess was _very_ ugly; and secondly, because she was exactly the
right height to rest her chin upon Aliceâs shoulder, and it was an
uncomfortably sharp chin. However, she did not like to be rude, so she
bore it as well as she could.

âThe gameâs going on rather better now,â she said, by way of keeping up
the conversation a little.

ââTis so,â said the Duchess: âand the moral of that isââOh, âtis love,
âtis love, that makes the world go round!ââ

âSomebody said,â Alice whispered, âthat itâs done by everybody minding

âAh, well! It means much the same thing,â said the Duchess, digging her
sharp little chin into Aliceâs shoulder as she added, âand the moral of
_that_ isââTake care of the sense, and the sounds will take care of
themselves.ââ

âHow fond she is of finding morals in things!â Alice thought to
herself.

âI dare say youâre wondering why I donât put my arm round your waist,â
the Duchess said after a pause: âthe reason is, that Iâm doubtful about
the temper of your flamingo. Shall I try the experiment?â

âHe might bite,â Alice cautiously replied, not feeling at all anxious
to have the experiment tried.

âVery true,â said the Duchess: âflamingoes and mustard both bite. And
the moral of that isââBirds of a feather flock together.ââ

âOnly mustard isnât a bird,â Alice remarked.

âRight, as usual,â said the Duchess: âwhat a clear way you have of
putting things!â

âItâs a mineral, I _think_,â said Alice.

âOf course it is,â said the Duchess, who seemed ready to agree to
everything that Alice said; âthereâs a large mustard-mine near here.
And the moral of that isââThe more there is of mine, the less there is
of yours.ââ

âOh, I know!â exclaimed Alice, who had not attended to this last
remark, âitâs a vegetable. It doesnât look like one, but it is.â

âI quite agree with you,â said the Duchess; âand the moral of that
isââBe what you would seem to beââor if youâd like it put more
simplyââNever imagine yourself not to be otherwise than what it might
appear to others that what you were or might have been was not
otherwise than what you had been would have appeared to them to be
otherwise.ââ

âI think I should understand that better,â Alice said very politely,
âif I had it written down: but I canât quite follow it as you say it.â

âThatâs nothing to what I could say if I chose,â the Duchess replied,

âPray donât trouble yourself to say it any longer than that,â said
Alice.

âOh, donât talk about trouble!â said the Duchess. âI make you a present
of everything Iâve said as yet.â

âA cheap sort of present!â thought Alice. âIâm glad they donât give
birthday presents like that!â But she did not venture to say it out
loud.

âThinking again?â the Duchess asked, with another dig of her sharp
little chin.

âIâve a right to think,â said Alice sharply, for she was beginning to
feel a little worried.

âJust about as much right,â said the Duchess, âas pigs have to fly; and
the mââ

But here, to Aliceâs great surprise, the Duchessâs voice died away,
even in the middle of her favourite word âmoral,â and the arm that was
linked into hers began to tremble. Alice looked up, and there stood the
Queen in front of them, with her arms folded, frowning like a
thunderstorm.

âA fine day, your Majesty!â the Duchess began in a low, weak voice.

âNow, I give you fair warning,â shouted the Queen, stamping on the
ground as she spoke; âeither you or your head must be off, and that in

The Duchess took her choice, and was gone in a moment.

âLetâs go on with the game,â the Queen said to Alice; and Alice was too
much frightened to say a word, but slowly followed her back to the
croquet-ground.

The other guests had taken advantage of the Queenâs absence, and were
resting in the shade: however, the moment they saw her, they hurried
back to the game, the Queen merely remarking that a momentâs delay
would cost them their lives.

All the time they were playing the Queen never left off quarrelling
with the other players, and shouting âOff with his head!â or âOff with
her head!â Those whom she sentenced were taken into custody by the
soldiers, who of course had to leave off being arches to do this, so
that by the end of half an hour or so there were no arches left, and
all the players, except the King, the Queen, and Alice, were in custody
and under sentence of execution.

Then the Queen left off, quite out of breath, and said to Alice, âHave
you seen the Mock Turtle yet?â

âNo,â said Alice. âI donât even know what a Mock Turtle is.â

âItâs the thing Mock Turtle Soup is made from,â said the Queen.

âI never saw one, or heard of one,â said Alice.

âCome on, then,â said the Queen, âand he shall tell you his history,â

As they walked off together, Alice heard the King say in a low voice,
to the company generally, âYou are all pardoned.â âCome, _thatâs_ a
good thing!â she said to herself, for she had felt quite unhappy at the
number of executions the Queen had ordered.

They very soon came upon a Gryphon, lying fast asleep in the sun. (If
you donât know what a Gryphon is, look at the picture.) âUp, lazy
thing!â said the Queen, âand take this young lady to see the Mock
Turtle, and to hear his history. I must go back and see after some
executions I have ordered;â and she walked off, leaving Alice alone
with the Gryphon. Alice did not quite like the look of the creature,
but on the whole she thought it would be quite as safe to stay with it
as to go after that savage Queen: so she waited.

The Gryphon sat up and rubbed its eyes: then it watched the Queen till
she was out of sight: then it chuckled. âWhat fun!â said the Gryphon,
half to itself, half to Alice.

âWhat _is_ the fun?â said Alice.

