## Disclaimer¶

This notebook is only working under the versions:

• JuMP 0.19

• MathOptInterface 0.8.4

• GLPK 0.9.1

Description: Shows how to solve Sudoku puzzles using integer programming and JuMP.

Author: Iain Dunning

# Solving Sudoku with JuMP¶

A partially solved Sudoku puzzle

Sudoku is a popular number puzzle. The goal is to place the digits 1,...,9 on a nine-by-nine grid, with some of the digits already filled in. Your solution must satisfy the following rules:

• The numbers 1 to 9 must appear in each 3x3 square
• The numbers 1 to 9 must appear in each row
• The numbers 1 to 9 must appear in each column

This isn't an optimization problem, its actually a feasibility problem: we wish to find a feasible solution that satsifies these rules. You can think of it as an optimization problem with an objective of 0.

We can model this problem using 0-1 integer programming: a problem where all the decision variables are binary. We'll use JuMP to create the model, and then we can solve it with any integer programming solver.

In [1]:
# Load JuMP
using JuMP
using MathOptInterface
using GLPK
# shortcuts
const MOI = MathOptInterface
const MOIU = MathOptInterface.Utilities

Out[1]:
MathOptInterface.Utilities

We will define a binary variable (a variable that is either 0 or 1) for each possible number in each possible cell. The meaning of each variable is as follows:

x[i,j,k] = 1  if and only if cell (i,j) has number k



where i is the row and j is the column.

In [2]:
# Create a model
sudoku = Model(with_optimizer(GLPK.Optimizer))

# Create our variables
@variable(sudoku, x[i=1:9, j=1:9, k=1:9], Bin)

Out[2]:
9×9×9 Array{VariableRef,3}:
[:, :, 1] =
x[1,1,1]  x[1,2,1]  x[1,3,1]  x[1,4,1]  …  x[1,7,1]  x[1,8,1]  x[1,9,1]
x[2,1,1]  x[2,2,1]  x[2,3,1]  x[2,4,1]     x[2,7,1]  x[2,8,1]  x[2,9,1]
x[3,1,1]  x[3,2,1]  x[3,3,1]  x[3,4,1]     x[3,7,1]  x[3,8,1]  x[3,9,1]
x[4,1,1]  x[4,2,1]  x[4,3,1]  x[4,4,1]     x[4,7,1]  x[4,8,1]  x[4,9,1]
x[5,1,1]  x[5,2,1]  x[5,3,1]  x[5,4,1]     x[5,7,1]  x[5,8,1]  x[5,9,1]
x[6,1,1]  x[6,2,1]  x[6,3,1]  x[6,4,1]  …  x[6,7,1]  x[6,8,1]  x[6,9,1]
x[7,1,1]  x[7,2,1]  x[7,3,1]  x[7,4,1]     x[7,7,1]  x[7,8,1]  x[7,9,1]
x[8,1,1]  x[8,2,1]  x[8,3,1]  x[8,4,1]     x[8,7,1]  x[8,8,1]  x[8,9,1]
x[9,1,1]  x[9,2,1]  x[9,3,1]  x[9,4,1]     x[9,7,1]  x[9,8,1]  x[9,9,1]

[:, :, 2] =
x[1,1,2]  x[1,2,2]  x[1,3,2]  x[1,4,2]  …  x[1,7,2]  x[1,8,2]  x[1,9,2]
x[2,1,2]  x[2,2,2]  x[2,3,2]  x[2,4,2]     x[2,7,2]  x[2,8,2]  x[2,9,2]
x[3,1,2]  x[3,2,2]  x[3,3,2]  x[3,4,2]     x[3,7,2]  x[3,8,2]  x[3,9,2]
x[4,1,2]  x[4,2,2]  x[4,3,2]  x[4,4,2]     x[4,7,2]  x[4,8,2]  x[4,9,2]
x[5,1,2]  x[5,2,2]  x[5,3,2]  x[5,4,2]     x[5,7,2]  x[5,8,2]  x[5,9,2]
x[6,1,2]  x[6,2,2]  x[6,3,2]  x[6,4,2]  …  x[6,7,2]  x[6,8,2]  x[6,9,2]
x[7,1,2]  x[7,2,2]  x[7,3,2]  x[7,4,2]     x[7,7,2]  x[7,8,2]  x[7,9,2]
x[8,1,2]  x[8,2,2]  x[8,3,2]  x[8,4,2]     x[8,7,2]  x[8,8,2]  x[8,9,2]
x[9,1,2]  x[9,2,2]  x[9,3,2]  x[9,4,2]     x[9,7,2]  x[9,8,2]  x[9,9,2]

