# NumPy¶

Credits: Forked from Parallel Machine Learning with scikit-learn and IPython by Olivier Grisel

• NumPy Arrays, dtype, and shape
• Common Array Operations
• Reshape and Update In-Place
• Combine Arrays
• Create Sample Data
In :
import numpy as np


## NumPy Arrays, dtypes, and shapes¶

In :
a = np.array([1, 2, 3])
print(a)
print(a.shape)
print(a.dtype)

[1 2 3]
(3,)
int64

In :
b = np.array([[0, 2, 4], [1, 3, 5]])
print(b)
print(b.shape)
print(b.dtype)

[[0 2 4]
[1 3 5]]
(2, 3)
int64

In :
np.zeros(5)

Out:
array([0., 0., 0., 0., 0.])
In :
np.ones(shape=(3, 4), dtype=np.int32)

Out:
array([[1, 1, 1, 1],
[1, 1, 1, 1],
[1, 1, 1, 1]], dtype=int32)

## Common Array Operations¶

In :
c = b * 0.5
print(c)
print(c.shape)
print(c.dtype)

[[0.  1.  2. ]
[0.5 1.5 2.5]]
(2, 3)
float64

In :
d = a + c
print(d)

[[1.  3.  5. ]
[1.5 3.5 5.5]]

In :
d

Out:
array([1., 3., 5.])
In :
d[0, 0]

Out:
1.0
In :
d[:, 0]

Out:
array([1. , 1.5])
In :
d.sum()

Out:
19.5
In :
d.mean()

Out:
3.25
In :
d.sum(axis=0)

Out:
array([ 2.5,  6.5, 10.5])
In :
d.mean(axis=1)

Out:
array([3. , 3.5])

## Reshape and Update In-Place¶

In :
e = np.arange(12)
print(e)

[ 0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10 11]

In :
# f is a view of contents of e
f = e.reshape(3, 4)
print(f)

[[ 0  1  2  3]
[ 4  5  6  7]
[ 8  9 10 11]]

In :
# Set values of e from index 5 onwards to 0
e[5:] = 0
print(e)

[0 1 2 3 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0]

In :
# f is also updated
f

Out:
array([[0, 1, 2, 3],
[4, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 0, 0, 0]])
In :
# OWNDATA shows f does not own its data
f.flags

Out:
  C_CONTIGUOUS : True
F_CONTIGUOUS : False
OWNDATA : False
WRITEABLE : True
ALIGNED : True
WRITEBACKIFCOPY : False
UPDATEIFCOPY : False

## Combine Arrays¶

In :
a

Out:
array([1, 2, 3])
In :
b

Out:
array([[0, 2, 4],
[1, 3, 5]])
In :
d

Out:
array([[1. , 3. , 5. ],
[1.5, 3.5, 5.5]])
In :
np.concatenate([a, a, a])

Out:
array([1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3])
In :
# Use broadcasting when needed to do this automatically
np.vstack([a, b, d])

Out:
array([[1. , 2. , 3. ],
[0. , 2. , 4. ],
[1. , 3. , 5. ],
[1. , 3. , 5. ],
[1.5, 3.5, 5.5]])
In :
# In machine learning, useful to enrich or
# add new/concatenate features with hstack
np.hstack([b, d])

Out:
array([[0. , 2. , 4. , 1. , 3. , 5. ],
[1. , 3. , 5. , 1.5, 3.5, 5.5]])

## Create Sample Data¶

In :
%matplotlib inline

import pylab as plt
import seaborn

seaborn.set()

In :
# Create evenly spaced numbers over the specified interval
x = np.linspace(0, 2, 10)
plt.plot(x, 'o-');
plt.show() In :
# Create sample data, add some noise
x = np.random.uniform(1, 100, 1000)
y = np.log(x) + np.random.normal(0, .3, 1000)

plt.scatter(x, y)
plt.show() ## Softmax Function Explanation - Super basics¶

In :
import numpy as np
ZL = np.array([,,[-1],])
ZL

Out:
array([[ 5],
[ 2],
[-1],
[ 3]])
In :
t = np.exp(ZL)
t

Out:
array([[148.4131591 ],
[  7.3890561 ],
[  0.36787944],
[ 20.08553692]])
In :
# sum of ti and this we do by normalizing thse entries, lets add them up
np.sum(t)

Out:
176.25563156586637
In :
AL = t / np.sum(t)
AL

Out:
array([[0.84203357],
[0.04192238],
[0.00208719],
[0.11395685]])
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