âWhy, _she_,â said the Gryphon. âItâs all her fancy, that: they never
executes nobody, you know. Come on!â

âEverybody says âcome on!â here,â thought Alice, as she went slowly
after it: âI never was so ordered about in all my life, never!â

They had not gone far before they saw the Mock Turtle in the distance,
sitting sad and lonely on a little ledge of rock, and, as they came
nearer, Alice could hear him sighing as if his heart would break. She
pitied him deeply. âWhat is his sorrow?â she asked the Gryphon, and the
Gryphon answered, very nearly in the same words as before, âItâs all
his fancy, that: he hasnât got no sorrow, you know. Come on!â

So they went up to the Mock Turtle, who looked at them with large eyes
full of tears, but said nothing.

âThis here young lady,â said the Gryphon, âshe wants for to know your
history, she do.â

âIâll tell it her,â said the Mock Turtle in a deep, hollow tone: âsit
down, both of you, and donât speak a word till Iâve finished.â

So they sat down, and nobody spoke for some minutes. Alice thought to
herself, âI donât see how he can _ever_ finish, if he doesnât begin.â
But she waited patiently.

âOnce,â said the Mock Turtle at last, with a deep sigh, âI was a real
Turtle.â

These words were followed by a very long silence, broken only by an
occasional exclamation of âHjckrrh!â from the Gryphon, and the constant
heavy sobbing of the Mock Turtle. Alice was very nearly getting up and
saying, âThank you, sir, for your interesting story,â but she could not
help thinking there _must_ be more to come, so she sat still and said
nothing.

âWhen we were little,â the Mock Turtle went on at last, more calmly,
though still sobbing a little now and then, âwe went to school in the
sea. The master was an old Turtleâwe used to call him Tortoiseââ

âWhy did you call him Tortoise, if he wasnât one?â Alice asked.

âWe called him Tortoise because he taught us,â said the Mock Turtle
angrily: âreally you are very dull!â

âYou ought to be ashamed of yourself for asking such a simple
question,â added the Gryphon; and then they both sat silent and looked
at poor Alice, who felt ready to sink into the earth. At last the
Gryphon said to the Mock Turtle, âDrive on, old fellow! Donât be all
day about it!â and he went on in these words:

âYes, we went to school in the sea, though you maynât believe itââ

âI never said I didnât!â interrupted Alice.

âYou did,â said the Mock Turtle.

The Mock Turtle went on.

âWe had the best of educationsâin fact, we went to school every dayââ

â_Iâve_ been to a day-school, too,â said Alice; âyou neednât be so
proud as all that.â

âWith extras?â asked the Mock Turtle a little anxiously.

âYes,â said Alice, âwe learned French and music.â

âAnd washing?â said the Mock Turtle.

âCertainly not!â said Alice indignantly.

âAh! then yours wasnât a really good school,â said the Mock Turtle in a
tone of great relief. âNow at _ours_ they had at the end of the bill,
âFrench, music, _and washing_âextra.ââ

âYou couldnât have wanted it much,â said Alice; âliving at the bottom
of the sea.â

âI couldnât afford to learn it.â said the Mock Turtle with a sigh. âI
only took the regular course.â

âWhat was that?â inquired Alice.

âReeling and Writhing, of course, to begin with,â the Mock Turtle
replied; âand then the different branches of ArithmeticâAmbition,
Distraction, Uglification, and Derision.â

âI never heard of âUglification,ââ Alice ventured to say. âWhat is it?â

The Gryphon lifted up both its paws in surprise. âWhat! Never heard of
uglifying!â it exclaimed. âYou know what to beautify is, I suppose?â

âYes,â said Alice doubtfully: âit meansâtoâmakeâanythingâprettier.â

âWell, then,â the Gryphon went on, âif you donât know what to uglify
is, you _are_ a simpleton.â

Alice did not feel encouraged to ask any more questions about it, so
she turned to the Mock Turtle, and said âWhat else had you to learn?â

âWell, there was Mystery,â the Mock Turtle replied, counting off the
subjects on his flappers, ââMystery, ancient and modern, with
Seaography: then Drawlingâthe Drawling-master was an old conger-eel,
that used to come once a week: _he_ taught us Drawling, Stretching, and
Fainting in Coils.â

âWhat was _that_ like?â said Alice.

âWell, I canât show it you myself,â the Mock Turtle said: âIâm too
stiff. And the Gryphon never learnt it.â

âHadnât time,â said the Gryphon: âI went to the Classics master,
though. He was an old crab, _he_ was.â

âI never went to him,â the Mock Turtle said with a sigh: âhe taught
Laughing and Grief, they used to say.â

âSo he did, so he did,â said the Gryphon, sighing in his turn; and both
creatures hid their faces in their paws.

âAnd how many hours a day did you do lessons?â said Alice, in a hurry
to change the subject.

âTen hours the first day,â said the Mock Turtle: ânine the next, and so
on.â

âWhat a curious plan!â exclaimed Alice.

âThatâs the reason theyâre called lessons,â the Gryphon remarked:
âbecause they lessen from day to day.â

This was quite a new idea to Alice, and she thought it over a little
before she made her next remark. âThen the eleventh day must have been
a holiday?â

âOf course it was,â said the Mock Turtle.