[:, :, 3] =
x[1,1,3]  x[1,2,3]  x[1,3,3]  x[1,4,3]  …  x[1,7,3]  x[1,8,3]  x[1,9,3]
x[2,1,3]  x[2,2,3]  x[2,3,3]  x[2,4,3]     x[2,7,3]  x[2,8,3]  x[2,9,3]
x[3,1,3]  x[3,2,3]  x[3,3,3]  x[3,4,3]     x[3,7,3]  x[3,8,3]  x[3,9,3]
x[4,1,3]  x[4,2,3]  x[4,3,3]  x[4,4,3]     x[4,7,3]  x[4,8,3]  x[4,9,3]
x[5,1,3]  x[5,2,3]  x[5,3,3]  x[5,4,3]     x[5,7,3]  x[5,8,3]  x[5,9,3]
x[6,1,3]  x[6,2,3]  x[6,3,3]  x[6,4,3]  …  x[6,7,3]  x[6,8,3]  x[6,9,3]
x[7,1,3]  x[7,2,3]  x[7,3,3]  x[7,4,3]     x[7,7,3]  x[7,8,3]  x[7,9,3]
x[8,1,3]  x[8,2,3]  x[8,3,3]  x[8,4,3]     x[8,7,3]  x[8,8,3]  x[8,9,3]
x[9,1,3]  x[9,2,3]  x[9,3,3]  x[9,4,3]     x[9,7,3]  x[9,8,3]  x[9,9,3]

[:, :, 4] =
x[1,1,4]  x[1,2,4]  x[1,3,4]  x[1,4,4]  …  x[1,7,4]  x[1,8,4]  x[1,9,4]
x[2,1,4]  x[2,2,4]  x[2,3,4]  x[2,4,4]     x[2,7,4]  x[2,8,4]  x[2,9,4]
x[3,1,4]  x[3,2,4]  x[3,3,4]  x[3,4,4]     x[3,7,4]  x[3,8,4]  x[3,9,4]
x[4,1,4]  x[4,2,4]  x[4,3,4]  x[4,4,4]     x[4,7,4]  x[4,8,4]  x[4,9,4]
x[5,1,4]  x[5,2,4]  x[5,3,4]  x[5,4,4]     x[5,7,4]  x[5,8,4]  x[5,9,4]
x[6,1,4]  x[6,2,4]  x[6,3,4]  x[6,4,4]  …  x[6,7,4]  x[6,8,4]  x[6,9,4]
x[7,1,4]  x[7,2,4]  x[7,3,4]  x[7,4,4]     x[7,7,4]  x[7,8,4]  x[7,9,4]
x[8,1,4]  x[8,2,4]  x[8,3,4]  x[8,4,4]     x[8,7,4]  x[8,8,4]  x[8,9,4]
x[9,1,4]  x[9,2,4]  x[9,3,4]  x[9,4,4]     x[9,7,4]  x[9,8,4]  x[9,9,4]

[:, :, 5] =
x[1,1,5]  x[1,2,5]  x[1,3,5]  x[1,4,5]  …  x[1,7,5]  x[1,8,5]  x[1,9,5]
x[2,1,5]  x[2,2,5]  x[2,3,5]  x[2,4,5]     x[2,7,5]  x[2,8,5]  x[2,9,5]
x[3,1,5]  x[3,2,5]  x[3,3,5]  x[3,4,5]     x[3,7,5]  x[3,8,5]  x[3,9,5]
x[4,1,5]  x[4,2,5]  x[4,3,5]  x[4,4,5]     x[4,7,5]  x[4,8,5]  x[4,9,5]
x[5,1,5]  x[5,2,5]  x[5,3,5]  x[5,4,5]     x[5,7,5]  x[5,8,5]  x[5,9,5]
x[6,1,5]  x[6,2,5]  x[6,3,5]  x[6,4,5]  …  x[6,7,5]  x[6,8,5]  x[6,9,5]
x[7,1,5]  x[7,2,5]  x[7,3,5]  x[7,4,5]     x[7,7,5]  x[7,8,5]  x[7,9,5]
x[8,1,5]  x[8,2,5]  x[8,3,5]  x[8,4,5]     x[8,7,5]  x[8,8,5]  x[8,9,5]
x[9,1,5]  x[9,2,5]  x[9,3,5]  x[9,4,5]     x[9,7,5]  x[9,8,5]  x[9,9,5]