âAnd how did you manage on the twelfth?â Alice went on eagerly.

âThatâs enough about lessons,â the Gryphon interrupted in a very
decided tone: âtell her something about the games now.â

CHAPTER X.

The Mock Turtle sighed deeply, and drew the back of one flapper across
his eyes. He looked at Alice, and tried to speak, but for a minute or
two sobs choked his voice. âSame as if he had a bone in his throat,â
said the Gryphon: and it set to work shaking him and punching him in
the back. At last the Mock Turtle recovered his voice, and, with tears
running down his cheeks, he went on again:â

âYou may not have lived much under the seaââ (âI havenât,â said
Alice)ââand perhaps you were never even introduced to a lobsterââ
(Alice began to say âI once tastedââ but checked herself hastily, and
said âNo, neverâ) ââso you can have no idea what a delightful thing a

âNo, indeed,â said Alice. âWhat sort of a dance is it?â

âWhy,â said the Gryphon, âyou first form into a line along the
sea-shoreââ

âTwo lines!â cried the Mock Turtle. âSeals, turtles, salmon, and so on;
then, when youâve cleared all the jelly-fish out of the wayââ

â_That_ generally takes some time,â interrupted the Gryphon.

âEach with a lobster as a partner!â cried the Gryphon.

âOf course,â the Mock Turtle said: âadvance twice, set to partnersââ

ââchange lobsters, and retire in same order,â continued the Gryphon.

âThen, you know,â the Mock Turtle went on, âyou throw theââ

âThe lobsters!â shouted the Gryphon, with a bound into the air.

ââas far out to sea as you canââ

âSwim after them!â screamed the Gryphon.

âTurn a somersault in the sea!â cried the Mock Turtle, capering wildly

âChange lobsters again!â yelled the Gryphon at the top of its voice.

âBack to land again, and thatâs all the first figure,â said the Mock
Turtle, suddenly dropping his voice; and the two creatures, who had
been jumping about like mad things all this time, sat down again very
sadly and quietly, and looked at Alice.

âIt must be a very pretty dance,â said Alice timidly.

âWould you like to see a little of it?â said the Mock Turtle.

âVery much indeed,â said Alice.

âCome, letâs try the first figure!â said the Mock Turtle to the
Gryphon. âWe can do without lobsters, you know. Which shall sing?â

âOh, _you_ sing,â said the Gryphon. âIâve forgotten the words.â

So they began solemnly dancing round and round Alice, every now and
then treading on her toes when they passed too close, and waving their
forepaws to mark the time, while the Mock Turtle sang this, very slowly

âWill you walk a little faster?â said a whiting to a snail.
âThereâs a porpoise close behind us, and heâs treading on my tail.
See how eagerly the lobsters and the turtles all advance!
They are waiting on the shingleâwill you come and join the dance?
Will you, wonât you, will you, wonât you, will you join the dance?
Will you, wonât you, will you, wonât you, wonât you join the dance?

âYou can really have no notion how delightful it will be
When they take us up and throw us, with the lobsters, out to sea!â
But the snail replied âToo far, too far!â and gave a look askanceâ
Said he thanked the whiting kindly, but he would not join the dance.
Would not, could not, would not, could not, would not join the dance.
Would not, could not, would not, could not, could not join the dance.

âWhat matters it how far we go?â his scaly friend replied.
âThere is another shore, you know, upon the other side.
The further off from England the nearer is to Franceâ
Then turn not pale, beloved snail, but come and join the dance.
Will you, wonât you, will you, wonât you, will you join the dance?
Will you, wonât you, will you, wonât you, wonât you join the dance?â

âThank you, itâs a very interesting dance to watch,â said Alice,
feeling very glad that it was over at last: âand I do so like that

âOh, as to the whiting,â said the Mock Turtle, âtheyâyouâve seen them,
of course?â

âYes,â said Alice, âIâve often seen them at dinnââ she checked herself
hastily.

âI donât know where Dinn may be,â said the Mock Turtle, âbut if youâve
seen them so often, of course you know what theyâre like.â

âI believe so,â Alice replied thoughtfully. âThey have their tails in
their mouthsâand theyâre all over crumbs.â

âYouâre wrong about the crumbs,â said the Mock Turtle: âcrumbs would
all wash off in the sea. But they _have_ their tails in their mouths;
and the reason isââ here the Mock Turtle yawned and shut his
eyes.ââTell her about the reason and all that,â he said to the Gryphon.

âThe reason is,â said the Gryphon, âthat they _would_ go with the
lobsters to the dance. So they got thrown out to sea. So they had to
fall a long way. So they got their tails fast in their mouths. So they
couldnât get them out again. Thatâs all.â

âThank you,â said Alice, âitâs very interesting. I never knew so much

âI can tell you more than that, if you like,â said the Gryphon. âDo you
know why itâs called a whiting?â

âI never thought about it,â said Alice. âWhy?â

â_It does the boots and shoes_,â the Gryphon replied very solemnly.

Alice was thoroughly puzzled. âDoes the boots and shoes!â she repeated
in a wondering tone.

âWhy, what are _your_ shoes done with?â said the Gryphon. âI mean, what
makes them so shiny?â

Alice looked down at them, and considered a little before she gave her
answer. âTheyâre done with blacking, I believe.â

âBoots and shoes under the sea,â the Gryphon went on in a deep voice,
âare done with a whiting. Now you know.â

âAnd what are they made of?â Alice asked in a tone of great curiosity.

âSoles and eels, of course,â the Gryphon replied rather impatiently:
âany shrimp could have told you that.â

âIf Iâd been the whiting,â said Alice, whose thoughts were still
running on the song, âIâd have said to the porpoise, âKeep back,
please: we donât want _you_ with us!ââ

âThey were obliged to have him with them,â the Mock Turtle said: âno
wise fish would go anywhere without a porpoise.â

âWouldnât it really?â said Alice in a tone of great surprise.

âOf course not,â said the Mock Turtle: âwhy, if a fish came to _me_,
and told me he was going a journey, I should say âWith what porpoise?ââ

âDonât you mean âpurposeâ?â said Alice.

âI mean what I say,â the Mock Turtle replied in an offended tone. And

âI could tell you my adventuresâbeginning from this morning,â said
Alice a little timidly: âbut itâs no use going back to yesterday,
because I was a different person then.â

âExplain all that,â said the Mock Turtle.

âNo, no! The adventures first,â said the Gryphon in an impatient tone:
âexplanations take such a dreadful time.â

So Alice began telling them her adventures from the time when she first
saw the White Rabbit. She was a little nervous about it just at first,
the two creatures got so close to her, one on each side, and opened
their eyes and mouths so _very_ wide, but she gained courage as she
went on. Her listeners were perfectly quiet till she got to the part
about her repeating â_You are old, Father William_,â to the
Caterpillar, and the words all coming different, and then the Mock
Turtle drew a long breath, and said âThatâs very curious.â

âItâs all about as curious as it can be,â said the Gryphon.

âIt all came different!â the Mock Turtle repeated thoughtfully. âI
should like to hear her try and repeat something now. Tell her to
begin.â He looked at the Gryphon as if he thought it had some kind of
authority over Alice.

âStand up and repeat ââ_Tis the voice of the sluggard_,ââ said the
Gryphon.

âHow the creatures order one about, and make one repeat lessons!â
thought Alice; âI might as well be at school at once.â However, she got
up, and began to repeat it, but her head was so full of the Lobster
Quadrille, that she hardly knew what she was saying, and the words came
very queer indeed:â

ââTis the voice of the Lobster; I heard him declare,
âYou have baked me too brown, I must sugar my hair.â
As a duck with its eyelids, so he with his nose
Trims his belt and his buttons, and turns out his toes.â

[later editions continued as follows
When the sands are all dry, he is gay as a lark,
And will talk in contemptuous tones of the Shark,
But, when the tide rises and sharks are around,
His voice has a timid and tremulous sound.]

âThatâs different from what _I_ used to say when I was a child,â said
the Gryphon.

âWell, I never heard it before,â said the Mock Turtle; âbut it sounds
uncommon nonsense.â

Alice said nothing; she had sat down with her face in her hands,
wondering if anything would _ever_ happen in a natural way again.

âI should like to have it explained,â said the Mock Turtle.

âShe canât explain it,â said the Gryphon hastily. âGo on with the next
verse.â

âBut about his toes?â the Mock Turtle persisted. âHow _could_ he turn
them out with his nose, you know?â

âItâs the first position in dancing.â Alice said; but was dreadfully
puzzled by the whole thing, and longed to change the subject.

âGo on with the next verse,â the Gryphon repeated impatiently: âit
begins â_I passed by his garden_.ââ

Alice did not dare to disobey, though she felt sure it would all come
wrong, and she went on in a trembling voice:â

âI passed by his garden, and marked, with one eye,
How the Owl and the Panther were sharing a pieââ

[later editions continued as follows
The Panther took pie-crust, and gravy, and meat,
While the Owl had the dish as its share of the treat.
When the pie was all finished, the Owl, as a boon,
Was kindly permitted to pocket the spoon:
While the Panther received knife and fork with a growl,
And concluded the banquetâ]

âWhat _is_ the use of repeating all that stuff,â the Mock Turtle
interrupted, âif you donât explain it as you go on? Itâs by far the
most confusing thing _I_ ever heard!â

âYes, I think youâd better leave off,â said the Gryphon: and Alice was
only too glad to do so.

âShall we try another figure of the Lobster Quadrille?â the Gryphon
went on. âOr would you like the Mock Turtle to sing you a song?â

âOh, a song, please, if the Mock Turtle would be so kind,â Alice
replied, so eagerly that the Gryphon said, in a rather offended tone,
âHm! No accounting for tastes! Sing her â_Turtle Soup_,â will you, old
fellow?â

The Mock Turtle sighed deeply, and began, in a voice sometimes choked
with sobs, to sing this:â

âBeautiful Soup, so rich and green,
Waiting in a hot tureen!
Who for such dainties would not stoop?
Soup of the evening, beautiful Soup!
Soup of the evening, beautiful Soup!
Beauâootiful Sooâoop!
Beauâootiful Sooâoop!
Sooâoop of the eâeâevening,
Beautiful, beautiful Soup!