[:, :, 6] =
x[1,1,6]  x[1,2,6]  x[1,3,6]  x[1,4,6]  …  x[1,7,6]  x[1,8,6]  x[1,9,6]
x[2,1,6]  x[2,2,6]  x[2,3,6]  x[2,4,6]     x[2,7,6]  x[2,8,6]  x[2,9,6]
x[3,1,6]  x[3,2,6]  x[3,3,6]  x[3,4,6]     x[3,7,6]  x[3,8,6]  x[3,9,6]
x[4,1,6]  x[4,2,6]  x[4,3,6]  x[4,4,6]     x[4,7,6]  x[4,8,6]  x[4,9,6]
x[5,1,6]  x[5,2,6]  x[5,3,6]  x[5,4,6]     x[5,7,6]  x[5,8,6]  x[5,9,6]
x[6,1,6]  x[6,2,6]  x[6,3,6]  x[6,4,6]  …  x[6,7,6]  x[6,8,6]  x[6,9,6]
x[7,1,6]  x[7,2,6]  x[7,3,6]  x[7,4,6]     x[7,7,6]  x[7,8,6]  x[7,9,6]
x[8,1,6]  x[8,2,6]  x[8,3,6]  x[8,4,6]     x[8,7,6]  x[8,8,6]  x[8,9,6]
x[9,1,6]  x[9,2,6]  x[9,3,6]  x[9,4,6]     x[9,7,6]  x[9,8,6]  x[9,9,6]

[:, :, 7] =
x[1,1,7]  x[1,2,7]  x[1,3,7]  x[1,4,7]  …  x[1,7,7]  x[1,8,7]  x[1,9,7]
x[2,1,7]  x[2,2,7]  x[2,3,7]  x[2,4,7]     x[2,7,7]  x[2,8,7]  x[2,9,7]
x[3,1,7]  x[3,2,7]  x[3,3,7]  x[3,4,7]     x[3,7,7]  x[3,8,7]  x[3,9,7]
x[4,1,7]  x[4,2,7]  x[4,3,7]  x[4,4,7]     x[4,7,7]  x[4,8,7]  x[4,9,7]
x[5,1,7]  x[5,2,7]  x[5,3,7]  x[5,4,7]     x[5,7,7]  x[5,8,7]  x[5,9,7]
x[6,1,7]  x[6,2,7]  x[6,3,7]  x[6,4,7]  …  x[6,7,7]  x[6,8,7]  x[6,9,7]
x[7,1,7]  x[7,2,7]  x[7,3,7]  x[7,4,7]     x[7,7,7]  x[7,8,7]  x[7,9,7]
x[8,1,7]  x[8,2,7]  x[8,3,7]  x[8,4,7]     x[8,7,7]  x[8,8,7]  x[8,9,7]
x[9,1,7]  x[9,2,7]  x[9,3,7]  x[9,4,7]     x[9,7,7]  x[9,8,7]  x[9,9,7]

[:, :, 8] =
x[1,1,8]  x[1,2,8]  x[1,3,8]  x[1,4,8]  …  x[1,7,8]  x[1,8,8]  x[1,9,8]
x[2,1,8]  x[2,2,8]  x[2,3,8]  x[2,4,8]     x[2,7,8]  x[2,8,8]  x[2,9,8]
x[3,1,8]  x[3,2,8]  x[3,3,8]  x[3,4,8]     x[3,7,8]  x[3,8,8]  x[3,9,8]
x[4,1,8]  x[4,2,8]  x[4,3,8]  x[4,4,8]     x[4,7,8]  x[4,8,8]  x[4,9,8]
x[5,1,8]  x[5,2,8]  x[5,3,8]  x[5,4,8]     x[5,7,8]  x[5,8,8]  x[5,9,8]
x[6,1,8]  x[6,2,8]  x[6,3,8]  x[6,4,8]  …  x[6,7,8]  x[6,8,8]  x[6,9,8]
x[7,1,8]  x[7,2,8]  x[7,3,8]  x[7,4,8]     x[7,7,8]  x[7,8,8]  x[7,9,8]
x[8,1,8]  x[8,2,8]  x[8,3,8]  x[8,4,8]     x[8,7,8]  x[8,8,8]  x[8,9,8]
x[9,1,8]  x[9,2,8]  x[9,3,8]  x[9,4,8]     x[9,7,8]  x[9,8,8]  x[9,9,8]