âBeautiful Soup! Who cares for fish,
Game, or any other dish?
Who would not give all else for two p
ennyworth only of beautiful Soup?
Pennyworth only of beautiful Soup?
Beauâootiful Sooâoop!
Beauâootiful Sooâoop!
Sooâoop of the eâeâevening,
Beautiful, beautiâFUL SOUP!â

âChorus again!â cried the Gryphon, and the Mock Turtle had just begun
to repeat it, when a cry of âThe trialâs beginning!â was heard in the
distance.

âCome on!â cried the Gryphon, and, taking Alice by the hand, it hurried
off, without waiting for the end of the song.

âWhat trial is it?â Alice panted as she ran; but the Gryphon only
answered âCome on!â and ran the faster, while more and more faintly
came, carried on the breeze that followed them, the melancholy words:â

âSooâoop of the eâeâevening,
Beautiful, beautiful Soup!â

CHAPTER XI.
Who Stole the Tarts?

The King and Queen of Hearts were seated on their throne when they
arrived, with a great crowd assembled about themâall sorts of little
birds and beasts, as well as the whole pack of cards: the Knave was
standing before them, in chains, with a soldier on each side to guard
him; and near the King was the White Rabbit, with a trumpet in one
hand, and a scroll of parchment in the other. In the very middle of the
court was a table, with a large dish of tarts upon it: they looked so
good, that it made Alice quite hungry to look at themââI wish theyâd
get the trial done,â she thought, âand hand round the refreshments!â
But there seemed to be no chance of this, so she began looking at
everything about her, to pass away the time.

about them in books, and she was quite pleased to find that she knew
the name of nearly everything there. âThatâs the judge,â she said to
herself, âbecause of his great wig.â

The judge, by the way, was the King; and as he wore his crown over the
wig, (look at the frontispiece if you want to see how he did it,) he
did not look at all comfortable, and it was certainly not becoming.

âAnd thatâs the jury-box,â thought Alice, âand those twelve creatures,â
(she was obliged to say âcreatures,â you see, because some of them were
animals, and some were birds,) âI suppose they are the jurors.â She
said this last word two or three times over to herself, being rather
proud of it: for she thought, and rightly too, that very few little
girls of her age knew the meaning of it at all. However, âjury-menâ
would have done just as well.

The twelve jurors were all writing very busily on slates. âWhat are
they doing?â Alice whispered to the Gryphon. âThey canât have anything
to put down yet, before the trialâs begun.â

âTheyâre putting down their names,â the Gryphon whispered in reply,
âfor fear they should forget them before the end of the trial.â

âStupid things!â Alice began in a loud, indignant voice, but she
stopped hastily, for the White Rabbit cried out, âSilence in the
court!â and the King put on his spectacles and looked anxiously round,
to make out who was talking.

Alice could see, as well as if she were looking over their shoulders,
that all the jurors were writing down âstupid things!â on their slates,
and she could even make out that one of them didnât know how to spell
âstupid,â and that he had to ask his neighbour to tell him. âA nice
muddle their slatesâll be in before the trialâs over!â thought Alice.

One of the jurors had a pencil that squeaked. This of course, Alice
could _not_ stand, and she went round the court and got behind him, and
very soon found an opportunity of taking it away. She did it so quickly
that the poor little juror (it was Bill, the Lizard) could not make out
at all what had become of it; so, after hunting all about for it, he
was obliged to write with one finger for the rest of the day; and this
was of very little use, as it left no mark on the slate.

âHerald, read the accusation!â said the King.

On this the White Rabbit blew three blasts on the trumpet, and then
unrolled the parchment scroll, and read as follows:â

âThe Queen of Hearts, she made some tarts,
All on a summer day:
The Knave of Hearts, he stole those tarts,
And took them quite away!â

âConsider your verdict,â the King said to the jury.

âNot yet, not yet!â the Rabbit hastily interrupted. âThereâs a great
deal to come before that!â

âCall the first witness,â said the King; and the White Rabbit blew
three blasts on the trumpet, and called out, âFirst witness!â

The first witness was the Hatter. He came in with a teacup in one hand
and a piece of bread-and-butter in the other. âI beg pardon, your
Majesty,â he began, âfor bringing these in: but I hadnât quite finished
my tea when I was sent for.â

âYou ought to have finished,â said the King. âWhen did you begin?â

The Hatter looked at the March Hare, who had followed him into the
court, arm-in-arm with the Dormouse. âFourteenth of March, I _think_ it
was,â he said.

âFifteenth,â said the March Hare.

âWrite that down,â the King said to the jury, and the jury eagerly
wrote down all three dates on their slates, and then added them up, and
reduced the answer to shillings and pence.

âTake off your hat,â the King said to the Hatter.

âIt isnât mine,â said the Hatter.

â_Stolen!_â the King exclaimed, turning to the jury, who instantly made
a memorandum of the fact.

âI keep them to sell,â the Hatter added as an explanation; âIâve none
of my own. Iâm a hatter.â

Here the Queen put on her spectacles, and began staring at the Hatter,
who turned pale and fidgeted.

âGive your evidence,â said the King; âand donât be nervous, or Iâll
have you executed on the spot.â

This did not seem to encourage the witness at all: he kept shifting
from one foot to the other, looking uneasily at the Queen, and in his
confusion he bit a large piece out of his teacup instead of the

Just at this moment Alice felt a very curious sensation, which puzzled
her a good deal until she made out what it was: she was beginning to
grow larger again, and she thought at first she would get up and leave
the court; but on second thoughts she decided to remain where she was
as long as there was room for her.

âI wish you wouldnât squeeze so.â said the Dormouse, who was sitting
next to her. âI can hardly breathe.â

âI canât help it,â said Alice very meekly: âIâm growing.â

âYouâve no right to grow _here_,â said the Dormouse.

âDonât talk nonsense,â said Alice more boldly: âyou know youâre growing
too.â

âYes, but _I_ grow at a reasonable pace,â said the Dormouse: ânot in
that ridiculous fashion.â And he got up very sulkily and crossed over
to the other side of the court.

All this time the Queen had never left off staring at the Hatter, and,
just as the Dormouse crossed the court, she said to one of the officers
of the court, âBring me the list of the singers in the last concert!â
on which the wretched Hatter trembled so, that he shook both his shoes
off.

âGive your evidence,â the King repeated angrily, âor Iâll have you
executed, whether youâre nervous or not.â

âIâm a poor man, your Majesty,â the Hatter began, in a trembling voice,
ââand I hadnât begun my teaânot above a week or soâand what with the
bread-and-butter getting so thinâand the twinkling of the teaââ

âThe twinkling of the _what?_â said the King.

âIt _began_ with the tea,â the Hatter replied.

âOf course twinkling begins with a T!â said the King sharply. âDo you
take me for a dunce? Go on!â

âIâm a poor man,â the Hatter went on, âand most things twinkled after
thatâonly the March Hare saidââ

âI didnât!â the March Hare interrupted in a great hurry.

âYou did!â said the Hatter.

âI deny it!â said the March Hare.

âHe denies it,â said the King: âleave out that part.â

âWell, at any rate, the Dormouse saidââ the Hatter went on, looking
anxiously round to see if he would deny it too: but the Dormouse denied
nothing, being fast asleep.

âAfter that,â continued the Hatter, âI cut some more bread-and-butterââ

âBut what did the Dormouse say?â one of the jury asked.

âThat I canât remember,â said the Hatter.

âYou _must_ remember,â remarked the King, âor Iâll have you executed.â

The miserable Hatter dropped his teacup and bread-and-butter, and went
down on one knee. âIâm a poor man, your Majesty,â he began.

âYouâre a _very_ poor _speaker_,â said the King.

Here one of the guinea-pigs cheered, and was immediately suppressed by
the officers of the court. (As that is rather a hard word, I will just
explain to you how it was done. They had a large canvas bag, which tied
up at the mouth with strings: into this they slipped the guinea-pig,
head first, and then sat upon it.)

âIâm glad Iâve seen that done,â thought Alice. âIâve so often read in
the newspapers, at the end of trials, âThere was some attempts at
applause, which was immediately suppressed by the officers of the
court,â and I never understood what it meant till now.â

âIf thatâs all you know about it, you may stand down,â continued the
King.

âI canât go no lower,â said the Hatter: âIâm on the floor, as it is.â

âThen you may _sit_ down,â the King replied.

Here the other guinea-pig cheered, and was suppressed.

âCome, that finished the guinea-pigs!â thought Alice. âNow we shall get
on better.â

âIâd rather finish my tea,â said the Hatter, with an anxious look at
the Queen, who was reading the list of singers.

âYou may go,â said the King, and the Hatter hurriedly left the court,
without even waiting to put his shoes on.

ââand just take his head off outside,â the Queen added to one of the
officers: but the Hatter was out of sight before the officer could get
to the door.

âCall the next witness!â said the King.

The next witness was the Duchessâs cook. She carried the pepper-box in
her hand, and Alice guessed who it was, even before she got into the
court, by the way the people near the door began sneezing all at once.

âGive your evidence,â said the King.

âShanât,â said the cook.

The King looked anxiously at the White Rabbit, who said in a low voice,
âYour Majesty must cross-examine _this_ witness.â

âWell, if I must, I must,â the King said, with a melancholy air, and,
after folding his arms and frowning at the cook till his eyes were
nearly out of sight, he said in a deep voice, âWhat are tarts made of?â

âPepper, mostly,â said the cook.

âTreacle,â said a sleepy voice behind her.

âCollar that Dormouse,â the Queen shrieked out. âBehead that Dormouse!
Turn that Dormouse out of court! Suppress him! Pinch him! Off with his
whiskers!â

For some minutes the whole court was in confusion, getting the Dormouse
turned out, and, by the time they had settled down again, the cook had
disappeared.

âNever mind!â said the King, with an air of great relief. âCall the
next witness.â And he added in an undertone to the Queen, âReally, my
dear, _you_ must cross-examine the next witness. It quite makes my

Alice watched the White Rabbit as he fumbled over the list, feeling
very curious to see what the next witness would be like, ââfor they
havenât got much evidence _yet_,â she said to herself. Imagine her
surprise, when the White Rabbit read out, at the top of his shrill
little voice, the name âAlice!â

CHAPTER XII.
Aliceâs Evidence

âHere!â cried Alice, quite forgetting in the flurry of the moment how
large she had grown in the last few minutes, and she jumped up in such
a hurry that she tipped over the jury-box with the edge of her skirt,
upsetting all the jurymen on to the heads of the crowd below, and there
they lay sprawling about, reminding her very much of a globe of
goldfish she had accidentally upset the week before.

âOh, I _beg_ your pardon!â she exclaimed in a tone of great dismay, and
began picking them up again as quickly as she could, for the accident
of the goldfish kept running in her head, and she had a vague sort of
idea that they must be collected at once and put back into the
jury-box, or they would die.

âThe trial cannot proceed,â said the King in a very grave voice, âuntil
all the jurymen are back in their proper placesâ_all_,â he repeated
with great emphasis, looking hard at Alice as he said so.

Alice looked at the jury-box, and saw that, in her haste, she had put
the Lizard in head downwards, and the poor little thing was waving its
tail about in a melancholy way, being quite unable to move. She soon
got it out again, and put it right; ânot that it signifies much,â she
said to herself; âI should think it would be _quite_ as much use in the
trial one way up as the other.â

As soon as the jury had a little recovered from the shock of being
upset, and their slates and pencils had been found and handed back to
them, they set to work very diligently to write out a history of the
accident, all except the Lizard, who seemed too much overcome to do
anything but sit with its mouth open, gazing up into the roof of the
court.

âNothing,â said Alice.

âNothing _whatever?_â persisted the King.

âNothing whatever,â said Alice.

âThatâs very important,â the King said, turning to the jury. They were
just beginning to write this down on their slates, when the White
Rabbit interrupted: â_Un_important, your Majesty means, of course,â he
said in a very respectful tone, but frowning and making faces at him as
he spoke.

â_Un_important, of course, I meant,â the King hastily said, and went on
to himself in an undertone,

âimportantâunimportantâunimportantâimportantââ as if he were trying
which word sounded best.

Some of the jury wrote it down âimportant,â and some âunimportant.â
Alice could see this, as she was near enough to look over their slates;
âbut it doesnât matter a bit,â she thought to herself.

At this moment the King, who had been for some time busily writing in
his note-book, cackled out âSilence!â and read out from his book, âRule
Forty-two. _All persons more than a mile high to leave the court_.â

Everybody looked at Alice.

â_Iâm_ not a mile high,â said Alice.

âYou are,â said the King.

âNearly two miles high,â added the Queen.

âWell, I shanât go, at any rate,â said Alice: âbesides, thatâs not a
regular rule: you invented it just now.â

âItâs the oldest rule in the book,â said the King.

âThen it ought to be Number One,â said Alice.

The King turned pale, and shut his note-book hastily. âConsider your
verdict,â he said to the jury, in a low, trembling voice.

White Rabbit, jumping up in a great hurry; âthis paper has just been
picked up.â

âWhatâs in it?â said the Queen.

âI havenât opened it yet,â said the White Rabbit, âbut it seems to be a
letter, written by the prisoner toâto somebody.â

âIt must have been that,â said the King, âunless it was written to
nobody, which isnât usual, you know.â

âWho is it directed to?â said one of the jurymen.

âIt isnât directed at all,â said the White Rabbit; âin fact, thereâs
nothing written on the _outside_.â He unfolded the paper as he spoke,
and added âIt isnât a letter, after all: itâs a set of verses.â

âAre they in the prisonerâs handwriting?â asked another of the jurymen.

âNo, theyâre not,â said the White Rabbit, âand thatâs the queerest
thing about it.â (The jury all looked puzzled.)

âHe must have imitated somebody elseâs hand,â said the King. (The jury
all brightened up again.)

âPlease your Majesty,â said the Knave, âI didnât write it, and they
canât prove I did: thereâs no name signed at the end.â

âIf you didnât sign it,â said the King, âthat only makes the matter
worse. You _must_ have meant some mischief, or else youâd have signed
your name like an honest man.â

There was a general clapping of hands at this: it was the first really
clever thing the King had said that day.

âThat _proves_ his guilt,â said the Queen.

âIt proves nothing of the sort!â said Alice. âWhy, you donât even know

The White Rabbit put on his spectacles. âWhere shall I begin, please

âBegin at the beginning,â the King said gravely, âand go on till you
come to the end: then stop.â

These were the verses the White Rabbit read:â

âThey told me you had been to her,
And mentioned me to him:
She gave me a good character,
But said I could not swim.

He sent them word I had not gone
(We know it to be true):
If she should push the matter on,
What would become of you?

I gave her one, they gave him two,
You gave us three or more;
They all returned from him to you,
Though they were mine before.

If I or she should chance to be
Involved in this affair,
He trusts to you to set them free,
Exactly as we were.

My notion was that you had been
An obstacle that came between
Him, and ourselves, and it.

Donât let him know she liked them best,
For this must ever be
A secret, kept from all the rest,
Between yourself and me.â

âThatâs the most important piece of evidence weâve heard yet,â said the
King, rubbing his hands; âso now let the juryââ

âIf any one of them can explain it,â said Alice, (she had grown so
large in the last few minutes that she wasnât a bit afraid of
interrupting him,) âIâll give him sixpence. _I_ donât believe thereâs
an atom of meaning in it.â

The jury all wrote down on their slates, â_She_ doesnât believe thereâs
an atom of meaning in it,â but none of them attempted to explain the
paper.

âIf thereâs no meaning in it,â said the King, âthat saves a world of
trouble, you know, as we neednât try to find any. And yet I donât
know,â he went on, spreading out the verses on his knee, and looking at
them with one eye; âI seem to see some meaning in them, after all.
ââ_said I could not swim_ââ you canât swim, can you?â he added, turning
to the Knave.

The Knave shook his head sadly. âDo I look like it?â he said. (Which he
certainly did _not_, being made entirely of cardboard.)

âAll right, so far,â said the King, and he went on muttering over the
verses to himself: ââ_We know it to be true_ââ thatâs the jury, of
courseââ_I gave her one, they gave him two_ââ why, that must be what he
did with the tarts, you knowââ

âBut, it goes on â_they all returned from him to you_,ââ said Alice.

âWhy, there they are!â said the King triumphantly, pointing to the
tarts on the table. âNothing can be clearer than _that_. Then
againââ_before she had this fit_ââ you never had fits, my dear, I
think?â he said to the Queen.

âNever!â said the Queen furiously, throwing an inkstand at the Lizard
as she spoke. (The unfortunate little Bill had left off writing on his
slate with one finger, as he found it made no mark; but he now hastily
began again, using the ink, that was trickling down his face, as long
as it lasted.)

âThen the words donât _fit_ you,â said the King, looking round the
court with a smile. There was a dead silence.

âItâs a pun!â the King added in an offended tone, and everybody
laughed, âLet the jury consider their verdict,â the King said, for
about the twentieth time that day.

âNo, no!â said the Queen. âSentence firstâverdict afterwards.â

âStuff and nonsense!â said Alice loudly. âThe idea of having the
sentence first!â

âHold your tongue!â said the Queen, turning purple.

âI wonât!â said Alice.

âOff with her head!â the Queen shouted at the top of her voice. Nobody
moved.

âWho cares for you?â said Alice, (she had grown to her full size by
this time.) âYouâre nothing but a pack of cards!â

At this the whole pack rose up into the air, and came flying down upon
her: she gave a little scream, half of fright and half of anger, and
tried to beat them off, and found herself lying on the bank, with her
head in the lap of her sister, who was gently brushing away some dead
leaves that had fluttered down from the trees upon her face.

âWake up, Alice dear!â said her sister; âWhy, what a long sleep youâve

âOh, Iâve had such a curious dream!â said Alice, and she told her
sister, as well as she could remember them, all these strange
had finished, her sister kissed her, and said, âIt _was_ a curious
dream, dear, certainly: but now run in to your tea; itâs getting late.â
So Alice got up and ran off, thinking while she ran, as well she might,
what a wonderful dream it had been.

But her sister sat still just as she left her, leaning her head on her
hand, watching the setting sun, and thinking of little Alice and all
her wonderful Adventures, till she too began dreaming after a fashion,
and this was her dream:â

First, she dreamed of little Alice herself, and once again the tiny
hands were clasped upon her knee, and the bright eager eyes were
looking up into hersâshe could hear the very tones of her voice, and
see that queer little toss of her head to keep back the wandering hair
that _would_ always get into her eyesâand still as she listened, or
seemed to listen, the whole place around her became alive with the
strange creatures of her little sisterâs dream.

The long grass rustled at her feet as the White Rabbit hurried byâthe
frightened Mouse splashed his way through the neighbouring poolâshe
could hear the rattle of the teacups as the March Hare and his friends
shared their never-ending meal, and the shrill voice of the Queen
ordering off her unfortunate guests to executionâonce more the pig-baby
was sneezing on the Duchessâs knee, while plates and dishes crashed
around itâonce more the shriek of the Gryphon, the squeaking of the
Lizardâs slate-pencil, and the choking of the suppressed guinea-pigs,
filled the air, mixed up with the distant sobs of the miserable Mock
Turtle.

So she sat on, with closed eyes, and half believed herself in
Wonderland, though she knew she had but to open them again, and all
would change to dull realityâthe grass would be only rustling in the
wind, and the pool rippling to the waving of the reedsâthe rattling
teacups would change to tinkling sheep-bells, and the Queenâs shrill
cries to the voice of the shepherd boyâand the sneeze of the baby, the
shriek of the Gryphon, and all the other queer noises, would change
(she knew) to the confused clamour of the busy farm-yardâwhile the
lowing of the cattle in the distance would take the place of the Mock
Turtleâs heavy sobs.

Lastly, she pictured to herself how this same little sister of hers
would, in the after-time, be herself a grown woman; and how she would
keep, through all her riper years, the simple and loving heart of her
childhood: and how she would gather about her other little children,
and make _their_ eyes bright and eager with many a strange tale,
perhaps even with the dream of Wonderland of long ago: and how she
would feel with all their simple sorrows, and find a pleasure in all
their simple joys, remembering her own child-life, and the happy summer
days.

THE END

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In [59]:
text = result.text
# Wordcloud
wordcloud = WordCloud(
random_state = 8,
normalize_plurals = False,
width = 800,
height= 400,
max_words = 400)
wordcloud.generate(text)
# plot
fig, ax = plt.subplots(1,1, figsize = (9,6))
plt.imshow(wordcloud, interpolation='bilinear')
plt.axis("off")

Out[59]:
(-0.5, 799.5, 399.5, -0.5)