[:, :, 9] =
x[1,1,9]  x[1,2,9]  x[1,3,9]  x[1,4,9]  …  x[1,7,9]  x[1,8,9]  x[1,9,9]
x[2,1,9]  x[2,2,9]  x[2,3,9]  x[2,4,9]     x[2,7,9]  x[2,8,9]  x[2,9,9]
x[3,1,9]  x[3,2,9]  x[3,3,9]  x[3,4,9]     x[3,7,9]  x[3,8,9]  x[3,9,9]
x[4,1,9]  x[4,2,9]  x[4,3,9]  x[4,4,9]     x[4,7,9]  x[4,8,9]  x[4,9,9]
x[5,1,9]  x[5,2,9]  x[5,3,9]  x[5,4,9]     x[5,7,9]  x[5,8,9]  x[5,9,9]
x[6,1,9]  x[6,2,9]  x[6,3,9]  x[6,4,9]  …  x[6,7,9]  x[6,8,9]  x[6,9,9]
x[7,1,9]  x[7,2,9]  x[7,3,9]  x[7,4,9]     x[7,7,9]  x[7,8,9]  x[7,9,9]
x[8,1,9]  x[8,2,9]  x[8,3,9]  x[8,4,9]     x[8,7,9]  x[8,8,9]  x[8,9,9]
x[9,1,9]  x[9,2,9]  x[9,3,9]  x[9,4,9]     x[9,7,9]  x[9,8,9]  x[9,9,9]

Now we can begin to add our constraints. We'll actually start with something obvious to us as humans, but what we need to enforce: that there can be only one number per cell.

In [3]:
for i = 1:9, j = 1:9  # Each row and each column
# Sum across all the possible digits
# One and only one of the digits can be in this cell,
# so the sum must be equal to one
@constraint(sudoku, sum(x[i,j,k] for k in 1:9) == 1)
end


Next we'll add the constraints for the rows and the columns. These constraints are all very similar, so much so that we can actually add them at the same time.

In [4]:
for ind = 1:9  # Each row, OR each column
for k = 1:9  # Each digit
# Sum across columns (j) - row constraint
@constraint(sudoku, sum(x[ind,j,k] for j in 1:9) == 1)
# Sum across rows (i) - column constraint
@constraint(sudoku, sum(x[i,ind,k] for i in 1:9) == 1)
end
end


Finally, we have the to enforce the constraint that each digit appears once in each of the nine 3x3 sub-grids. Our strategy will be to index over the top-left corners of each 3x3 square with for loops, then sum over the squares.

In [5]:
for i = 1:3:7, j = 1:3:7, k = 1:9
# i is the top left row, j is the top left column
# We'll sum from i to i+2, e.g. i=4, r=4, 5, 6
@constraint(sudoku, sum(x[r,c,k] for  r in i:i+2, c in j:j+2) == 1)
end


The final step is to add the initial solution as a set of constraints. We'll solve the problem that is in the picture at the start of the notebook. We'll put a 0 if there is no digit in that location.

In [6]:
# The given digits
init_sol = [ 5 3 0 0 7 0 0 0 0;
6 0 0 1 9 5 0 0 0;
0 9 8 0 0 0 0 6 0;
8 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 3;
4 0 0 8 0 3 0 0 1;
7 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 6;
0 6 0 0 0 0 2 8 0;
0 0 0 4 1 9 0 0 5;
0 0 0 0 8 0 0 7 9]
for i = 1:9, j = 1:9
# If the space isn't empty
if init_sol[i,j] != 0
# Then the corresponding variable for that digit
# and location must be 1
@constraint(sudoku, x[i,j,init_sol[i,j]] == 1)
end
end

In [7]:
# solve problem
optimize!(sudoku)

In [8]:
# test if optimization worked out properly
@show has_values(sudoku)
@show termination_status(sudoku) == MOI.OPTIMAL
@show primal_status(sudoku) == MOI.FEASIBLE_POINT

has_values(sudoku) = true
termination_status(sudoku) == MOI.OPTIMAL = true
primal_status(sudoku) == MOI.FEASIBLE_POINT = true

Out[8]:
true

To display the solution, we need to look for the values of x[i,j,k] that are 1.

In [9]:
# Extract the values of x
x_val = value.(x)
# Create a matrix to store the solution
sol = zeros(Int,9,9)  # 9x9 matrix of integers
for i in 1:9, j in 1:9, k in 1:9
# Integer programs are solved as a series of linear programs
# so the values might not be precisely 0 and 1. We can just
# round them to the nearest integer to make it easier
if round(Int,x_val[i,j,k]) == 1
sol[i,j] = k
end
end
# Display the solution
sol

Out[9]:
9×9 Array{Int64,2}:
5  3  4  6  7  8  9  1  2
6  7  2  1  9  5  3  4  8
1  9  8  3  4  2  5  6  7
8  5  9  7  6  1  4  2  3
4  2  6  8  5  3  7  9  1
7  1  3  9  2  4  8  5  6
9  6  1  5  3  7  2  8  4
2  8  7  4  1  9  6  3  5
3  4  5  2  8  6  1  7  9

Which is the correct solution:

A completed Sudoku puzzle

In [ ]: